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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973135/beyond-accuracy-hidden-motives-in-diagnostic-testing
#1
Matthias Michiels-Corsten, Norbert Donner-Banzhoff
Background: Diagnostic decision-making is usually disease-focussed and intended to examine the patient's medical condition accurately. But diagnostic interventions may serve further purposes that are not yet fully understood. Objective: To explore GPs' diagnostic behaviour not related to confirming or refuting a specific disease. Methods: We recorded 295 primary care consultations in 12 practices. One hundred thirty-four consultations comprised at least one diagnostic episode...
September 16, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972994/-timed-up-and-go-test-age-gender-and-cognitive-impairment-stratified-normative-values-of-older-adults
#2
Azianah Ibrahim, Devinder Kaur Ajit Singh, Suzana Shahar
AIMS: The aim of this study was to establish 'Timed up and Go' test (TUG) normative data among community dwelling older adults stratified based on cognitive status, gender and age groups. METHODS: A total of 2084 community dwelling older adults from wave I and II were recruited through a multistage random sampling method. TUG was performed using the standard protocol and scores were then stratified based on with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI), gender and in a 5-year age groups ranging from ages of 60's to 80's...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867578/streptozotocin-induced-hippocampal-astrogliosis-and-insulin-signaling-malfunction-as-experimental-scales-for-subclinical-sporadic-alzheimer-model
#3
Farzaneh Rostami, Mohammad Javan, Ali Moghimi, Aliakbar Haddad-Mashadrizeh, Masoud Fereidoni
AIMS: Insulin signaling malfunction has recently been suggested as a preliminary event involved in the etiology of Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD). In order to develop insulin resistance-related SAD model, rats were treated with streptozotocin, intracerebroventricularly (icv-STZ). Nevertheless, given the lack of knowledge regarding sub-clinical stages of SAD, the current challenging issue is establishing a practical pre-clinical SAD model. Despite some proposed mechanisms, such as insulin malfunction, neuroinflammation, and gliosis, icv-STZ mechanism of action is not fully understood yet and Streptozotocin-induced rat model of Alzheimer has still major shortcomings...
November 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867383/protective-effects-of-kinetin-against-aluminum-chloride-and-d-galactose-induced-cognitive-impairment-and-oxidative-damage-in-mouse
#4
Yunpeng Wei, Dan Liu, Yin Zheng, Honglian Li, Chaoshuang Hao, Wuqing Ouyang
Increasing evidence indicates that aluminum exposure and oxidative stress play crucial roles in the initiation and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) and d-galactose (d-gal) combined treatment of mice is considered as an easy and cheap way to obtain an animal model of AD. Kinetin is a plant cytokinin, which is also reported to exert neuro-protective effects in vivo and in vitro. Thus, in this study, neuro-protective effects of kinetin were investigated in an AD model of mice induced by AlCl3 and d-gal...
September 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851448/dietary-arachidonic-acid-increases-deleterious-effects-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers-on-learning-abilities-and-expression-of-ampa-receptors-putative-role-of-the-acsl4-cpla2-balance
#5
Mélanie H Thomas, Cédric Paris, Mylène Magnien, Julie Colin, Sandra Pelleïeux, Florence Coste, Marie-Christine Escanyé, Thierry Pillot, Jean-Luc Olivier
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids play a crucial role in neuronal function, and the modification of these compounds in the brain could have an impact on neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Despite the fact that arachidonic acid is the second foremost polyunsaturated fatty acid besides docosahexaenoic acid, its role and the regulation of its transfer and mobilization in the brain are poorly known. METHODS: Two groups of 39 adult male BALB/c mice were fed with an arachidonic acid-enriched diet or an oleic acid-enriched diet, respectively, for 12 weeks...
August 29, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836954/randomized-controlled-trial-to-evaluate-the-effects-of-personalized-prediction-and-adaptation-tools-on-treatment-outcome-in-outpatient-psychotherapy-study-protocol
#6
Wolfgang Lutz, Dirk Zimmermann, Viola N L S Müller, Anne-Katharina Deisenhofer, Julian A Rubel
BACKGROUND: Psychotherapy is successful for the majority of patients, but not for every patient. Hence, further knowledge is needed on how treatments should be adapted for those who do not profit or deteriorate. In the last years prediction tools as well as feedback interventions were part of a trend to more personalized approaches in psychotherapy. Research on psychometric prediction and feedback into ongoing treatment has the potential to enhance treatment outcomes, especially for patients with an increased risk of treatment failure or drop-out...
August 24, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828207/cerebral-gray-matter-volume-reduction-in-subcortical-vascular-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients-and-subcortical-vascular-dementia-patients-and-its-relation-with-cognitive-deficits
#7
Maoyu Li, Yao Meng, Minzhong Wang, Shuang Yang, Hui Wu, Bin Zhao, Guangbin Wang
INTRODUCTION: Subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI) is the predementia stage of subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD). The aim of this research is to explore and compare cerebral gray matter (GM) volume reduction in svMCI patients and SVaD patients, and to investigate the relationship between cerebral GM volume reduction and cognitive deficits. METHODS: Thirty one svMCI patients, 29 SVaD patients, and 31 healthy controls were recruited in our research...
