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Jipeng Fu, Su Zhang, Ran Pang, Yonglei Jia, Wenzhi Sun, Haifeng Li, Lihong Jiang, Chengyu Li
Infrared (IR) light-emitting materials have wide applications. However, variety and economical accesses to obtain IR materials and devices are still limited, because the IR-emitting materials are always suffering from two obstacles, namely, lower absorption and lower emission efficiency. In this work, using a modified high-temperature solid-state reaction an efficient short-wavelength IR luminescent material is successfully synthesized. On the basis of the excellent luminescent properties, a convenient IR light-emitting diode (LED) device is fabricated by combining the novel IR material with a commercial UV LED chip...
October 25, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Magdalena Zaborowska, Jonatan Tillander, Rickard Brånemark, Lars Hagberg, Peter Thomsen, Margarita Trobos
Staphylococci and enterococci account for most deep infections associated with bone-anchored percutaneous implants for amputation treatment. Implant-associated infections are difficult to treat; therefore, it is important to investigate if these infections have a biofilm origin and to determine the biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility to improve treatment strategies. The aims were: (i) to test a novel combination of the Calgary biofilm device and a custom-made susceptibility MIC plate (Sensititre(®) ), (ii) to determine the biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates causing implant-associated osteomyelitis, and (iii) to describe the associated clinical outcome...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Huanli Dong, Wenping Hu
Conjugated polymers have attracted the world's attentions since their discovery due to their great promise for optoelectronic devices. However, the fundamental understanding of charge transport in conjugated polymers remains far from clear. The origin of this challenge is the natural disorder of polymers with complex molecular structures in the solid state. Moreover, an effective way to examine the intrinsic properties of conjugated polymers is absent. Optoelectronic devices are always based on spin-coated films...
October 25, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
A Zechner, M Stock, D Kellner, I Ziegler, P Keuschnigg, P Huber, U Mayer, F Sedlmayer, H Deutschmann, P Steininger
Image guidance during highly conformal radiotherapy requires accurate geometric calibration of the moving components of the imager. Due to limited manufacturing accuracy and gravity-induced flex, an x-ray imager's deviation from the nominal geometrical definition has to be corrected for. For this purpose a ball bearing phantom applicable for nine degrees of freedom (9-DOF) calibration of a novel cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanner was designed and validated. In order to ensure accurate automated marker detection, as many uniformly distributed markers as possible should be used with a minimum projected inter-marker distance of 10 mm...
November 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Mariam S Aboian, Jay F Yu, Ayushi Gautam, Chia-Hung Sze, Jeffrey K Yang, Jonathan Chan, Prasheel V Lillaney, Caroline D Jordan, Hee-Jeung Oh, David M Wilson, Anand S Patel, Mark W Wilson, Steven W Hetts
To report a novel method using immobilized DNA within mesh to sequester drugs that have intrinsic DNA binding characteristics directly from flowing blood. DNA binding experiments were carried out in vitro with doxorubicin in saline (PBS solution), porcine serum, and porcine blood. Genomic DNA was used to identify the concentration of DNA that shows optimum binding clearance of doxorubicin from solution. Doxorubicin binding kinetics by DNA enclosed within porous mesh bags was evaluated. Flow model simulating blood flow in the inferior vena cava was used to determine in vitro binding kinetics between doxorubicin and DNA...
December 2016: Biomedical Microdevices
Vandrangi Suresh, Jheng-Cyuan Lin, Heng-Jui Liu, Zaoli Zhang, Ping-Chih Chiang, Yu-Ching Hsun, Yi-Chun Chen, Jiunn-Yuan Lin, Ying-Hao Chu
The competition between superconductivity and ferromagnetism poses great challenges and has attracted renewed interest for applications in novel spintronic devices. In order to emphasize their interactions, we fabricated a heterostructure composed of superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) film embedded with itinerant ferromagnetic SrRuO3 (SRO) mesocrystals. Starting from a doping concentration of 10 vol% of SRO mesocrystal in a YBCO matrix, corresponding to the density of SRO nanocrystals ∼5 × 10(9) cm(-2), which exhibits the typical characteristic of a metal-superconductor transition, and then increasing the magnetic interactions as a function of SRO embedment, the electronic correlation and the interplay between superconductivity and magnetism throughout the temperature regime were investigated...
