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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881815/investigation-of-eligible-picture-categories-for-use-as-environmental-cues-in-dementia-sensitive-environments
#1
Tom Motzek, Kathrin Bueter, Gesine Marquardt
OBJECTIVES: Environmental cues, such as pictures, could be helpful in improving room-finding and wayfinding abilities among older patients. The aim of this study was to identify picture categories that are preferred and easily remembered by older patients and cognitively impaired patients and which therefore might be suitable for use as environmental cues in acute care settings. METHODS: Twelve pictures were presented to a sample of older patients (n = 37). The pictures represented different categories: familiarity (familiar vs...
November 22, 2016: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871720/-guidelines-for-the-prescription-of-mood-stabilizers-for-adolescents-a-literature-review
#2
G Munch, N Godart
INTRODUCTION: Adolescence is a unique phase of the human developmental process. In adolescents, psychotropic medications may have different efficacy and tolerance profiles compared to those at other stages of the lifespan. Mood stabilizers are a complex pharmacological category including lithium, some anticonvulsants, and some second generation antipsychotics. Focusing on this class of pharmacological agents, we aim to answer the following questions: in which indications and according to which modalities should mood stabilizers be prescribed during adolescence? METHODS: Information was sought from the websites of the French Haute Autorité de santé (HAS) and Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM), the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the British National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)...
November 18, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828583/stress-and-cognitive-reserve-as-independent-factors-of-neuropsychological-performance-in-healthy-elderly
#3
João Carlos Centurion Cabral, Gessyka Wanglon Veleda, Martina Mazzoleni, Elton Pinto Colares, Lucas Neiva-Silva, Vera Torres das Neves
Exposure to high levels of cortisol and self-reported stress, as well as cognitive reserve, have been linked to Alzheimer's disease pathology. However, there are no studies on the interaction of these variables. The present study aims to assess the associations of measures of cortisol, self-reported stress, and cognitive reserve with neuropsychological performance in healthy elderly people; besides, to test the interactions between these variables. Cross-sectional analyzes were conducted using data on stress, cognitive reserve and clinical conditions in 145 healthy elderly adults...
November 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823981/repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-improves-cognitive-function-of-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#4
Junwu Zhao, Zhenguang Li, Yannan Cong, Jinbiao Zhang, Ming Tan, Haixia Zhang, Na Geng, Mengfan Li, Wenwen Yu, Peiyan Shan
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) acts as a kind of widely-applied and non-invasive method in the intervention of some neurological disorders. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigates the effect of rTMS on 30 cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) participants, who were classified into mild and moderate groups. Neuropsychological tests were carried out using the AD Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and World Health Organization University of California-Los Angeles, Auditory Verbal Learning Test (WHO-UCLA AVLT) before, immediately after, and 6 weeks after the intervention...
November 3, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786581/the-effect-of-pre-eclampsia-like-syndrome-induced-by-l-name-on-learning-and-memory-and-hippocampal-glucocorticoid-receptor-expression-a-rat-model
#5
Hao Zhu, Weimin Zhu, Rong Hu, Huijun Wang, Duan Ma, Xiaotian Li
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the impacts of pre-eclampsia on the cognitive and learning capabilities of adolescent rat offspring and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms at the molecular level. METHODS: Pregnant rats were subcutaneously injected with saline solution (control) (n = 16) or NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (n = 16) from the 13th day of gestation until parturition. The brain tissues from fetal rats delivered by cesarean section were examined in both groups with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining...
October 27, 2016: Hypertension in Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720868/the-use-of-the-emotional-object-recognition-as-an-assay-to-assess-learning-and-memory-associated-to-an-aversive-stimulus-in-rodents
#6
Anna Brancato, Gianluca Lavanco, Angela Cavallaro, Fulvio Plescia, Carla Cannizzaro
BACKGROUND: Emotionally salient experiences induce the formation of explicit memory traces, besides eliciting automatic or implicit emotional memory in rodents. This study aims at investigating the implementation of a novel task for studying the formation of limbic memory engrams as a result of the acquisition- and retrieval- of fear-conditioning - biased declarative memory traces, measured by animal discrimination of an "emotional-object". Moreover, by using this new method we investigated the potential interactions between stimulation of cannabinoid transmission and integration of emotional information and cognitive functioning...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711939/the-ege-agraphia-test-battery-for-identifying-the-writing-disorders-in-cases-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Dilek Evyapan Akkuş, Ayşe Güler
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to create an agraphia test battery specific to Turkish language, to obtain normative data for the performance and error types of this test and to demonstrate its success in detecting cognitive disorders in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) cases that can't be diagnosed by formal neuropsychological tests due to the fact that writing is a complex function. METHOD: For this purpose, 20 healthy control (HC) subjects, 20 MCI cases and 20 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) of 1 were evaluated with Ege Agraphia Test Battery...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701009/cannabis-and-its-effects-on-driving-skills
#8
Percy Bondallaz, Bernard Favrat, Haïthem Chtioui, Eleonora Fornari, Philippe Maeder, Christian Giroud
Traffic policies show growing concerns about driving under the influence of cannabis, since cannabinoids are one of the most frequently encountered psychoactive substances in the blood of drivers who are drug-impaired and/or involved in accidents, and in the context of a legalization of medical marijuana and of recreational use. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of cannabis on safe driving remain poorly understood. In order to better understand its acute and long-term effects on psychomotor functions involved in the short term ability and long-term fitness to drive, experimental research has been conducted based on laboratory, simulator or on-road studies, as well as on structural and functional brain imaging...