August 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817076/spirulina-maxima-extract-prevents-neurotoxicity-via-promoting-activation-of-bdnf-creb-signaling-pathways-in-neuronal-cells-and-mice
#8
Eun-Jeong Koh, Young-Jin Seo, Jia Choi, Hyeon Yong Lee, Do-Hyung Kang, Kui-Jin Kim, Boo-Yong Lee
Spirulina maxima is a microalgae which contains flavonoids and other polyphenols. Although Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE) has diverse beneficial effects, its effects on neurotoxicity have not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of SM70EE against trimethyltin (TMT)-induced neurotoxicity in HT-22 cells. SM70EE inhibited the cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Besides, ROS production was decreased by down-regulating oxidative stress-associated enzymes...
August 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810448/traumatic-exposure-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-among-flood-victims-testing-a-multiple-mediating-model
#9
Lijuan Quan, Rui Zhen, Benxian Yao, Xiao Zhou
A total of 187 flood victims from Wuhu, a Chinese city affected most severely by a flood during July 2016, were selected to complete self-report measures of traumatic exposure, feelings of safety, fear, posttraumatic negative cognition, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The results found that traumatic exposure could directly predict posttraumatic stress disorder. Besides, traumatic exposure had indirect prediction on posttraumatic stress disorder through three ways, including a one-step path of negative self-cognition, a two-step path from feelings of safety to fear, and a three-step path from feelings of safety to negative self-cognition via fear...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803382/cortical-afferent-inhibition-abnormalities-reveal-cholinergic-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-reappraisal
#10
REVIEW
Raffaele Nardone, Francesco Brigo, Viviana Versace, Yvonne Höller, Frediano Tezzon, Leopold Saltuari, Eugen Trinka, Luca Sebastianelli
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder affecting, besides the dopaminergic function, multiple neurotransmission systems, including the cholinergic system. Central cholinergic circuits of human brain can be tested non-invasively by coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex; this test is named short latency afferent inhibition (SAI). SAI abnormalities have been reported in PD patients with gait disturbances and many non-motor symptoms, such as visual hallucinations (VHs), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), dysphagia, and olfactory impairment...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763376/effects-of-task-language-and-second-language-proficiency-on-the-neural-correlates-of-phonemic-fluency-in-native-japanese-speakers-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#11
Greggory J Wroblewski, Koji Matsuo, Keiko Hirata, Toshio Matsubara, Kenichiro Harada, Yoshifumi Watanabe, Koh Shinoda
Data collected during a phonemic fluency task (or 'FAS test'), a standard component of neuropsychological batteries for assessment of cognitive deficits, may be language-dependent and may differ depending on second-language proficiency. The unique orthographic/phonological system of the task language, and the reported cognitive advantages inherent to bilinguals, may each influence the task's neural correlates. However, language background is not currently assessed in most studies testing phonemic fluency. Here, we used 52-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy in college-aged native-Japanese subjects to examine functional changes in oxygenated hemoglobin elicited during a phonemic fluency task performed in Japanese and in English...
September 27, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733759/management-of-gait-changes-and-fall-risk-in-mci-and-dementia
#12
REVIEW
Gilles Allali, Joe Verghese
Gait disorders and falls are very prevalent in aging, especially in older adults with cognitive impairment: older adults with dementia are 2-3 times more likely to fall than their non-demented counterparts. The management of gait disorders and falls in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia begins by their identification with the use of specific screening tools, such as measuring gait speed, use of dual-task gait tests, or diagnosing motoric cognitive risk syndrome, a newly described pre-dementia syndrome...
September 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711513/the-effectiveness-of-cognitive-function-stress-management-training-in-glycemic-control-in-children-and-in-mental-health-of-mother-caring-for-child-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Mozhdeh Saghaei, Pouya Omidi, Elham Hashemi Dehkordi, Parvin Safavi
AIM: The study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a training course of cognitive-behavioral stress management in glycaemia regulation in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus as well as in mental health status of their mothers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their mothers were selected and randomly assigned into two groups. A group of mothers (n=25; as experimental one besides their children) passed a course, eight 2-h sessions, on the cognitive-behavioral and stress management, and the control group received the usual care...
July 3, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706727/pd_manager-an-mhealth-platform-for-parkinson-s-disease-patient-management
#14
Kostas M Tsiouris, Dimitrios Gatsios, George Rigas, Dragana Miljkovic, Barbara Koroušić Seljak, Marko Bohanec, Maria T Arredondo, Angelo Antonini, Spyros Konitsiotis, Dimitrios D Koutsouris, Dimitrios I Fotiadis
PD_Manager is a mobile health platform designed to cover most of the aspects regarding the management of Parkinson's disease (PD) in a holistic approach. Patients are unobtrusively monitored using commercial wrist and insole sensors paired with a smartphone, to automatically estimate the severity of most of the PD motor symptoms. Besides motor symptoms monitoring, the patient's mobile application also provides various non-motor self-evaluation tests for assessing cognition, mood and nutrition to motivate them in becoming more active in managing their disease...