October 25, 2016: Nanoscale
Ilana Shtein, Rivka Elbaum, Benny Bar-On
To enhance the distribution of their seeds, plants often utilize hygroscopic deformations that actuate dispersal mechanisms. Such movements are based on desiccation-induced shrinkage of tissues in predefined directions. The basic hygroscopic deformations are typically actuated by a bi-layer configuration, in which shrinking of an active tissue layer is resisted by a stiff layer, generating a set of basic movements including bending, coiling, and twisting. In this study, we investigate a new type of functionally graded hygroscopic movement in the fruit (capsule) of sesame (Sesamum indicum L...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Alvaro G Perez, Daniel Lobo, Francesco Chinello, Gabriel Cirio, Monica Malvezzi, Jose San Martin, Domenico Prattichizzo, Miguel A Otaduy
Novel wearable tactile interfaces offer the possibility to simulate tactile interactions with virtual environments directly on our skin. But, unlike kinesthetic interfaces, for which haptic rendering is a well explored problem, they pose new questions about the formulation of the rendering problem. In this work, we propose a formulation of tactile rendering as an optimization problem, which is general for a large family of tactile interfaces. Based on an accurate simulation of contact between a finger model and the virtual environment, we pose tactile rendering as the optimization of the device configuration, such that the contact surface between the device and the actual finger matches as close as possible the contact surface in the virtual environment...
October 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Qifan Zhou, Hai Zhang, Zahra Lari, Zhenbo Liu, Naser El-Sheimy
Wearable electronic devices have experienced increasing development with the advances in the semiconductor industry and have received more attention during the last decades. This paper presents the development and implementation of a novel inertial sensor-based foot-mounted wearable electronic device for a brand new application: game playing. The main objective of the introduced system is to monitor and identify the human foot stepping direction in real time, and coordinate these motions to control the player operation in games...
October 21, 2016: Sensors
Marta Franceschi, Lucia Seminara, Strahinja Dosen, Matjia Strbac, Maurizio Valle, Dario Farina
Myoelectric prostheses are successfully controlled using muscle electrical activity, thereby restoring lost motor functions. However, the somatosensory feedback from the prosthesis to the user is still missing. The sensory substitution methods described in the literature comprise mostly simple position and force sensors combined with discrete stimulation units. The present study describes a novel system for sophisticated electrotactile feedback integrating advanced distributed sensing (electronic skin) and stimulation (matrix electrodes)...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Eugene Peter Magennis, Andrew L Hook, Paul Williams, Morgan Russell Alexander
Biomedical devices are indispensable in modern medicine yet offer surfaces that promote bacterial attachment and biofilm formation resulting in chronic healthcare-associated infections. We have developed a simple method to graft acrylates to silicone rubber, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a commonly used device material that is often colonized by bacteria. We demonstrate a novel method whereby non-toxic bacteria attachment resistant polymers can be readily grafted-from and grafted-to the surface using thiol-ene chemistry, substantially reducing bacterial colonization...
October 24, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yan Qu, Qiu Gen Zhang, Faizal Soyekwo, Run Sheng Gao, Rui Xue Lv, Chen Xiao Lin, Meng Meng Chen, Ai Mei Zhu, Qing Lin Liu
Two-dimensional nanosheets of late show great promise as novel materials for size-selective separation membranes of high efficiency. Herein, we demonstrate a novel laminated nanofiltration membrane for fast water purification and organic solvent nanofiltration using the 1 nm-thick and 50 nm-wide nickel hydroxide nanosheets that are facilely prepared by a green chemistry method. The resulting membranes exhibit uniform and flectional two-dimensional laminated structure. With about 1 nm high laminated channels, they allow super-fast transport of water and organic solvents...
October 24, 2016: Nanoscale
Xinrong Lin, Maryam Salari, Leela Mohana Reddy Arava, Pulickel M Ajayan, Mark W Grinstaff
With the ongoing global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emission and dependence on oil, electrical energy storage (EES) devices such as Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors have become ubiquitous. Today, EES devices are entering the broader energy use arena and playing key roles in energy storage, transfer, and delivery within, for example, electric vehicles, large-scale grid storage, and sensors located in harsh environmental conditions, where performance at temperatures greater than 25 °C are required. The safety and high temperature durability are as critical or more so than other essential characteristics (e...
