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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161525/sea-cucumber-lipid-soluble-extra-fraction-prevents-ovalbumin-induced-allergic-airway-inflammation
#1
Da-In Lee, Shin Ae Kang, Anisuzzaman Md, U-Cheol Jeong, Feng Jin, Seok-Joong Kang, Jeong-Yeol Lee, Hak Sun Yu
In a previous study, our research group demonstrated that sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) extracts ameliorated allergic airway inflammation through CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T (regulatory T; Treg) cell activation and recruitment to the lung. In this study, we aimed to determine which components of sea cucumber contribute to the amelioration of airway inflammation. We used n-hexane fractionation to separate sea cucumber into three phases (n-hexane, alcohol, and solid) and evaluated the ability of each phase to elevate Il10 expression in splenocytes and ameliorate symptoms in mice with ovalbumin (OVA)/alum-induced asthma...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161463/the-il-21-mtor-axis-blocks-treg-differentiation-and-function-by-suppression-of-autophagy-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#2
Hiroshi Kato, Andras Perl
OBJECTIVES: The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has become a therapeutic target in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). mTOR regulates normal T-cell lineage specification, including development of regulatory cells (Tregs). Therefore, we investigated whether mTOR is activated within Tregs and causes their depletion and dysfunction in patients with SLE. METHODS: Activities of mTOR complexes 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2) were examined by phosphorylation of 4E-BP1, S6K, and Akt, respectively, in SLE patients relative to healthy control females age-matched for each experiment...
November 21, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161313/biomarkers-and-echocardiography-for-evaluating-the-improvement-of-the-ventricular-diastolic-function-after-surgical-relief-of-hydronephrosis
#3
Huei-Ming Yeh, Ting-Tse Lin, Chih-Fan Yeh, Ho-Shiang Huang, Sheng-Nan Chang, Jou-Wei Lin, Chia-Ti Tsai, Ling-Ping Lai, Yi-You Huang, Chun-Lin Chu
The pathophysiology of cardio-renal syndrome (CRS) is complex. Hydronephrosis caused by urolithiasis may cause cytokine release and lead to cardiac dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiac function changes observed in patients who received double J placement using feasible biomarkers and echocardiography. This was a prospective, single-center study. Eighty-seven patients who presented with acute unilateral hydronephrosis and received ureteroscope stone manipulation were enrolled. Echocardiography and cytokines were measured on the day of the operation and 24 hours after the procedure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161287/tgf-%C3%AE-contamination-of-purified-recombinant-gdf15
#4
Oddrun Elise Olsen, Anette Skjærvik, Berit Fladvad Størdal, Anders Sundan, Toril Holien
Purified recombinant proteins for use in biomedical research are invaluable to investigate protein function. However, purity varies in protein batches made in mammalian expression systems, such as CHO-cells or HEK293-cells. This study points to caution while investigating effects of proteins related to the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily. TGF-β itself is a very potent cytokine and has effects on cells in the femtomolar range. Thus, even very small amounts of contaminating TGF-β in purified protein batches may influence the experimental results given that receptors for TGF-β are present...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160629/chitosan-and-its-composites-properties-for-use-in-bone-substitution
#5
REVIEW
Marek Stępniewski, Jacek Martynkiewicz, Jerzy Gosk
For many years, research has been carried out on finding an ideal bone substitute. Chitosan (CTS) is a naturally occurring polysaccharide, obtained mainly from, inter alia, the shells of crustaceans. It is characterized by its high level of biocompatibility, biodegradability and antimicrobial properties as well as its support in the healing of wounds. Chitosan, due to its ability to form porous structures, can be used in the production of scaffolds used in the treatment of bone defects. There are numerous studies on the use of CTS in combination with other substances which aim to improve its biological and mechanical properties...
