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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906446/study-on-adhesion-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-osteoblasts-promoted-by-new-absorbable-bioactive-glass-injection-in-vitro
#1
A Axrap, J Wang, Y Liu, M Wang, A Yusuf
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts grown on absorbable bioactive glass-calcium phosphate cement injection (BG-CPC) materials in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BG-CPC composite biomaterial samples were prepared in vitro, for culture with MC3T3-E1 rat osteoblasts. Cells were divided into CPC, BG and BG-CPC treated groups. After cultivation for 3d, cells were stained with rhodamine-phalloidin and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and observed by fluorescence microscopy for osteoblast morphology on the surface of biomaterials...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906064/treatment-with-rgdf11-does-not-improve-the-dystrophic-muscle-pathology-of-mdx-mice
#2
Fabrizio Rinaldi, Yu Zhang, Ricardo Mondragon-Gonzalez, Jeffrey Harvey, Rita C R Perlingeiro
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an inherited lethal muscle wasting disease characterized by cycles of degeneration and regeneration, with no effective therapy. Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11), a member of the TGF-β superfamily and myostatin homologous, has been reported to have the capacity to reverse age-related skeletal muscle loss. These initial findings led us to investigate the ability of GDF11 to promote regeneration in the context of muscular dystrophy and determine whether it could be a candidate to slow down or reverse the disease progression in DMD...
June 14, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906049/smad-dependent-mechanisms-of-inflammatory-bone-destruction
#3
REVIEW
Michelle Fennen, Thomas Pap, Berno Dankbar
Homeostatic bone remodelling becomes disturbed in a variety of pathologic conditions that affect the skeleton, including inflammatory diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis is the prototype of an inflammatory arthritis characterised by chronic inflammation, progressive cartilage destruction and focal bone erosions and is a prime example for a disease with disturbed bone homeostasis. The inflammatory milieu favours the recruitment and activation of osteoclasts, which have been found to be the cells that are primarily responsible for bone erosions in many animal models of inflammatory arthritis...
December 1, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906023/surface-area-dependence-of-gas-particle-interactions-influences-pulmonary-and-neuroinflammatory-outcomes
#4
Christina R Tyler, Katherine E Zychowski, Bethany N Sanchez, Valeria Rivero, Selita Lucas, Guy Herbert, June Liu, Hammad Irshad, Jacob D McDonald, Barry E Bleske, Matthew J Campen
BACKGROUND: Deleterious consequences of exposure to traffic emissions may derive from interactions between carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) and gaseous components in a manner that is dependent on the surface area or complexity of the particles. To determine the validity of this hypothesis, we examined pulmonary and neurological inflammatory outcomes in C57BL/6 and apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) male mice after acute and chronic exposure to vehicle engine-derived particulate matter, generated as ultrafine (UFP) and fine (FP) sizes, with additional exposures using UFP or FP combined with gaseous copollutants derived from fresh gasoline and diesel emissions, labeled as UFP + G and FP + G...
December 1, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905670/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-new-getaway-for-bone-tissue-engineering-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Farshid Bastami, Pantea Nazeman, Hamidreza Moslemi, Maryam Rezai Rad, Kazem Sharifi, Arash Khojasteh
OBJECTIVES: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are frequently used for bone regeneration, however, they are limited in quantity. Moreover, their proliferation and differentiation capabilities reduce during cell culture expansion. Potential application of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has been reported as a promising alternative source for bone regeneration. This study aimed to systematically review the available literature on osteogenic potential of iPSCs and to discuss methods applied to enhance their osteogenic potential...
