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Mona Mohammed Moussa, Noha Said Helal, Mohieldin Magdy Youssef
Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a major public health problem, especially in Egypt. Risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development increases as hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver diseases progress. Smads act as substrates for the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) family of receptors. This study aims to assess hepatic expression of pSmad2/3 and Smad4 in CHC with different stages of fibrosis and grades of necro-inflammation as well as in HCC on top of CHC. This study was done on 33 core liver biopsies from patients with CHC (15 with early fibrosis and 18 with late fibrosis), 15 liver specimens from HCC cases on top of CHC, as well as five normal controls...
June 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Farshid Yekani, Mahnaz Azarnia, Fereshteh Esfandiari, Seyedeh-Nafiseh Hassani, Hossein Baharvand
Optimization of an in vitro culture that supports blastocyst (BL) development from single blastomeres (SBs) is essential to generate additional embryos for farm animals and humans and unravel the mechanisms that underlie totipotency. In this study, we have examined BL development from SBs that were derived from 2-cell and 4-cell mouse embryos in different media. Moreover, BLs were assessed for inner cell mass (ICM) by staining with Oct4. We found that BL development was improved in a lower volume of medium (1 µL) compared with a higher volume (5 µL)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Min Huang, Ya-Lin Cheng, Ji-Tao Zeng, Xiao-Ya Su, Hong Liu
Inhibin-α, a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF-β) superfamily, has been involved in bone turnover during the menopausal transition via endocrine effects, and it was previously reported that inhibins may antagonize the function of BMPs. Certainly, one of the most important functions of BMPs is to induce osteogenic differentiation. BMP9 as one of the most potent BMPs to induce osteogenic differentiation has gotten more and more attentions. Nonetheless, the effects of inhibin-α on osteogenesis remain unknown...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Yi-Fei Ji, Tao Li, Feng Jiang, Wen-Kai Ni, Cheng-Qi Guan, Zhao-Xiu Liu, Cui-Hua Lu, Run-Zhou Ni, Wei Wu, Ming-Bing Xiao
S100A11 as a S100 protein family member has been documented to play dual-direction regulation over cancer cell proliferation. We explored the role of S100A11 in the proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 and the potential mechanisms involving the TGF-β1 /SMAD4/p21 pathway. S100A11 and TGF-β1 protein expressions in 30 paraffin-embedded specimens were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. S100A11 and TGF-β1 expression in PANC-1 cell line was suppressed using small interfering RNA (siRNA), respectively...
June 19, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Yuxia Zhang, Jovana Maksimovic, Bing Huang, David Peter De Souza, Gaetano Naselli, Huan Chen, Li Zhang, Kai Weng, Hanquan Liang, Yanhui Xu, John M Wentworth, Nicholas D Huntington, Alicia Oshlack, Sitang Gong, Axel Kallies, Peter Vuillermin, Min Yang, Leonard C Harrison
How T cells differentiate in the neonate may critically determine the ability of the infant to cope with infections, respond to vaccines and avert allergies. Previously, we found that naïve cord blood CD4+ T cells differentiated toward an IL-4-expressing phenotype when activated in the presence of TGF-β and monocyte-derived inflammatory cytokines, the latter are more highly secreted by infants who developed food allergy. Here, we show that in the absence of IL-2 or IL-12, naïve cord blood CD8+ T cells have a natural propensity to differentiate into IL-4-producing non-classic TC 2 cells when they are activated alone, or in the presence of TGF-β and/or inflammatory cytokines...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Chih-Sheng Chiang, Jian-Yi Chen, Min-Yu Chiang, Kai-Ting Hou, Wei-Ming Li, Shwu-Jen Chang, San-Yuan Chen
Introduction: Stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes for the regeneration of articular cartilage is a promising strategy, but it is currently ineffective. Although both physical stimulation and growth factors play important roles in cartilage repair, their interplay remains unclear and requires further investigation. In this study, we aimed to clarify their contribution using a magnetic drug carrier that not only can deliver growth factors but also provide an external stimulation to cells in the two-dimensional environment...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Justin Zonneville, Alfiya Safina, Alexander M Truskinovsky, Carlos L Arteaga, Andrei V Bakin
BACKGROUND: The breast cancer microenvironment promotes tumor vascularization through the complex interactions involving tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs). Emerging data indicate that TAFs increase production and signaling by TGF-β cytokines, while the role of TGF-β signaling in the regulation of tumor blood vessels is not fully understood. The current study presents evidence that TAFs enhance the organization of tumor blood capillaries, and TGF-β signaling plays an important role in this response...
