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TGF-β primordial follicles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27300179/ovarian-folliculogenesis
#1
Nitzan Rimon-Dahari, Lia Yerushalmi-Heinemann, Liat Alyagor, Nava Dekel
The ovary, the female gonad, serves as the source for the germ cells as well as the major supplier of steroid sex hormones. During embryonic development, the primordial germ cells (PGCs) are specified, migrate to the site of the future gonad, and proliferate, forming structures of germ cells nests, which will eventually break down to generate the primordial follicles (PMFs). Each PMF contains an oocyte arrested at the first prophase of meiosis, surrounded by a flattened layer of somatic pre-granulosa cells...
2016: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042447/chemotherapy-impact-on-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-levels-in-breast-carcinoma
#2
Jyoti Bala, Shashi Seth, Rakesh Dhankhar, Veena Singh Ghalaut
INTRODUCTION: Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) is a glycoprotein of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that seems to reflect the continuous non-cyclical growth of small follicles and can be considered an indirect index of the size of the resting primordial follicle pool. Accordingly, AMH represents a marker of Ovarian Reserve (OR) and is particularly useful in demonstrating ovarian tissue damage induced by chemotherapy. AIM: To evaluate and compare the levels of AMH in Breast Carcinoma patients before and after chemotherapy with age matched healthy controls and to assess whether AMH as a biochemical marker of the OR might improve prediction of chemotherapy related outcomes in these patients...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26954112/role-of-growth-differentiation-factor-9-and-bone-morphogenetic-protein-15-in-ovarian-function-and-their-importance-in-mammalian-female-fertility-a-review
#3
Fernanda Cavallari de Castro, Maria Helena Coelho Cruz, Claudia Lima Verde Leal
Growth factors play an important role during early ovarian development and folliculogenesis, since they regulate the migration of germ cells to the gonadal ridge. They also act on follicle recruitment, proliferation/atresia of granulosa cells and theca, steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, ovulation and luteinization. Among the growth factors, the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and the bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), belong to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, have been implicated as essential for follicular development...
August 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26076381/follistatin288-regulates-germ-cell-cyst-breakdown-and-primordial-follicle-assembly-in-the-mouse-ovary
#4
Zhengpin Wang, Wanbao Niu, Yijing Wang, Zhen Teng, Jia Wen, Guoliang Xia, Chao Wang
In mammals, the primordial follicle pool represents the entire reproductive potential of a female. The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family member activin (ACT) contributes to folliculogenesis, although the exact mechanism is not known. The role of FST288, the strongest ACT-neutralizing isoform of follistatin (FST), during cyst breakdown and primordial follicle formation in the fetal mice ovary was assessed using an in vitro culture system. FST was continuously expressed in the oocytes as well as the cuboidal granulosa cells of growing follicles in perinatal mouse ovaries...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26036899/regulators-of-ovarian-preantral-follicle-development
#5
REVIEW
Elizabeth A McGee, Renju S Raj
Preantral follicle development has become an increasingly recognized area of study in the last two decades. Factors that regulate the growth survival and differentiation of these small, yet complex structures have been identified. The field of fertility preservation and a need for increased numbers of mature oocytes for stem cell research revealed how little we knew of how follicles got from the primordial stage to the antral stage with a healthy and competent oocyte inside. This work discusses the role of gonadotropins in regulating preantral follicles and also the role of the TGF-β family members and their associated Smad signaling molecules in preantral follicle development...
May 2015: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25790371/gdf9-is-transiently-expressed-in-oocytes-before-follicle-formation-in-the-human-fetal-ovary-and-is-regulated-by-a-novel-nobox-transcript
#6
Rosemary A L Bayne, Hazel L Kinnell, Shiona M Coutts, Jing He, Andrew J Childs, Richard A Anderson
During human fetal ovary development, the process of primordial follicle formation is immediately preceded by a highly dynamic period of germ cell and somatic cell reorganisation. This is regulated by germ-cell specific transcription regulators, by the conserved RNA binding proteins DAZL and BOLL and by secreted growth factors of the TGFβ family, including activin βA: these all show changing patterns of expression preceding follicle formation. In mice, the transcription factor Nobox is essential for follicle formation and oocyte survival, and NOBOX regulates the expression of GDF9 in humans...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25473223/expression-patterns-of-gli-1-pleckstrin-homology-like-domain-family-a-member-1-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-%C3%AE-2-and-p63-in-sebaceous-and-follicular-tumors
#7
Su-Young Jeon, Dae-Cheol Kim, Ki-Hoon Song, Ki-Ho Kim
BACKGROUND: Certain epidermal appendage tumors, including hyperplasias (hamartomas), adenomas, benign epitheliomas, primordial epitheliomas, and malignant tumors, can exhibit any stage of differentiation. Several molecules associated with tumorigenesis, such as Gli-1, pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 1 (PHLDA-1), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, TGF-β2, and p63, are associated with tumor grade and aggressive behavior in follicular and sebaceous tumors in ways that are not well understood...