September 16, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678482/scanning-the-world-in-three-seconds-mismatch-negativity-as-an-indicator-of-temporal-segmentation
#9
Lingyan Wang, Yan Bao, Jiyuan Zhang, Xiaoxiong Lin, Lang Yang, Ernst Pöppel, Bin Zhou
It has been shown recently that a temporal window of approximately 3 s has a modulatory effect on mismatch negativity (MMN). This special temporal window has been interpreted as representing the "subjective present," and reflecting a temporal segmentation in behavioral and cognitive functions. A more detailed look into the temporal structure of the MMN appeared to be reasonable as group data might shadow the underlying mechanisms because of too-high response variance. In this study, we tested one subject on 11 successive days at the same circadian phase using a passive auditory oddball paradigm with interstimulus intervals (ISIs) ranging from 1 s to 6 s...
September 2016: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647473/in-vitro-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-toxicity-in-striatal-cerebrocortical-and-hippocampal-slices-is-attenuated-by-atorvastatin-and-mk-801
#10
Caio M Massari, Adalberto A Castro, Tharine Dal-Cim, Débora Lanznaster, Carla I Tasca
Parkinson's disease (PD) involves the loss of striatal dopaminergic neurons, although other neurotransmitters and brain areas are also involved in its pathophysiology. In rodent models to PD it has been shown statins improve cognitive and motor deficits and attenuate inflammatory responses evoked by PD-related toxins. Statins are the drugs most prescribed to hypercholesterolemia, but neuroprotective effects have also been attributed to statins treatment in humans and in animal models. This study aimed to establish an in vitro model of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity, used as an initial screening test to identify effective drugs against neural degeneration related to PD...
December 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629499/estrogen-receptor-beta-polymorphisms-and-cognitive-performance-in-women-associations-and-modifications-by-genetic-and-environmental-influences
#11
Karin Fehsel, Tamara Schikowski, Michaela Jänner, Anke Hüls, Mohammed Voussoughi, Thomas Schulte, Andrea Vierkötter, Tom Teichert, Christian Herder, Dorothea Sugiri, Ursula Krämer, Christian Luckhaus
Genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's dementia. Besides known genetic risk factors like the apolipoprotein (APO) Eε4 allele, single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) of the estrogen receptors (ESRs) are candidate genetic risk factors, while air pollution represents an environmental risk factor for dementia. Effects of these risk factors and their interaction were investigated in the SALIA cohort of 834 non-demented elderly women. Cognitive function was assessed by the CERAD-plus test battery...
December 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623554/antidepressant-like-effects-and-cognitive-enhancement-of-the-total-phenols-extract-of-hemerocallis-citrina-baroni-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-rats-and-its-related-mechanism
#12
Pan Xu, Ke Zhu Wang, Cong Lu, Li Ming Dong, Jun Le Zhai, Yong Hong Liao, Silafu Aibai, Xin Min Liu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Depression induce distressed emotional state and cognitve deficits simultaneously, which both should be improved in the treatment. Hemerocallis citrina Baroni (HC) is a traditional herbal medicine in Eastern-Asia areas and the total phenols extract of HC (HCPE) contains the main active ingredients. It has been reported that HC has the emotional improvement effect. But the cognitive effect of HC was seldom researched. AIM OF THE STUDY: We designed to evaluate the antidepressant and cognitive improvement effect of HCPE using a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model, and the potential mechanisms were explored by investigating the corticosterone (CORT), monoamine neurotansmitters, brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and oxidative stress...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592635/group-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-targeting-intolerance-of-uncertainty-a-randomized-trial-for-older-chinese-adults-with-generalized-anxiety-disorder
#13
Chen Hui, Yang Zhihui
OBJECTIVES: China has entered the aging society, but the social support systems for the elderly are underdeveloped, which may make the elderly feel anxiety about their health and life quality. Given the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in the elderly, it is very important to pay more attention to the treatment for old adults. Although cognitive behavioral therapy targeting intolerance of uncertainty (CBT-IU) has been applied to different groups of patients with GAD, few studies have been performed to date...
September 3, 2016: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581084/ataxia-dystonia-and-myoclonus-in-adult-patients-with-niemann-pick-type-c
#14
L H Koens, A Kuiper, M A Coenen, J W J Elting, J J de Vries, M Engelen, J H T M Koelman, F J van Spronsen, J M Spikman, T J de Koning, M A J Tijssen
BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) is a rare autosomal recessive progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the NP-C 1 or 2 gene. Besides visceral symptoms, presentation in adolescent and adult onset variants is often with neurological symptoms. The most frequently reported presenting symptoms of NP-C in adulthood are psychiatric symptoms (38 %), cognitive decline (23 %) and ataxia (20 %). Myoclonus can be present, but its value in early diagnosis and the evolving clinical phenotype in NP-C is unclear...