December 1, 2016: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905105/endothelin-1-et-1-stimulates-carboxy-terminal-smad2-phosphorylation-in-vascular-endothelial-cells-by-a-mechanism-dependent-on-et-receptors-and-de-novo-protein-synthesis
#6
Narges Sharifat, Ghorban Mohammad Zadeh, Mohammad-Ali Ghaffari, Parisa Dayati, Danielle Kamato, Peter J Little, Hossein Babaahmadi-Rezaei
OBJECTIVE: G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists through their receptors can transactivate protein tyrosine kinase receptors such as epidermal growth factor receptor and serine/threonine kinase receptors most notably transforming growth factor (TGF)-β receptor (TβRI). This signalling mechanism represents a major expansion in the cellular outcomes attributable to GPCR signalling. This study addressed the role and mechanisms involved in GPCR agonist, endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated transactivation of the TβRI in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903972/gdf15-contributes-to-radioresistance-and-cancer-stemness-of-head-and-neck-cancer-by-regulating-cellular-reactive-oxygen-species-via-a-smad-associated-signaling-pathway
#7
Yan-Liang Li, Joseph T Chang, Li-Yu Lee, Kang-Hsing Fan, Ya-Ching Lu, Yi-Chen Li, Chang-Hsu Chiang, Guo-Rung You, Hsin-Ying Chen, Ann-Joy Cheng
Radiotherapy is an integral part for the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC), while radioresistance is a major cause leads to treatment failure. GDF15, a member of the TGF-β superfamily, is hypothesized to participate in various types of homeostasis. However, the potential role of this molecule in regulation of radiosensitivity remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that GDF15 contributed to radioresistance of HNC, as determined by both gain- and lost-of-functional experiments. These results were achieved by the induction of mitochondrial membrane potential and suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903738/tgf-%C3%AE-controls-the-formation-of-kidney-resident-t-cells-via-promoting-effector-t-cell-extravasation
#8
Chaoyu Ma, Shruti Mishra, Erika L Demel, Yong Liu, Nu Zhang
Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells, a population of noncirculating memory T cells, are one of the essential components of immunological memory in both mouse and human. Although CD69(+)CD103(+) TRM cells represent a major TRM cell population in barrier tissues including the mucosal surface and the skin, CD69(+)CD103(-) TRM cells dominate most nonbarrier tissues, such as the kidney. TGF-β is required for the differentiation of CD69(+)CD103(+) TRM cells in barrier tissues. However, the developmental control of CD69(+)CD103(-) TRM cells in nonbarrier tissues remains largely unknown and the involvement of TGF-β signaling is less clear...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902779/differential-cytokine-gene-expression-in-granulomas-from-lungs-and-lymph-nodes-of-cattle-experimentally-infected-with-aerosolized-mycobacterium-bovis
#9
Mitchell V Palmer, Tyler C Thacker, W Ray Waters
The hallmark lesion of tuberculosis in humans and animals is the granuloma. The granuloma represents a distinct host cellular immune response composed of epithelioid macrophages, lymphocytes, and multinucleated giant cells, often surrounding a caseous necrotic core. Within the granuloma, host-pathogen interactions determine disease outcome. Factors within the granulomas such as cytokines and chemokines drive cell recruitment, activity, function and ultimately the success or failure of the host's ability to control infection...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902486/ed-b-fibronectin-expression-is-a-marker-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-translational-oncology
#10
Iacopo Petrini, Serena Barachini, Vittoria Carnicelli, Sara Galimberti, Letizia Modeo, Roberto Boni, Martina Sollini, Paola Anna Erba
Fibronectin is a component of the extracellular matrix that links collagen fibers to integrins on the cell's surface. The splicing isoforms, containing the ED-B domain, are not expressed in adult tissues but only in tumor stroma or during embryonic development. Fibroblasts and endothelial cells express ED-B fibronectin during angiogenesis. Also cancer cells can synthetize ED-B fibronectin, but its function in tumor growth needs to be further elucidated.We evaluated the expression of ED-B fibronectin in prostate cancer cell lines: PC3 and DU145...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900891/chondrogenesis-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells-for-future-microtia-repair-using-co-culture-technique
#11
Bee See Goh, Siti Nurhadis Che Omar, Muhammad Azhan Ubaidah, Lokman Saim, Shamsul Sulaiman, Kien Hui Chua
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, these result showed HADSCs could differentiate into chondrocytes-like cells, dependent on signaling induced by TGF-β3 and chondrocytes. This is a promising result and showed that HADSCs is a potential source for future microtia repair. The technique of co-culture is a positive way forward to assist the microtia tissue. OBJECTIVE: Reconstructive surgery for the repair of microtia still remains the greatest challenge among the surgeons...
November 30, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899639/histone-demethylase-phf8-promotes-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-breast-tumorigenesis
#12
Peng Shao, Qi Liu, Peterson Kariuki Maina, Jiayue Cui, Thomas B Bair, Tiandao Li, Shaikamjad Umesalma, Weizhou Zhang, Hank Heng Qi
Histone demethylase PHF8 is upregulated and plays oncogenic roles in various cancers; however, the mechanisms underlying its dysregulation and functions in carcinogenesis remain obscure. Here, we report the novel functions of PHF8 in EMT (epithelial to mesenchymal transition) and breast cancer development. Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed that PHF8 overexpression induces an EMT-like process, including the upregulation of SNAI1 and ZEB1. PHF8 demethylates H3K9me1, H3K9me2 and sustains H3K4me3 to prime the transcriptional activation of SNAI1 by TGF-β signaling...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898984/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-signaling-cascade-induced-by-mechanical-stimulation-of-fluid-shear-stress-in-cultured-corneal-epithelial-cells
#13
Tsugiaki Utsunomiya, Akihiro Ishibazawa, Taiji Nagaoka, Kazuomi Hanada, Harumasa Yokota, Nobuhito Ishii, Akitoshi Yoshida
Purpose: Because blinking is regarded as mechanical stimulation of fluid shear stress on the corneal epithelial cells, we investigated the effects of fluid shear stress on cultured human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). Methods: The HCECs were exposed to shear stress (0, 1.2, 12 dyne/cm2) with the parallel-plate type of flow chamber. Wound healing, cellular proliferation, growth factor expression, TGF-β1 concentration in the culture supernatant, and phosphorylation of SMAD2 were investigated...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898661/methyl-cpg-binding-domain-3-inhibits-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells-via-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-signalling
#14
Min Xu, Junbo He, Jie Li, Wen Feng, Hailang Zhou, Hong Wei, Meng Zhou, Ying Lu, Jian Zeng, Wanxin Peng, Fengyi Du, Aihua Gong
BACKGROUND: Methyl-CpG-binding domain 3 (MBD3) is an aberrant expression in human malignancies. However, the role of MBD3 in pancreatic cancer progression remains to be clarified. In this study, we investigated the effects of MBD3 on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and the underlying mechanism in pancreatic cancer cells. METHODS: The abilities of migration and invasion were examined by transwell and BD Matrigel invasion assays. EMT and TGF-β/Smad signalling were evaluated...
