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Water electrolyte physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913500/neuroendocrine-stress-response-implications-for-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#1
REVIEW
J Mauricio Del Rio, Alina Nicoara, Madhav Swaminathan
Surgical stress causes biochemical and physiologic perturbations of every homeostatic axis. These alterations include volume/baroreceptor regulation, sympathetic activation, parasympathetic suppression, neuroendocrine activation, acute phase response protein synthesis and secretion, immune response modulation and long-term behavioral adaptation. The kidney is central to the stress response because of its main role in the maintenance of water, electrolyte balance and hence, intracellular and extracellular compartments, including the intravascular volume...
April 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900731/selenium-mitigates-cadmium-induced-oxidative-stress-in-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-l-plants-by-modulating-chlorophyll-fluorescence-osmolyte-accumulation-and-antioxidant-system
#2
Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Mohammad Abass Ahanger, Leonard Wijaya, Pravej Alam, Renu Bhardwaj, Parvaiz Ahmad
Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the role of selenium in alleviating cadmium stress in Solanum lycopersicum seedlings. Cadmium (150 mg L(-1)) treatment caused a significant reduction in growth in terms of height and biomass accumulation and affected chlorophyll pigments, gas exchange parameters, and chlorophyll fluorescence. Selenium (10 μM) application mitigated the adverse effects of cadmium on growth, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, leaf relative water content, and other physiological attributes...
September 12, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861607/glomerular-and-tubular-effects-of-nitric-oxide-no-are-regulated-by-angiotensin-ii-ang-ii-in-an-age-dependent-manner-through-activation-of-both-angiotensin-receptors-at1rs-and-at2rs-in-conscious-lambs
#3
Angela E Vinturache, Francine G Smith
Renin-angiotensin (RAS) and nitric oxide (NO) systems and the balance and interaction between them are considered of primary importance in maintaining fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. It has been suggested that the effects of NO may be modulated at least in part by the angiotensin (Ang) II, yet the roles of angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) are not well understood. Even though both Ang II and NO are elevated at birth and during the newborn period, their contribution to the adaptation of the newborn to life after birth as well as their physiological roles during development are poorly understood...
August 31, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843889/physiological-and-antioxidant-responses-of-winter-wheat-cultivars-to-strigolactone-and-salicylic-acid-in-drought
#4
Mojde Sedaghat, Zeinolabedin Tahmasebi-Sarvestani, Yahya Emam, Ali Mokhtassi-Bidgoli
Strigolactones are considered as important regulators of plant growth and development. Recently positive regulatory influence of strigolactones in plant in response to drought and salt stress has been revealed. Salicylic acid, a phytohormone, has reported to be involved in a number of stress responses such as pathogen infection, UV irradiation, salinity and drought. Considering the concealed role of strigolactones in agronomic crops drought tolerance and possible interaction among salicylic acid and strigolactone, we investigated the effects of exogenous application of GR24 and salicylic acid on two winter wheat cultivars under drought conditions...
August 18, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843134/rdreb1bi-enhances-drought-tolerance-by-activating-aqp-related-genes-in-transgenic-strawberry
#5
Xianbin Gu, Zhihong Gao, Yichao Yan, Xiuyun Wang, Yushan Qiao, Yahua Chen
The dehydration-responsive element binding protein (DREB) family of transcription factors is associated with abiotic stress responses during plant growth and development. This study focussed on the subfamily member DREB1B, which was initially described as highly and specifically responsive to low temperature. However, here it is shown that DREB1B is not only involved in cold tolerance but also other abiotic stress tolerances, such as that of drought. To further understand the genetic improvement effects of the drought tolerance provided by RdreB1BI in transgenic strawberry, drought stress responses of transgenic plants were evaluated at the morphological, physiological, and transcriptional levels...
August 18, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797976/physiological-mechanisms-of-water-and-electrolyte-disturbances-following-transsphenoidal-pituitary-surgery
#6
Evan T Blair, John S Clemmer, H Louis Harkey, Robert L Hester, W Andrew Pruett
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in water and electrolyte homeostasis are common following transsphenoidal surgery. These disorders are variable and unpredictable, increasing patient risk and complicating postsurgical treatment. Clinically, it is generally accepted that damage to the pituitary is the etiology, but the mechanisms behind the response variability and underlying pathophysiology remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that changing the degree of damage to the pituitary stalk produces a spectrum of water and electrolyte disturbance along which all presentations of postsurgical water and electrolyte disturbances can be identified...