January 2017: Polimery W Medycynie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160134/surfactant-protein-a-nanobody-conjugated-liposomes-loaded-with-methylprednisolone-increase-lung-targeting-specificity-and-therapeutic-effect-for-acute-lung-injury
#6
Nan Li, Dong Weng, Shan-Mei Wang, Yuan Zhang, Shan-Shan Chen, Zhao-Fang Yin, Jiali Zhai, Judy Scoble, Charlotte C Williams, Tao Chen, Hui Qiu, Qin Wu, Meng-Meng Zhao, Li-Qin Lu, Xavier Mulet, Hui-Ping Li
The advent of nanomedicine requires novel delivery vehicles to actively target their site of action. Here, we demonstrate the development of lung-targeting drug-loaded liposomes and their efficacy, specificity and safety. Our study focuses on glucocorticoids methylprednisolone (MPS), a commonly used drug to treat lung injuries. The steroidal molecule was loaded into functionalized nano-sterically stabilized unilamellar liposomes (NSSLs). Targeting functionality was performed through conjugation of surfactant protein A (SPANb) nanobodies to form MPS-NSSLs-SPANb...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159429/phenolic-constituents-from-alisma-plantago-aquatica-linnaeus-and-their-anti-chronic-prostatitis-activity
#7
Ya-Sheng Huang, Qi-Qi Yu, Yin Chen, Min-Jie Cheng, Li-Ping Xie
BACKGROUND: The plant Alisma plantago-aquatica Linnaeus, which is widely distributed in southwest of China, is the main material of traditional Chinese medicine "Zexie". It was used as folk medicine for immune-modulation, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. Previous chemical studies on A. plantago-aquatica reported the identification of triterpenes, diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, steroids, alkaloids and phenolic acid. Terpenes and phenolic acid were regard as major secondary metabolites from this medicine plant...
November 21, 2017: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159203/varicella-zoster-virus-infected-cerebrovascular-cells-produce-a-proinflammatory-environment
#8
Dallas Jones, C Preston Neff, Brent E Palmer, Kurt Stenmark, Maria A Nagel
Objective: To test whether varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection of human brain vascular cells and of lung fibroblasts directly increases proinflammatory cytokine levels, consistent with VZV as a causative agent in intracerebral VZV vasculopathy and giant-cell arteritis (GCA). Methods: Conditioned supernatant from mock- and VZV-infected human brain vascular adventitial fibroblasts (HBVAFs), human perineurial cells (HPNCs), human brain vascular smooth muscle cells (HBVSMCs), and human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFLs) were collected at 72 hours postinfection and analyzed for levels of 30 proinflammatory cytokines using the Meso Scale Discovery Multiplex ELISA platform...
September 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158503/kr%C3%A3-pple-like-factor-4-attenuates-lung-fibrosis-via-inhibiting-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#9
Lianjun Lin, Qian Han, Yan Xiong, Ting Li, Zhonghui Liu, Huiying Xu, Yanping Wu, Nanping Wang, Xinmin Liu
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Krüpple-like-factor 4 (KLF4), has been suggested to play an important role in the phenotype transition. However, its function in pulmonary fibrosis and EMT of human alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the role of KLF4 in pulmonary fibrosis and EMT. Decreased expression of KLF4 was first observed in human IPF lung tissues and models of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158223/tgf-%C3%AE-induces-oncofetal-fibronectin-which-in-turn-modulates-tgf-%C3%AE-superfamily-signaling-in-endothelial-cells
#10
Elisa Ventura, Michael Weller, Will Macnair, Katja Eschbach, Christian Beisel, Cinzia Cordazzo, Manfred Claassen, Luciano Zardi, Isabel Burghardt
Gene splicing profiles are frequently altered in cancer, and the splice variants of fibronectin (FN) containing the extra-domains A (EDA) and B (EDB) referred to as EDA+FN and EDB+FN are highly up-regulated in tumor vasculature. TGF-β signaling has been attributed a pivotal role in glioblastoma, with TGF-β promoting angiogenesis and vessel remodeling. By immunohistochemical staining, we observed that the oncofetal FN isoforms EDA+FN and EDB+FN are expressed in glioblastoma vasculature. Ex vivo single cell gene expression profiling of patients' tumors using the markers CD31 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) respectively confirmed the predominant expression of FN, EDA+FN, and EDB+FN in the vascular compartment of glioblastoma...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158184/tgf-%C3%AE-mediated-upregulation-of-sox9-in-fibroblast-promotes-renal-fibrosis
#11
Huanan Li, Huimin Cai, Jia Deng, Xiaolong Tu, Yanyan Sun, Zhen Huang, Zhi Ding, Lei Dong, Jiangning Chen, Yuhui Zang, Junfeng Zhang
TGF-β signaling plays a principal role in renal fibrosis, but the precise mechanisms and the downstream factors are still largely unknown. Sox9 exhibits diverse roles in regulating the production of extracellular matrix proteins. Here we found that Sox9 was induced by TGF-β in the kidney fibroblast and acted as an important downstream mediator of TGF-β signaling in promoting renal fibrosis. TGF-β/Smad signaling mediated the upregulation of Sox9 in kidney fibroblast by binding to a conserved enhancer. In different mouse models of renal fibrosis, as well as in the kidney biopsy tissue from patients with renal fibrosis, Sox9 expression significantly increased...