June 2017: Healthcare Technology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672848/mechanism-exploration-of-arylpiperazine-derivatives-targeting-the-5-ht2a-receptor-by-in-silico-methods
#15
Feng Lin, Feng Li, Chao Wang, Jinghui Wang, Yinfeng Yang, Ling Yang, Yan Li
As a G-protein coupled receptor, the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A) receptor is known for its critical role in the cognitive, behavioural and physiological functions, and thus is a primary molecular target to treat psychiatric diseases, including especially depression. With purpose to explore the structural traits affecting the inhibitory activity, currently a dataset of 109 arylpiperazine derivatives as promising 5-HT2A antagonists was built, based on which the ligand-based three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) study by using both comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) approaches was carried out...
June 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663732/preserved-crossmodal-integration-of-emotional-signals-in-binge-drinking
#16
Séverine Lannoy, Valérie Dormal, Mélanie Brion, Joël Billieux, Pierre Maurage
Binge drinking is an alcohol consumption pattern with various psychological and cognitive consequences. As binge drinking showed qualitatively comparable cognitive impairments to those reported in alcohol-dependence, a continuum hypothesis suggests that this habit would be a first step toward alcohol-related disorders. Besides these cognitive impairments, alcohol-dependence is also characterized by large-scale deficits in emotional processing, particularly in crossmodal contexts, and these abilities have scarcely been explored in binge drinking...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658758/a-stratified-analysis-of-clinical-manifestations-and-different-diagnostic-methods-of-neurocysticercosis-suspected-tamilian-population-residing-in-and-around-puducherry
#17
Piriyatharisini Thamilselvan, Krishna Raja Muthuraman, Sheeba Arockiamary Thasan, Gayathri Kasinathan, Jharna Mandal, Subhash Chandra Parija
INTRODUCTION: Human beings are accidental hosts for Cysticercus cellulosae showing varied clinical manifestations based on the site harbored by the parasitic cyst because of which disease profile remains unexplored at large. Besides this, diagnosis of the disease with a single conventional method is problematic due to lack of specificity and sensitivity. AIM: To assess the varied clinical manifestations and stratify based on imaging and serological methods for diagnosis of Neurocysticercosis (NCC) in our study population...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635664/adolescent-exposure-to-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-win-55212-2-modifies-cocaine-withdrawal-symptoms-in-adult-mice
#18
María A Aguilar, Juan Carlos Ledesma, Marta Rodríguez-Arias, Carles Penalva, Carmen Manzanedo, José Miñarro, M Carmen Arenas
Chronic cannabinoid consumption is an increasingly common behavior among teenagers and has been shown to cause long-lasting neurobehavioral alterations. Besides, it has been demonstrated that cocaine addiction in adulthood is highly correlated with cannabis abuse during adolescence. Cocaine consumption and subsequent abstinence from it can cause psychiatric symptoms, such as psychosis, cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression. The aim of the present research was to study the consequences of adolescent exposure to cannabis on the psychiatric-like effects promoted by cocaine withdrawal in adult mice...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610695/a-fuzzy-based-system-reveals-alzheimer-s-disease-onset-in-subjects-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#19
Sabina Tangaro, Annarita Fanizzi, Nicola Amoroso, Roberto Bellotti
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most frequent neurodegenerative form of dementia. Although dementia cannot be cured, it is very important to detect preclinical AD as early as possible. Several studies demonstrated the effectiveness of the joint use of structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and cognitive measures to detect and track the progression of the disease. Since hippocampal atrophy is a well known biomarker for AD progression state, we propose here a novel methodology, exploiting it as a searchlight to detect the best discriminating features for the classification of subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) converting (MCI-c) or not converting (MCI-nc) to AD...
June 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574812/associations-between-apoe-genotype-and-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-a-longitudinal-study
#20
Xiao Luo, Yerfan Jiaerken, Xinfeng Yu, Peiyu Huang, Tiantian Qiu, Yunlu Jia, Kaicheng Li, Xiaojun Xu, Zhujing Shen, Xiaojun Guan, Jiong Zhou, Minming Zhang, For The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Adni
OBJECTIVE: It remains unclear if and how the interactions between APOE genotypes and cerebral small-vessel diseases (CSVD) lead to cognitive decline in the long term. Based on ADNI cohort, this longitudinal study aimed to clarify the potential relationship among APOE genotype, CSVD and cognition by integrating multi-level data. METHOD: There were 135 healthy elderly (including ε2, ε4 allele carriers and ε3 homozygotes) who had completed two years' follow-up. MRI markers of CSVD, including white matter hyperintensities (WMH), dilated perivascular space (dPVS), microbleeds and lacune, were assessed...
July 4, 2017: Oncotarget
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