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Water electrolyte physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008081/thermotolerance-and-heat-stress-responses-of-douglas-fir-and-ponderosa-pine-seedling-populations-from-contrasting-climates
#1
Danielle E Marias, Frederick C Meinzer, David R Woodruff, Katherine A McCulloh
Temperature and the frequency and intensity of heat waves are predicted to increase throughout the 21st century. Germinant seedlings are expected to be particularly vulnerable to heat stress because they are in the boundary layer close to the soil surface where intense heating occurs in open habitats. We quantified leaf thermotolerance and whole-plant physiological responses to heat stress in first-year germinant seedlings in two populations each of Pinus ponderosa P. and C. Lawson (PIPO) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb...
December 21, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999588/divergent-regulation-of-cbf-regulon-on-cold-tolerance-and-plant-phenotype-in-cassava-overexpressing-arabidopsis-cbf3-gene
#2
Dong An, Qiuxiang Ma, Wei Yan, Wenzhi Zhou, Guanghua Liu, Peng Zhang
Cassava is a tropical origin plant that is sensitive to chilling stress. In order to understand the CBF cold response pathway, a well-recognized regulatory mechanism in temperate plants, in cassava, overexpression of an Arabidopsis CBF3 gene is studied. This gene renders cassava increasingly tolerant to cold and drought stresses but is associated with retarded plant growth, leaf curling, reduced storage root yield, and reduced anthocyanin accumulation in a transcript abundance-dependent manner. Physiological analysis revealed that the transgenic cassava increased proline accumulation, reduced malondialdehyde production, and electrolyte leakage under cold stress...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925707/natural-mineral-bottled-waters-available-on-the-polish-market-as-a-source-of-minerals-for-the-consumers-part-2-the-intake-of-sodium-and-potassium
#3
Anna Gątarska, Joanna Ciborska, Elżbieta Tońska
Background: Natural mineral waters are purchased and consumed according to consumer preferences and possible recommendations. The choice of appropriate water should take into account not only the general level of mineralization but also the content of individual components, including electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. Sodium is necessary to ensure the proper physiological functions of the body. It is defined as a health risk factor only when its excessive intake occurs. Potassium acts antagonistically towards sodium and calcium ions, contributes to a reduction of the volume of extracellular fluids and at the same time reduces muscle tension and permeability of cell membranes...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915174/molecular-and-physiological-responses-of-iranian-perennial-ryegrass-as-affected-by-trinexapac-ethyl-paclobutrazol-and-abscisic-acid-under-drought-stress
#4
Mohammad Hossein Sheikh Mohammadi, Nematollah Etemadi, Mohammad Mehdi Arab, Mostafa Aalifar, Mostafa Arab, Mohammad Pessarakli
Drought stress is the major limiting factor which affects turfgrass management in area with restricted rainfall or irrigation water supply. Trinexapac ethyl (TE), Paclobutrazol (PAC) and Abscisic acid (ABA) are three plant growth regulators (PGRs) that are commonly used on turf species for increasing their tolerance to different environmental stresses such as drought. However, little is known about the impact of PGRs on stress tolerance of Iranian Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The present study was conducted to examine the visual and physiological changes of Iranian Perennial ryegrass in response to foliar application of TE, PAC, and ABA under drought stress conditions...
November 27, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899683/validation-of-an-integrative-mathematical-model-of-dehydration-and-rehydration-in-virtual-humans
#5
W Andrew Pruett, John S Clemmer, Robert L Hester
Water homeostasis is one of the body's most critical tasks. Physical challenges to the body, including exercise and surgery, almost always coordinate with some change in water handling reflecting the changing needs of the body. Vasopressin is the most important hormone that contributes to short-term water homeostasis. By manipulating vascular tone and regulating water reabsorption in the collecting duct of the kidneys, vasopressin can mediate the retention or loss of fluids quickly. In this study, we validated HumMod, an integrative mathematical model of human physiology, against six different challenges to water homeostasis with special attention to the secretion of vasopressin and maintenance of electrolyte balance...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881286/renal-adaptive-changes-and-sodium-handling-in-the-fetal-to-newborn-transition
#6
REVIEW
Jeffrey L Segar
Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management is critical for optimal care of very low birth weight or sick infants. Delivery of such care requires an understanding of developmental changes in renal water and salt handling that occur with advancing gestational age as well as postnatal age. This review focuses on the principles of sodium homeostasis during fetal and postnatal life. The physiology of renal tubular transport mechanisms, as well as neurohumoral factors impacting renal tubular transport are highlighted...