November 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158053/transforming-growth-factor-beta1-promotes-articular-cartilage-repair-through-canonical-smad-and-hippo-pathways-in-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Jun Ying, Pinger Wang, Shanxing Zhang, Taotao Xu, Lei Zhang, Rui Dong, Shibing Xu, Peijian Tong, Chengliang Wu, Hongting Jin
AIMS: Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a chondrogenic factor and has been reported to be able to enhance chondrocyte differentiation from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Here we investigate the molecular mechanism through which TGF-β1 chronically promotes the repair of cartilage defect and inhibit chondrocyte hypertrophy. MAIN METHODS: Animal models of full thickness cartilage defects were divided into three groups: model group, BMSCs group (treated with BMSCs/calcium alginate gel) and BMSCs+TGF-β1 group (treated with Lentivirus-TGF-β1-EGFP transduced BMSCs/calcium alginate gel)...
November 17, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158052/baicalin-attenuates-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-suppressing-key-regulators-of-lipid-metabolism-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-mice
#13
Junli Zhang, Haiming Zhang, Xiaoling Deng, Ning Zhang, Beibei Liu, Shengliang Xin, Guixin Li, Keshu Xu
AIMS: Baicalin (BA), an active flavonoid compound originating from the herb of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been previously shown to exert anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant effects in liver diseases. However, the potential role of BA in the regulation of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains elusive. In this study, we newly explored the hepatoprotective effects of BA in MCD diet-induced NASH by ameliorating hepatic steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis and apoptosis. MAIN METHODS: NASH was induced in mice fed a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 4weeks...
November 17, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157917/the-mediator-complex-in-genomic-and-non-genomic-signaling-in-cancer
#14
Hannah Weber, Michael J Garabedian
Mediator is a conserved, multi-subunit macromolecular machine divided structurally into head, middle, and tail modules, along with a transiently associating kinase module. Mediator functions as an integrator of transcriptional regulatory activity by interacting with DNA-bound transcription factors and with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to both activate and repress gene expression. Mediator has been shown to affect multiple steps in transcription, including chromatin looping between enhancers and promoters, pre-initiation complex formation, transcriptional elongation, and mRNA splicing...
November 17, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157821/poricoic-acid-za-a-novel-ras-inhibitor-attenuates-tubulo-interstitial-fibrosis-and-podocyte-injury-by-inhibiting-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-signaling-pathway
#15
Ming Wang, Dan-Qian Chen, Min-Chang Wang, Hua Chen, Lin Chen, Dan Liu, Hui Zhao, Ying-Yong Zhao
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosisis was characterized by cellular hypertrophy, extracellular matrix accumulation and podocyte detachment. Poricoic acid ZA (PZA) is a tetracyclic triterpenoid compound extracted from the surface layer of Poria cocos (LPC), which have been used extensively for diuretic and renoprotective effects. METHODS: The anti-fibrotic effect of PZA is investigated in HK-2 cells and podocytes induced by TGF-β1 and angiotensin II (ANGII)...