June 19, 2018: BMC Cancer
Wei Fang, Guizhen Wang, Luyan Tang, Huilin Su, Huyan Chen, Wanqing Liao, Jinhua Xu
Pressure ulcer formation depends on various factors among which repetitive ischaemia/reperfusion(I/R) injury plays a vital role. Molecular hydrogen (H2 ) was reported to have protective effects on I/R injuries of various internal organs. In this study, we investigated the effects of H2 inhalation on pressure ulcer and the underlying mechanisms. H2 inhalation significantly reduced wound area, 8-oxo-dG level (oxidative DNA damage) and cell apoptosis rates in skin lesions. H2 remarkably decreased ROS accumulation and enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities by up-regulating expression of Nrf2 and its downstream components in wound tissue and/or H2 O2 -treated endothelia...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Anute Pravitharangul, Srisurang Suttapreyasri, Chidchanok Leethanakul
The facial bones and long bones have distinct developmental origins, structures and cellular compositions. This study aimed to compare the in vitro responses of human mandible and long bone osteoblasts to low-magnitude, high-frequency (LMHF) mechanical vibration in terms of expression of mediators of bone remodeling. Osteoblast-like cell cultures were prepared from iliac crest and mandibular bone specimens from three individuals and cultured in osteogenic induction media. Induction of mature osteoblastic phenotypes was confirmed by analysis of DNA content, alkaline phosphatase activity and gene expression every 3 days for 27 days...
June 19, 2018: Cell Biology International
Jelena Patrnogic, Christa Heryanto, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster is an outstanding model to analyze the regulation of conserved signaling pathways. In this study, we examined whether signaling components in the Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) branch of the TGF-β signaling pathway are involved in the response to wounding caused by either sterile injury or infection by parasitic nematodes in D. melanogaster adult flies. We found that following sterile injury, the BMP pathway Type I receptor sax and intracellular transcription factor Mad were substantially upregulated...
June 16, 2018: Gene
Vicki M Chen, Rajani Shelke, Alexander Nyström, Nora Laver, James F Sampson, Cao Zhiyi, Najma Bhat, Noorjahan Panjwani
BACKGROUND: Absence of collagen VII causes blistering of the skin, eyes and many other tissues. This disease is termed dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB). Corneal fibrosis occurs in up to 41% and vision loss in up to 64% of patients. Standard treatments are supportive and there is no cure. The immune-histologic and morphologic changes in the corneas of the mouse model for this disease have not been described in the literature. Our purpose is to characterize the eyes of these mice to determine if this is an appropriate model for study of human therapeutics...
June 16, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Chia-Yu Yang, Li-Li Chiu, Chih-Chi Chang, Huai-Chia Chuang, Tse-Hua Tan
Dual-specificity phosphatase (DUSP)14 (also known as MAP-kinase phosphatase 6) inhibits T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling and T-cell-mediated immune responses by inactivation of the TGF-β activated kinase 1 binding protein (TAB1)-TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) complex and ERK. DUSP14 phosphatase activity is induced by the E3 ligase TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF)2-mediated Lys63-linked ubiquitination. Here we report an interaction between DUSP14 and protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT)5 by proximity ligation assay; similarly, DUSP14 directly interacted with TAB1 but not TAK1...