December 2014: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25410538/tgf%C3%AE-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-superfamily-members-and-their-receptors-in-the-fetal-porcine-ovaries-effect-of-prenatal-flutamide-treatment
#8
Katarzyna Knapczyk-Stwora, Malgorzata Grzesiak, Malgorzata Duda, Marek Koziorowski, Jerzy Galas, Maria Slomczynska
INTRODUCTION: We have recently demonstrated that antiandrogen treatment during fetal life resulted in delayed folliculogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of androgen deficiency induced by flutamide on the expression of TGFβ superfamily members and their receptors which are involved in follicle formation and its transition to the primary stage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pregnant gilts were injected with flutamide (for seven days, 50 mg/day/kg b...
2014: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25190106/expression-and-localization-of-smad2-and-smad4-proteins-in-the-porcine-ovary
#9
Na Xing, Yajun Liang, Zhenzhen Gao, Junping He, Xiaoyan He, Hongquan Li, Changsheng Dong
The objective of the present study was to investigate the temporal and spatial expression of Smad2 and Smad4 proteins, the downstream signaling molecules of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, in the porcine ovary. Cellular localization of Smad2 and Smad4 proteins was examined using immunohistochemistry. The specificity of the antibodies was examined using Western blot assay. Western blot analyses demonstrated that 52kDa Smad2 and 60kDa Smad4 proteins were expressed in the porcine ovary...
October 2014: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24515103/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-participates-in-the-maintenance-of-the-primordial-follicle-pool-in-the-mouse-ovary
#10
Zheng-Pin Wang, Xin-Yi Mu, Meng Guo, Yi-Jing Wang, Zhen Teng, Guan-Ping Mao, Wan-Bao Niu, Li-Zhao Feng, Li-Hua Zhao, Guo-Liang Xia
Physiologically, only a few primordial follicles are activated to enter the growing follicle pool each wave. Recent studies in knock-out mice show that early follicular activation depends on signaling from the tuberous sclerosis complex, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways. However, the manner in which these pathways are normally regulated, and whether or not TGF-β acts on them are poorly understood...
March 21, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24270394/expression-of-tgf-beta-superfamily-growth-factors-their-receptors-the-associated-smads-and-antagonists-in-five-isolated-size-matched-populations-of-pre-antral-follicles-from-normal-human-ovaries
#11
Stine Gry Kristensen, Kasper Andersen, Christian Alexandro Clement, Stephen Franks, Kate Hardy, Claus Yding Andersen
In mammals, members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily are known to have key roles in the regulation of follicular growth and development. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of TGF-β superfamily growth factors, their receptors, downstream SMAD signalling molecules and TGF-β/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonists during early human folliculogenesis. Human pre-antral follicles were enzymatically isolated from surplus ovarian tissue obtained from women having ovarian cortical tissue frozen for fertility preservation...
April 2014: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23986572/expression-patterns-and-regulatory-functions-of-micrornas-during-the-initiation-of-primordial-follicle-development-in-the-neonatal-mouse-ovary
#12
Shuhong Yang, Shuo Wang, Aiyue Luo, Ting Ding, Zhiwen Lai, Wei Shen, Xiangyi Ma, Chen Cao, Liangyan Shi, Jingjing Jiang, Fangfang Rong, Lanfang Ma, Yong Tian, Xiaofang Du, Yunping Lu, Ya Li, Shixuan Wang
The initiation of primordial follicle development is essential for female fertility, but the signals that trigger this process are poorly understood. Given the potentially important roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the ovary, we aimed to study the expression patterns and regulatory functions of miRNAs during the initiation of primordial follicle development. Expression patterns of miRNA in the neonatal mouse ovary were profiled by microarray, and 24 miRNAs whose abundances differed significantly between ovaries from 3- and 5-day-old mice were identified...
November 2013: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23782946/investigations-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-preantral-follicles-of-female-mice-reveal-differential-roles-for-bone-morphogenetic-protein-15
#13
Mark A Fenwick, Jocelyn M Mora, Yosef T Mansour, Christina Baithun, Stephen Franks, Kate Hardy
Bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) are 2 closely related TGF-β ligands implicated as key regulators of follicle development and fertility. Animals harboring mutations of these factors often exhibit a blockage in follicle development beyond the primary stage and therefore little is known about the role of these ligands during subsequent (preantral) stages. Preantral follicles isolated from immature mice were cultured with combinations of BMP15, GDF9, and activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) inhibitors...