December 1, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157747/multiplex-proximity-ligation-assay-to-identify-potential-prognostic-biomarkers-for-improved-survival-in-locally-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-patients-treated-with-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy
#16
Avani D Rao, Yufei Liu, Rie von Eyben, Charles C Hsu, Chen Hu, Lauren M Rosati, Arti Parekh, Kendall Ng, Amy Hacker-Prietz, Lei Zheng, Timothy M Pawlik, Daniel A Laheru, Elizabeth M Jaffee, Matthew J Weiss, Dung T Le, Ralph H Hruban, Ana De Jesus-Acosta, Christopher L Wolfgang, Amol K Narang, Daniel T Chang, Albert C Koong, Joseph M Herman
PURPOSE: To explore seromarker levels for associations with outcomes in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) patients who received chemotherapy and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Serum from LAPC patients in 2 prospective trials of hypofractionated SBRT (5-6.6 Gy × 5) was collected before SBRT. Proximity ligation assay quantified the expression levels of 36 pancreatic cancer-specific candidate seromarkers: Axl, BMP2, CA 125, CA 19-9, CEA, CXCL-1/6/9/10, EGFR, Gas6, Her2, IGF-2, IGFBP-2/3/7, IL-6/6Ra/7/8/12, mesothelin, MMP-1/2/3/7, osteopontin, PDGFRa, PDK1, PF4, RegIV, SPARC, TGF-β, VEGF-A/D, and YKL40...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157299/the-similarities-between-smdcs-and-regdcs-in-alleviating-the-immune-injury-caused-by-transplantation-of-hepatocytes-differentiated-from-escs
#17
Cheng Zhang, Wenwei Liao, Bing Cai, Furong Liu, Qiong Ke, Xiaofeng Zhu, Xiaoshun He, Anbin Hu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the tolerogenic mechanisms induced by semimature dendritic cells (smDCs) and regulatory dendritic cells (regDCs) after transplantation of hepatocytes differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and to confirm the low immunogenicity of hepatocytes differentiated from ESCs. METHODS: Green fluorescent protein-labeled ESCs collected from 129 mice were cultured to differentiate into hepatocytes. smDCs and regDCs were cultured in vitro...
November 21, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157270/autologous-platelet-rich-plasma-induces-bone-formation-of-tissue-engineered-bone-with-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-beta-tricalcium-phosphate-ceramics
#18
Tengbo Yu, Huazheng Pan, Yanling Hu, Hao Tao, Kai Wang, Chengdong Zhang
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study is to investigate whether autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can serve as bone-inducing factors to provide osteoinduction and improve bone regeneration for tissue-engineered bones fabricated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics. The current study will give more insight into the contradictory osteogenic capacity of PRP. METHODS: The concentration of platelets, platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were measured in PRP and whole blood...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156811/fcgbp-was-upregulated-by-hpv-infection-and-correlated-to-longer-survival-time-of-hnscc-patients
#19
Yating Wang, Yan Liu, Huiqiao Liu, Qingan Zhang, Hongyan Song, Jianliang Tang, Jiangtao Fu, Xiaofei Wang
FcGBP was normally found in intestinal and colonic epithelia, gallbladder, cystic duct, bronchus, submandibular gland, cervix uteri and in fluids secreted by these cells in humans, and was down-regulated during colon carcinogenesis. We found FcGBP gene expression was decreased in HNSCC tissues compared to surgical safety border tissues while TGF-β expression level increased in HNSCC tissues, and higher FcGBP expression level was correlated to longer OS time of HNSCC patients. FcGBP expression level was higher in HPV-positive HNSCC tissues compared to HPV-negative HNSCC tissues, while TGF-β expression level was lower in HPV-positive HNSCC tissues...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156807/halofuginone-inhibits-tgf-%C3%AE-bmp-signaling-and-in-combination-with-zoledronic-acid-enhances-inhibition-of-breast-cancer-bone-metastasis
#20
Patricia Juárez, Pierrick G J Fournier, Khalid S Mohammad, Ryan C McKenna, Holly W Davis, Xiang H Peng, Maria Niewolna, Alain Mauviel, John M Chirgwin, Theresa A Guise
More efficient therapies that target multiple molecular mechanisms are needed for the treatment of incurable bone metastases. Halofuginone is a plant alkaloid-derivative with antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects. Here we demonstrate that halofuginone is an effective therapy for the treatment of bone metastases, through multiple actions that include inhibition of TGFβ and BMP-signaling. Halofuginone blocked TGF-β-signaling in MDA-MB-231 and PC3 cells showed by inhibition of TGF-β-induced Smad-reporter, phosphorylation of Smad-proteins, and expression of TGF-β-regulated metastatic genes...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
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