June 19, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Ricardo da Silva Antunes, Mariana Babor, Chelsea Carpenter, Natalie Khalil, Mario Cortese, Alexander J Mentzer, Grégory Seumois, Christopher D Petro, Lisa A Purcell, Pandurangan Vijayanand, Shane Crotty, Bali Pulendran, Bjorn Peters, Alessandro Sette
In the mid-1990s, whole-cell (wP) pertussis vaccines were associated with local and systemic adverse events, which prompted their replacement with acellular (aP) vaccines in many high-income countries. In the past decade rates of pertussis disease have increased in children receiving only acellular pertussis vaccines. We compared the immune responses to acellular pertussis boosters in children who received their initial doses with either wP or aP vaccines using activation-induced marker (AIM) assays. Specifically, we examined pertussis-specific memory CD4+ T cell responses ex vivo, highlighting a Type 2/Th2 versus Type 1/Th1 and Th17 differential polarization as a function of childhood vaccination...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Sozaburo Ihara, Yoshihiro Hirata, Yohko Hikiba, Aya Yamashita, Mayo Tsuboi, Masahiro Hata, Mitsuru Konishi, Nobumi Suzuki, Kosuke Sakitani, Hiroto Kinoshita, Yoku Hayakawa, Hayato Nakagawa, Hideaki Ijichi, Keisuke Tateishi, Kazuhiko Koike
Background and Aims: Disturbance of intestinal homeostasis is associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and TGF-β signaling impairment in mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) causes murine colitis with goblet cell depletion. Here, we examined an organoid-MP co-culture system to study the role of MPs in intestinal epithelial differentiation and homeostasis. Methods: Intestinal organoids were co-cultured with lamina propria leukocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from CD11c-cre Tgfbr2fl/fl mice...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Shawna S Kim, Georgia Nikoloudaki, Mark Darling, Michael J Rieder, Douglas W Hamilton
Drug-induced gingival enlargement (DIGE) is a fibrotic condition associated with systemic administration of the anti-epileptic drug, phenytoin. We have previously demonstrated that periostin, which is transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) inducible gene, is upregulated in various fibrotic conditions including gingival enlargement associated with nifedipine. The objective of this study was to assess periostin expression in phenytoin-induced gingival enlargement (PIGE) tissues and to investigate the mechanisms underlying periostin expression...
June 19, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Qingtian Li, Fan Lei, Yi Tang, Jenny Szu-Chin Pan, Qiang Tong, Yuxiang Sun, David Sheikh-Hamad
Mitochondrial intracrines are extracellular signaling proteins, targeted to the mitochondria. The pathway for mitochondrial targeting of mitochondrial intracrines and actions in the mitochondria remains unknown. Megalin/LRP2 mediates the uptake of vitamins and proteins, and is critical for clearance of amyloid-β protein from the brain. Megalin mutations underlie the pathogenesis of Donnai-Barrow and Lowe syndromes, characterized by brain defects and kidney dysfunction; megalin was not previously known to reside in the mitochondria...
June 9, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Shou-Wu Lee, Han-Chung Lien, Chi-Chen Lin, Mei-Chin Wen, Chi-Sen Chang
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in the different stages of Barrett's esophagus (BE). Methods: Paired endoscopic esophageal biopsy samples were obtained from patients with BE prospectively. Subjects were classified into three groups: BE, BE with dysplasia, and adenocarcinoma (AC) arising from BE. Biopsy specimens over normal esophageal epithelium and gastric cardiac epithelium of limited cases were done...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Maryam Mohammadian, Hamid Reza Sadeghipour, Gila Pirzad Jahromi, Mahvash Jafari, Amir Kavian Nejad, Safoura Khamse, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
INTRODUCTION: The effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and simvastatin combination therapy on serum total and specific IgE levels and lung IL-13 and TGF-β levels in sensitized mouse were examined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Control (n = 5), Sensitized (S), (n = 5), S + BMSC (n = 6), S + simvastatin (n = 6) and S + BMSC + simvastatin (n = 4) groups of BALB/c mice were studied. Mice were sensitized by ovalbumin...
June 15, 2018: Cytokine
S M Albarrak, W R Waters, J R Stabel, J M Hostetter
In the present study, we evaluated expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, TNF-α, IL-10 and TGF-β by mucosal cells, including WC1+ γδ T cells, in ileal tissues taken from non-infected cattle and cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP). Infected cattle were either in the subclinical or clinical stage of infection. We hypothesized that the cytokine profile of the WC1+ γδ T cell subset would be different between subclinical and clinical cattle. Our data indicate a significant increase in the numbers of WC1+ γδ T cells expressing IL-10 in clinical cattle compared to subclinical and non-infected cattle...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Lu Xia, Yunhan Yang, Jialu Wang, Yuchao Jing, Qian Yang
BACKGROUND: Pig diarrhea causes high mortality and large economic losses in the swine industry. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes pig diarrhea, with 100% mortality in piglets less than 2 weeks old. No investigation has yet been made of the small intestine of piglets that survived infection by TGEV. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the impact of TGEV infection on the small intestine of recovered pigs. RESULTS: Histological analyses showed that TGEV infection led to villi atrophy, and reduced villous height and crypt depth...
June 19, 2018: Virology Journal
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