November 20, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846990/characterization-of-conformers-and-dimers-of-antithrombin-by-capillary-electrophoresis-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#7
Anne-Lise Marie, Elena Dominguez-Vega, François Saller, Jean-Luc Plantier, Rémi Urbain, Delphine Borgel, N Thuy Tran, Govert W Somsen, Myriam Taverna
Antithrombin (AT) is a plasma glycoprotein which possesses anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. AT exhibits various forms, among which are native, latent and heterodimeric ones. We studied the potential of capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) using a sheath liquid interface, electrospray ionization (ESI), and a quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer to separate and quantify the different AT forms. For CE separation, a neutral polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) coated capillary was employed...
December 1, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789672/promoter-cpg-island-methylation-in-ion-transport-mechanisms-and-associated-dietary-intakes-jointly-influence-the-risk-of-clear-cell-renal-cell-cancer
#8
Ivette A G Deckers, Manon van Engeland, Piet A van den Brandt, Leander Van Neste, Patricia M M B Soetekouw, Maureen J B Aarts, Marcella M L L Baldewijns, András P Keszei, Leo J Schouten
BACKGROUND: Sodium intake, but not potassium or fluid intake, has been associated with higher renal cell cancer (RCC) risk. However, risk factors may differ by molecular subtypes of the tumour. In renal physiology, electrolyte and water homeostasis is facilitated by ion transport mechanisms (ITM). Aberrant regulation of ITM genes, for example by promoter CpG island methylation, may modify associations between sodium, potassium and fluid intake and RCC risk. METHODS: We identified ARHGDIG, ATP1A1, SCNN1B and SLC8A3 as ITM genes exhibiting RCC-specific promoter methylation and down-regulation...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786320/dynamic-behaviour-of-the-silica-water-bio-electrical-double-layer-in-the-presence-of-a-divalent-electrolyte
#9
B M Lowe, Y Maekawa, Y Shibuta, T Sakata, C-K Skylaris, N G Green
Electronic devices are becoming increasingly used in chemical- and bio-sensing applications and therefore understanding the silica-electrolyte interface at the atomic scale is becoming increasingly important. For example, field-effect biosensors (BioFETs) operate by measuring perturbations in the electric field produced by the electrical double layer due to biomolecules binding on the surface. In this paper, explicit-solvent atomistic calculations of this electric field are presented and the structure and dynamics of the interface are investigated in different ionic strengths using molecular dynamics simulations...
October 27, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780935/incidence-and-physiological-mechanism-of-carboplatin-induced-electrolyte-abnormality-among-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#10
Yushui Ma, Likun Hou, Fei Yu, Xiaoming Zhong, Gaixia Lu, Shanshan Qin, Ruting Xie, Huiqiong Yang, Tingmiao Wu, Pei Luo, Chengyou Jia, Li Chai, Haidong Cai, Zhongwei Lv, Chunyan Wu, Da Fu
To clarify the association between carboplatin and electrolyte abnormality, a pooled-analysis was performed with the adverse event reports of non-small cell lung cancer patients. A total of 19901 adverse events were retrieved from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Pooled reporting odds ratios (RORs) and 95% CIs suggested that carboplatin was significantly associated with hyponatremia (pooled ROR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.18-2.09, P = 1.99×10-3) and hypokalemia (pooled ROR = 2.37, 95% CI 1.80-3.10, P = 5...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754289/br-08-1-high-sodium-intake-reduction-in-diabetes-with-hypertension
#11
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754186/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#12
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721134/medicago-truncatula-genotypes-jemalong-a17-and-r108-show-contrasting-variations-under-drought-stress
#13
Shi-Shuai Luo, Yan-Ni Sun, Xue Zhou, Tong Zhu, Li-Sha Zhu, Muhammad Arfan, Li-Juan Zou, Hong-Hui Lin
Drought is one of the most significant abiotic stresses that restrict crop productivity. Medicago truncatula is a model legume species with a wide genetic diversity. We compared the differential physiological and molecular changes of two genotypes of M. truncatula (Jemalong A17 and R108) in response to progressive drought stress and rewatering. The MtNCED and MtZEP activation and higher abscisic acid (ABA) content was observed in Jemalong A17 plants under normal conditions. Additionally, a greater increase in ABA content and expression of MtNCED and MtZEP in Jemalong A17 plants than that of R108 plants were observed under drought conditions...