August 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794928/silicon-and-water-deficit-stress-differentially-modulate-physiology-and-ultrastructure-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#7
Ling Xu, Faisal Islam, Basharat Ali, Zengfei Pei, Juanjuan Li, Muhammad Awais Ghani, Weijun Zhou
Plants combat drought stress by coordinating various metabolic enzymes, and endogenous phytohormones, such as indole acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA). In the present study, 37-day-old wheat seedlings were subjected to the Hoagland solution with 20% PEG for 7 days (to create the artificial osmotic stress environment) in the greenhouse, and were supplemented with an optimized concentration (1.0 mM) of silicon (Si) to alleviate the negative effects of former stress on physiological, biochemical and phytohormones contents...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766715/hypertonic-nacl-versus-osmotic-stimuli-distinct-ovlt-neurones-can-sense-the-difference-to-control-sympathetic-outflow-and-blood-pressure
#8
V R Antunes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710950/citric-acid-assisted-phytoextraction-of-chromium-by-sunflower-morpho-physiological-and-biochemical-alterations-in-plants
#9
Mujahid Farid, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Qasim Ali, Farhat Abbas, Syed Asad Hussain Bukhari, Rashid Saeed, Longhua Wu
Soil and water contamination from heavy metals and metalloids is one of the most discussed and burning global issues due to its potential to cause the scarcity of healthy food and safe water. The scientific community is proposing a range of lab and field based physical, chemical and biological solutions to remedy metals and metalloids contaminated soils and water. The present study finds out a possibility of Chromium (Cr) extraction by sunflower from spiked soil under chelating role of citric acid (CA). The sunflower plants were grown under different concentrations of Cr (0, 5, 10 & 20mgkg(-1)) and CA (0, 2...
July 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710594/addressing-a-common-misconception-ammonium-acetate-as-neutral-ph-buffer-for-native-electrospray-mass-spectrometry
#10
Lars Konermann
Native ESI-MS involves the transfer of intact proteins and biomolecular complexes from solution into the gas phase. One potential pitfall is the occurrence of pH-induced changes that can affect the analyte while it is still surrounded by solvent. Most native ESI-MS studies employ neutral aqueous ammonium acetate solutions. It is a widely perpetuated misconception that ammonium acetate buffers the analyte solution at neutral pH. By definition, a buffer consists of a weak acid and its conjugate weak base. The buffering range covers the weak acid pKa ± 1 pH unit...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710130/dead-or-alive-using-membrane-failure-and-chlorophyll-a-fluorescence-to-predict-plant-mortality-from-drought
#11
Carmela R Guadagno, Brent E Ewers, Heather N Speckman, Timothy Llewellyn Aston, Bridger J Huhn, Stanley B DeVore, Joshua T Ladwig, Rachel N Strawn, Cynthia Weinig
Climate models predict widespread increases in both drought intensity and duration in the next decades. Although water deficiency is a significant determinant of plant survival, limited understanding of plant responses to extreme drought impedes forecasts of both forest and crop productivity under increasing aridity. Drought induces a suite of physiological responses; however, we lack an accurate mechanistic description of plant response to lethal drought that would improve predictive understanding of mortality under altered climate conditions...
September 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674542/physiological-mechanism-of-enhancing-salt-stress-tolerance-of-perennial-ryegrass-by-24-epibrassinolide
#12
Wenli Wu, Qiang Zhang, Erik H Ervin, Zhiping Yang, Xunzhong Zhang
Brassinosteroids (BR) regulate plant tolerance to salt stress but the mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. This study was to investigate physiological mechanisms of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR)'s impact on salt stress tolerance in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) The grass seedlings were treated with EBR at 0, 10, and 100 nM, and subjected to salt stress (250 mM NaCl). The grass irrigated with regular water without EBR served as the control. Salt stress increased leaf electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced photosynthetic rate (Pn)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566357/living-with-a-leaky-skin-upregulation-of-ion-transport-proteins-during-sloughing
#13
Nicholas C Wu, Rebecca L Cramp, Craig E Franklin
Amphibian skin is a multifunctional organ providing protection from the external environment and facilitating the physiological exchange of gases, water and salts with the environment. In order to maintain these functions, the outer layer of skin is regularly replaced in a process called sloughing. During sloughing, the outermost layer of the skin is removed in its entirety, which has the potential to interfere with skin permeability and ion transport, disrupting homeostasis. In this study, we measured, in vivo, the effects of sloughing on the cutaneous efflux of ions in toads Rhinella marina kept in freshwater conditions...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488060/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-pseudomonas-in-reduce-drought-stress-damage-in-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l-a-field-study
#14
Saeedeh Rahimzadeh, Alireza Pirzad
Drought stress, which is one of the most serious world environmental threats to crop production, might be compensated by some free living and symbiotic soil microorganisms. The physiological response of flax plants to inoculation with two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae or Rhizophagus intraradices) and a phosphate solubilizing bacterium (Pseudomonas putida P13; PSB) was evaluated under different irrigation regimes (irrigation after 60, 120, and 180 mm of evaporation from Class A pan as well-watered, mild, and severe stress, respectively)...