September 2013: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23592428/selective-smad4-knockout-in-ovarian-preovulatory-follicles-results-in-multiple-defects-in-ovulation
#14
Chao Yu, Yin-Li Zhang, Heng-Yu Fan
The TGF-β signaling pathway is involved with multiple processes in the mammalian ovary, including primordial follicle formation, granulosa cell (GC) proliferation, follicle atresia, ovulation, and feedback regulation between the pituitary and ovary. The transcriptional factor SMAD4 (Sma- and Mad-related protein 4) is the central component of the canonical TGF-β signaling pathway. Smad4 knockout (KO) using Amhr2-Cre, which is expressed in GCs of immature developing follicles, causes premature luteinization...
June 2013: Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22827381/nutritional-influences-on-folliculogenesis
#15
REVIEW
J H Hernandez-Medrano, B K Campbell, R Webb
Folliculogenesis is an intricate process that involves the proliferation and differentiation of both somatic and germ cells. This process depends on complex interactions between systemic factors such as both pituitary gonadotrophins and metabolic hormones and/or local factors produced by the ovarian somatic and germ cells, such as the IGF system and TGF-β superfamily members. In domestic ruminants, follicular development begins during foetal life with formation of primordial follicles from the association of germ cells and pre-granulosa cells...
August 2012: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22420235/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-a-unique-biochemical-marker-of-gonadal-development-and-fertility-in-humans
#16
REVIEW
Ivana Zec, Dubravka Tislaric-Medenjak, Zeljka Bukovec Megla, Ivana Kucak
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a glycoprotein belonging to the transforming growth factors (TGF-P). AMH plays a fundamental role in the regression of Müllerian ducts in male embryo. In its absence, Müllerian ducts develop into female inner reproductive organs. In boys, it is significantly produced in Sertoli cells of testes until puberty and then slowly decreases to residual values for the rest of the men's life. AMH serves as a biochemical marker of the presence of testes in cryptorchidic males. In females, AMH is secreted by granulosa cells of small follicles in the ovary...
2011: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21106872/follistatin-regulates-germ-cell-nest-breakdown-and-primordial-follicle-formation
#17
Fuminori Kimura, Lara M Bonomi, Alan L Schneyer
Follistatin (FST) is an antagonist of activin and related TGFβ superfamily members that has important reproductive actions as well as critical regulatory functions in other tissues and systems. FST is produced as three protein isoforms that differ in their biochemical properties and in their localization within the body. We created FST288-only mice that only express the short FST288 isoform and previously reported that females are subfertile, but have an excess of primordial follicles on postnatal day (PND) 8...
February 2011: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20886044/induction-of-ovarian-primordial-follicle-assembly-by-connective-tissue-growth-factor-ctgf
#18
Ryan Schindler, Eric Nilsson, Michael K Skinner
Primordial follicle assembly is a process that occurs when oocyte nests break down to form individual primordial follicles. The size of this initial pool of primordial follicles in part determines the reproductive lifespan of the female. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was identified as a potential regulatory candidate for this process in a previous microarray analysis of follicle development. The current study examines the effects of CTGF and associated transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ-1) on follicle assembly...
September 24, 2010: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20176141/localization-of-phosphorylated-smad-proteins-in-granulosa-cells-oocytes-and-oviduct-of-female-mice
#19
X Tian, A N Halfhill, F J Diaz
SMAD signaling is essential for follicular development. The distribution of activated (phosphorylated) SMADs during folliculogenesis has not been described in detail. The present results indicate that oocytes from preantral and antral follicles contain the mRNA for the receptor regulated Smads (-1, -2, -3, -5 and -9), Smad4 (co-SMAD), and Smad6 and Smad7 (inhibitory SMADs). Levels of Smad5, Smad6 and Smad7 mRNA decreased in fully-grown oocytes compared to growing oocytes. Immunostaining for pSMAD1/5/9, pSMAD2 and pSMAD3 was evident in oocytes from primordial, primary, secondary and antral follicles...
February 2010: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20071012/localization-of-smad4-in-the-ovary-of-the-european-hedgehog-erinaceus-europaeus-l
#20
Xuexue Wen, Junping He, Xuejing Zhang, Li Zhao, Shaokai Du
Ovarian follicular development, follicle selection, and the process of ovulation remain poorly understood in most species. Numerous endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors, including the ligands represented by the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily, TGFβ, activin, inhibin, bone morphometric protein (BMP), and growth differentiation factor (GDF) are present in the ovaries of many animals. In the present study, we investigated the immunolocalization of Smad4, a signaling molecule of the TGFβ superfamily, during folliculogenesis in the ovary of the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus L...
May 2011: Acta Histochemica
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