November 29, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897418/suppression-of-muscle-wasting-by-the-plant-derived-compound-ursolic-acid-in-a-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
Rizhen Yu, Ji-An Chen, Jing Xu, Jin Cao, Yanlin Wang, Sandhya S Thomas, Zhaoyong Hu
BACKGROUND: Muscle wasting in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and other catabolic disorders contributes to morbidity and mortality, and there are no therapeutic interventions that regularly and safely block losses of muscle mass. We have obtained evidence that impaired IGF-1/insulin signalling and increases in glucocorticoids, myostatin and/or inflammatory cytokines that contribute to the development of muscle wasting in catabolic disorders by activating protein degradation. METHODS: Using in vitro and in vivo models of muscle wasting associated with CKD or dexamethasone administration, we measured protein synthesis and degradation and examined mechanisms by which ursolic acid, derived from plants, could block the loss of muscle mass stimulated by CKD or excessive levels of dexamethasone...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896635/discovery-and-initial-characterization-of-th9-cells-the-early-years
#16
REVIEW
Edgar Schmitt, Tobias Bopp
The launch of the Th1/Th2 concept represented a decisive breakthrough concerning our understanding of how very diverse immune reactions can be regulated by functionally different T helper subpopulations via the secretion of different panels of cytokines. In this context, IL-9 was identified to be produced by T helper cell lines in addition to Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5. Detailed analyses revealed that IL-9 production of mouse CD4(+) T helper cells was dependent on a combination of IL-2, IL-4, and TGF-β. Roughly a decade later, it was found that TGF-β can also induce the development of CD4(+) Treg cells...
November 28, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895621/immune-modulatory-effects-of-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-on-dendritic-cells-supporting-fetal-survival-in-murine-pregnancy
#17
Dominique Dauven, Stefanie Ehrentraut, Stefanie Langwisch, Ana Claudia Zenclussen, Anne Schumacher
Dendritic cells (DCs) are critically involved in the determination of immunity vs. tolerance. Hence, DCs are key regulators of immune responses either favoring or disfavoring fetal survival. Several factors were proposed to modulate DC phenotype and function during pregnancy. Here, we studied whether the pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is involved in DC regulation. In vitro, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were stimulated in the presence or absence of urine-purified or recombinant hCG (rhCG) preparations...
2016: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895397/th17-involvement-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-progression-to-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#18
REVIEW
Carla Melisa Chackelevicius, Sabrina Eliana Gambaro, Claudio Tiribelli, Natalia Rosso
The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD encompasses a wide histological spectrum ranging from benign simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Sustained inflammation in the liver is critical in this process. Hepatic macrophages, including liver resident macropaghes (Kupffer cells), monocytes infiltrating the injured liver, as well as specific lymphocytes subsets play a pivotal role in the initiation and perpetuation of the inflammatory response, with a major deleterious impact on the progression of fatty liver to fibrosis...
November 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895032/molecular-pathways-receptor-ectodomain-shedding-in-treatment-resistance-and-monitoring-of-cancer
#19
Miles A Miller, Ryan J Sullivan, Douglas A Lauffenburger
Proteases known as sheddases cleave the extracellular domains of their substrates from the cell surface. The A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17 are among the most prominent sheddases, being widely expressed in many tissues, frequently over-expressed in cancer, and promiscuously cleaving diverse substrates. It is increasingly clear that the proteolytic shedding of transmembrane receptors impacts pathophysiology and drug response. Receptor substrates of sheddases include the cytokine receptors TNFR1 and IL-6R; the Notch receptors; type-I and -III TGF-β receptors; receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) such as HER2, HER4, and VEGFR2; and in particular, MET and TAM-family RTKs AXL and Mer (MerTK)...
November 28, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894619/expression-of-pro-fibrotic-and-anti-fibrotic-molecules-in-dimethylnitrosamine-induced-hepatic-fibrosis
#20
Roberta Sferra, Antonella Vetuschi, Simona Pompili, Eugenio Gaudio, Silvia Speca, Giovanni Latella
BACKGROUND: Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by a progressive accumulation of fibrillar extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, produced by activated myofibroblasts which are modulated by both profibrotic and antifibrotic factors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vivo the expression of pro-fibrotic molecules like avβ6 integrin, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), Smad3, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR), as well as anti-fibrotic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) in an experimental model of chronic hepatitis-associated fibrosis induced by intraperitoneal administration of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in mice...
November 11, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
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