August 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483560/the-influence-of-a-12-carbohydrate-electrolyte-beverage-on-self-paced-soccer-specific-exercise-performance
#15
Liam D Harper, Emma J Stevenson, Ian Rollo, Mark Russell
OBJECTIVES: To assess the physiological and performance effects of a 12% carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage consumed at practically applicable time-points (i.e., before each half) throughout simulated soccer match-play. DESIGN: Randomised, counterbalanced, crossover. METHODS: Fed players (n=15) performed 90-min of soccer-specific exercise (including self-paced exercise at the end of each half). Players consumed carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO; 60g×500ml(-1), Na(+) 205mg×500ml(-1)), placebo-electrolyte (PL) or water (Wat) beverages at the end of the warm-up (250ml) and half-time (250ml plus ad-libitum water)...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456128/natural-herbicide-activity-of-satureja-hortensis-l-essential-oil-nanoemulsion-on-the-seed-germination-and-morphophysiological-features-of-two-important-weed-species
#16
Hossein Hazrati, Mohammad Jamal Saharkhiz, Mehrdad Niakousari, Mahmoodreza Moein
The aim of the present study was to obtain an oil/water (O/W) nanoemulsion (NE) containing garden savory (Satureja hortensis) essential oil (EO) and evaluating its herbicidal activity against Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the EO. Carvacrol (55.6%) and γ-terpinene (31.9%) were the major EO components. Low energy method was applied, allowing achievement of EO nanodroplets...
August 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444701/is-electrolyte-transfer-across-the-urothelium-important-ici-rs-2015
#17
REVIEW
Karen D McCloskey, Bahareh Vahabi, Christopher H Fry
AIMS: This article summarizes discussion at the International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society (ICI-RS) 2015 meeting of urine modification in the urinary tract by the urothelium. It considers the literature and proposes pertinent questions that need to be addressed to understand this phenomenon within a physiological context. METHODS: Following the ICI-RS meeting, publications in PubMed relating to urine modification in the renal pelvis, ureter, and bladder were reviewed...
April 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443102/effect-of-hbdhn1-and-hbdhn2-genes-on-abiotic-stress-responses-in-arabidopsis
#18
Yuxin Cao, Xian Xiang, Mengting Geng, Qin You, Xi Huang
Dehydrin is a type of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein. The dehydrin genes, HbDHN1 and HbDHN2, in Hevea brasiliensis were previously found to be induced at the wounding site of epicormic shoots, with local tissue dehydration identified as the key signal for laticifer differentiation. However, the exact role of the HbDHNs remains unknown. In this study, HbDHN1 and HbDHN2 expression was examined under multiple abiotic stresses; namely, cold, salt, drought, wounding, abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ET), and jasmonic acid (JA) treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433592/toxicity-assessment-of-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-on-cucurbita-pepo-l-under-well-watered-and-water-stressed-conditions
#19
Mehrnaz Hatami
The rapid increase in the production and application of various types of nanomaterials increases the possibility of their presence in total environment, which subsequently raises concerns about their potential threats to the first trophic level of organisms, specifically under varying environmental constraints. In this work, seeds of Cucurbita pepo L. were cultured in MS basal medium exposed to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at different concentrations (0, 125, 250, 500 and 1000μgmL(-1)) under two levels of water potential, well-watered (0MPa) and water stress (-1...
August 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409340/drosophila-malpighian-tubules-a-model-for-understanding-kidney-development-function-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Naveen Kumar Gautam, Puja Verma, Madhu G Tapadia
The Malpighian tubules of insects are structurally simple but functionally important organs, and their integrity is important for the normal excretory process. They are functional analogs of human kidneys which are important physiological organs as they maintain water and electrolyte balance in the blood and simultaneously help the body to get rid of waste and toxic products after various metabolic activities. In addition, it receives early indications of insults to the body such as immune challenge and other toxic components and is essential for sustaining life...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
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