October 24, 2016: Chemical Society Reviews
Ayyanar Karuppasamy, Kesavan Stalindurai, Jia-De Peng, Kuo-Chuan Ho, Chennan Ramalingan
Reported herein are six novel metal free organic dyes such as PCA1-PCA3 and PCTA1-PCTA3 featuring fused heterocyclic structural motifs such as phenothiazine and alkylcarbazole. Photophysical/electrochemical properties and nanocrystalline TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cell performance of the same have been investigated. Electronic distribution within the molecules has been determined through a computational approach. The overall power conversion efficiencies of the devices with the utilization of dyes PCA1-PCA3 and PCTA1-PCTA3 as sensitizers ranges between 4...
October 24, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Guangjie Zhang, Qingliang Liao, Zheng Zhang, Qijie Liang, Yingli Zhao, Xin Zheng, Yue Zhang
A piezoelectric paper based on BaTiO3 (BTO) nanoparticles and bacterial cellulose (BC) with excellent output properties for application of nanogenerators (NGs) is reported. A facile and scalable vacuum filtration method is used to fabricate the piezoelectric paper. The BTO/BC piezoelectric paper based NG shows outstanding output performance with open-circuit voltage of 14 V and short-circuit current density of 190 nA cm(-2). The maximum power density generated by this unique BTO/BC structure is more than ten times higher than BTO/polydimethylsiloxane structure...
February 2016: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Nicholas Brandmeir, Elena Nehrbass, James McInerney
INTRODUCTION:  Deep brain stimulator (DBS) infections are a persistent problem for patients undergoing this procedure. They may require further surgery, treatment with antibiotics, or even removal of the device. To date, no consensus exists on the best practices to avoid DBS infections or what factors predispose patients to an eventual infection. The goal of this study was to examine several patient factors for association with DBS infection. METHODS:  A single-center, single-surgeon quality improvement database was queried...
September 20, 2016: Curēus
Priya Muralidharan, Don Hayes, Stephen M Black, Heidi M Mansour
This systematic and comprehensive study reports for the first time on the successful rational design of advanced inhalable therapeutic dry powders containing dimethyl fumarate, a first-in-class Nrf2 activator drug to treat pulmonary inflammation, using particle engineering design technology for targeted delivery to the lungs as advanced spray dried (SD) one-component DPIs. In addition, two-component co-spray dried (co-SD) DMF:D-Man DPIs with high drug loading were successfully designed for targeted lung delivery as advanced DPIs using organic solution advanced spray drying in closed mode...
2016: Mol Syst Des Eng
Miguel Anaya, Juan P Correa-Baena, Gabriel Lozano, Michael Saliba, Pablo Anguita, Bart Roose, Antonio Abate, Ullrich Steiner, Michael Grätzel, Mauricio E Calvo, Anders Hagfeldt, Hernán Míguez
Organic-inorganic perovskite structures in which lead is substituted by tin are exceptional candidates for broadband light absorption. Herein we present a thorough analysis of the optical properties of CH3NH3Sn x Pb1-x I3 films, providing the field with definitive insights about the possibilities of these materials for perovskite solar cells of superior efficiency. We report a user's guide based on the first set of optical constants obtained for a series of tin/lead perovskite films, which was only possible to measure due to the preparation of optical quality thin layers...
August 7, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
M Venkataravanappa, H Nagabhushana, B Daruka Prasad, G P Darshan, R B Basavaraj, G R Vijayakumar
A novel Sr2SiO4:Eu (1-5mol %) superstructures (SS) were synthesized using bio-sacrificial A.V. gel assisted ultrasound method. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of both α and β phase formation. It was evident that the morphological growth was highly reliant on A.V. gel concentration, sonication time, pH and sonication power. The formation mechanisms for different hierarchical SS were proposed. From diffuse reflectance spectra, the energy band gap was estimated and found to be ∼4.70-5...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Chaoqun Wu, Linghao Liu, Kai Tang, Tao Chen
Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is promising as an energy conversion device for the replacement of conventional chemical cell in future, owing to its convenient fuel storage, high energy density and low working temperature. The development of DMFC technology is currently limited by catalyst poison and methanol crossover. To alleviate the methanol crossover, a novel fuel supply system based on ultrasonic atomization is proposed. Experimental investigations on this fuel supply system to evaluate methanol permeation rates, open circuit voltages (OCVs) and polarization curves under a series of conditions have been carried out and reported in this paper...
January 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
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