December 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660825/survival-rate-and-hematological-responses-with-temperature-changes-of-red-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-akaara-in-south-korea
#14
Jong Youn Park, Kyeong Ho Han, Jae Kwon Cho, Kyong Min Kim, Maeng Hyun Son, Jae Min Park, Hee Woong Kang
The effect of sudden changes of water temperature (WT) on the survival rate and physiological responses of the red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) were examined by manipulating WT control system for 9 days. Experimental condition was divided in two different regimes at low (from 10°C to 4°C, decreased 1℃/d) and high (from 28°C to 34°C, increased 1°C/d) WT. Survival rate of experimental fishes were observed, and determined the changes of hematological characteristics by analyzing plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, total protein, and electrolytes (Na(+), Cl-, K(+))...
June 2016: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643695/high-frequency-nanocapacitor-arrays-concept-recent-developments-and-outlook
#15
Serge G Lemay, Cecilia Laborde, Christophe Renault, Andrea Cossettini, Luca Selmi, Frans P Widdershoven
We have developed a measurement platform for performing high-frequency AC detection at nanoelectrodes. The system consists of 65 536 electrodes (diameter 180 nm) arranged in a sub-micrometer rectangular array. The electrodes are actuated at frequencies up to 50 MHz, and the resulting AC current response at each separately addressable electrode is measured in real time. These capabilities are made possible by fabricating the electrodes on a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chip together with the associated control and readout electronics, thus minimizing parasitic capacitance and maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643287/br-08-1-high-sodium-intake-reduction-in-diabetes-with-hypertension
#16
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643143/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#17
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598420/water-balance-and-salt-wasting-in-the-first-year-of-life-the-role-of-aldosterone-signaling-defects
#18
Carla Bizzarri, Stefania Pedicelli, Marco Cappa, Stefano Cianfarani
In newborns and infants, dehydration and salt wasting represent a relatively common cause of admission to hospital and may result in life-threatening complications. Kidneys are responsible for electrolyte homoeostasis, but neonatal kidneys show low glomerular filtration rate and immaturity of the distal nephron, leading to reduced ability to concentrate urine. High extrarenal fluid losses often contribute to the increased occurrence of electrolyte disorders. Aldosterone is essential for sodium retention in the kidney, salivary glands, sweat glands and colon...
2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590096/assessing-acid-base-status-physiologic-versus-physicochemical-approach
#19
Horacio J Adrogué, Nicolaos E Madias
The physiologic approach has long been used in assessing acid-base status. This approach considers acids as hydrogen ion donors and bases as hydrogen ion acceptors and the acid-base status of the organism as reflecting the interaction of net hydrogen ion balance with body buffers. In the physiologic approach, the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer pair is used for assessing acid-base status and blood pH is determined by carbonic acid (ie, Paco2) and serum bicarbonate levels. More recently, the physicochemical approach was introduced, which has gained popularity, particularly among intensivists and anesthesiologists...
November 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568020/measurement-of-lean-body-mass-using-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-a-consideration-of-the-pros-and-cons
#20
Giuseppe Sergi, Marina De Rui, Brendon Stubbs, Nicola Veronese, Enzo Manzato
The assessment of body composition has important applications in the evaluation of nutritional status and estimating potential health risks. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a valid method for the assessment of body composition. BIA is an alternative to more invasive and expensive methods like dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Bioelectrical impedance analysis is an easy-to-use and low-cost method for the estimation of fat-free mass (FFM) in physiological and pathological conditions...
August 27, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
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