September 1, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553576/effect-of-anticonvulsive-treatment-on-neuropsychological-performance-in-children-with-bects
#15
Moritz Tacke, Lucia Gerstl, Florian Heinen, Isabel Heukaeufer, Michaela Bonfert, Thomas Bast, Sonia Cornell, Bernd Axel Neubauer, Ingo Borggraefe
INTRODUCTION: Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is a common epilepsy syndrome in childhood. Besides the occurrence of seizures, mild cognitive impairments and behavioral problems affecting language skills, spatial perception, memory, executive function, and academic achievement might be present. There is no international consensus about the decision whether or not to treat affected children. The influence of treatment on cognitive functions is debated. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with BECTS were assessed in short term auditory memory, long-term verbal memory, intelligence and behavior using the "number recall" test from the Kaufman assessment battery for children, the "verbal learning memory test", the "culture free intelligence test" and the "child behavior checklist" prior to a randomized controlled antiepileptic therapy and after a treatment period of 6 months with either sulthiame or levetiracetam...
December 0: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540963/the-gesture-imitation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia-and-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#16
Xudong Li, Shuhong Jia, Zhi Zhou, Chunlei Hou, Wenjing Zheng, Pei Rong, Jinsong Jiao
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease dementia (ADD) has become an important health problem in the world. Visuospatial deficits are considered to be an early symptom besides memory disorder. OBJECTIVES: The gesture imitation test was devised to detect ADD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). METHODS: A total of 117 patients with ADD, 118 with aMCI, and 95 normal controls were included in this study. All participants were administered our gesture imitation test, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), and the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR)...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421662/functional-characterization-of-an-oxytocin-receptor-gene-variant-rs2268498-previously-associated-with-social-cognition-by-expression-analysis-in-vitro-and-in-human-brain-biopsy
#17
Martin Reuter, Christian Montag, Steffen Altmann, Fabian Bendlow, Christian Elger, Peter Kirsch, Albert Becker, Susanne Schoch-McGovern, Matthias Simon, Bernd Weber, Andrea Felten
The oxytocin system plays a prominent role in social behaviour across species, and numerous genetic studies in humans have reported associations between polymorphisms on the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and phenotypes related to social cognition, affiliation, perspective taking and sociability in healthy subjects and in patients with atypical social behaviour, such as in autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Recently, the first study demonstrating altered agonist-induced OXTR internalization and recycling for the exonic variant rs35062132 emerged...
July 15, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392856/the-multiple-object-test-as-a-performance-based-tool-to-assess-cognitive-driven-activity-of-daily-living-function-in%C3%A2-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Hannah Glonnegger, Aline Beyle, Bernhard Cerff, Susanne Gräber, Ilona Csoti, Daniela Berg, Inga Liepelt-Scarfone
BACKGROUND: There is need for multidimensional quantitative assessment of cognitive driven activities of daily living (ADL) functions in Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is an ADL profile related to cognitive impairment in PD assessed by the Multiple Object Test (MOT). We assumed MOT performance to be lower in PD patients versus controls and in PD patients with more severe cognitive impairment. METHODS: 50 PD patients with no cognitive impairment (PD-NC), 54 patients with PD-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), 29 with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and 40 healthy controls (HC) were investigated...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324456/the-impact-of-simulated-mri-scanner-background-noise-on-visual-attention-processes-as-measured-by-the-eeg
#19
S Oliver Kobald, Stephan Getzmann, Christian Beste, Edmund Wascher
Environmental noise is known to affect personal well-being as well as cognitive processes. Besides daily life, environmental noise can also occur in experimental research settings, e.g. when being in a magnetic resonance scanner. Scanner background noise (SBN) might pose serious confounds for experimental findings, even when non-auditory settings are examined. In the current experiment we tested if SBN alters bottom-up and top-down related processes of selective visual attention mechanisms. Participants completed two blocks of a visual change detection task, one block in silence and one block under SBN exposure...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27259244/careful-neuropsychological-testing-reveals-a-novel-genetic-marker-gsto1-c-linked-to-the-pre-stage-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Ellen Umlauf, Eduard Rappold, Bettina Schiller, Petra Fuchs, Michael Rainer, Brigitte Wolf, Maria Zellner
Approximately 30 million people currently suffer from late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) worldwide. Twin studies demonstrated that 60 to 80% of LOAD is genetically determined, 20% of which remaining unassigned. This case-control study included 118 cognitively healthy controls, 52 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; the pre-stage of LOAD) and 71 LOAD patients. The participants were genotyped for the genetic LOAD marker apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) and the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs4925 in glutathione S-transferase omega-1 (GSTO1)...
June 28, 2016: Oncotarget
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