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Water electrolyte physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797976/physiological-mechanisms-of-water-and-electrolyte-disturbances-following-transsphenoidal-pituitary-surgery
#1
Evan T Blair, John S Clemmer, H Louis Harkey, Robert L Hester, W Andrew Pruett
BACKGROUND: Disturbances in water and electrolyte homeostasis are common following transsphenoidal surgery. These disorders are variable and unpredictable, increasing patient risk and complicating postsurgical treatment. Clinically, it is generally accepted that damage to the pituitary is the etiology, but the mechanisms behind the response variability and underlying pathophysiology remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that changing the degree of damage to the pituitary stalk produces a spectrum of water and electrolyte disturbance along which all presentations of postsurgical water and electrolyte disturbances can be identified...
August 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794928/silicon-and-water-deficit-stress-differentially-modulate-physiology-and-ultrastructure-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l
#2
Ling Xu, Faisal Islam, Basharat Ali, Zengfei Pei, Juanjuan Li, Muhammad Awais Ghani, Weijun Zhou
Plants combat drought stress by coordinating various metabolic enzymes, and endogenous phytohormones, such as indole acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA). In the present study, 37-day-old wheat seedlings were subjected to the Hoagland solution with 20% PEG for 7 days (to create the artificial osmotic stress environment) in the greenhouse, and were supplemented with an optimized concentration (1.0 mM) of silicon (Si) to alleviate the negative effects of former stress on physiological, biochemical and phytohormones contents...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766715/hypertonic-nacl-versus-osmotic-stimuli-distinct-ovlt-neurones-can-sense-the-difference-to-control-sympathetic-outflow-and-blood-pressure
#3
V R Antunes
Despite large fluctuations in salt and water intake, mammals are able to maintain electrolyte concentrations, particularly sodium (Na(+) ) as the major determinant of osmolality of the extracellular fluid (ECF), within narrow physiological limits (∼300 mOsm kg(-1) ). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710950/citric-acid-assisted-phytoextraction-of-chromium-by-sunflower-morpho-physiological-and-biochemical-alterations-in-plants
#4
Mujahid Farid, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Qasim Ali, Farhat Abbas, Syed Asad Hussain Bukhari, Rashid Saeed, Longhua Wu
Soil and water contamination from heavy metals and metalloids is one of the most discussed and burning global issues due to its potential to cause the scarcity of healthy food and safe water. The scientific community is proposing a range of lab and field based physical, chemical and biological solutions to remedy metals and metalloids contaminated soils and water. The present study finds out a possibility of Chromium (Cr) extraction by sunflower from spiked soil under chelating role of citric acid (CA). The sunflower plants were grown under different concentrations of Cr (0, 5, 10 & 20mgkg(-1)) and CA (0, 2...
July 12, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710594/addressing-a-common-misconception-ammonium-acetate-as-neutral-ph-buffer-for-native-electrospray-mass-spectrometry
#5
Lars Konermann
Native ESI-MS involves the transfer of intact proteins and biomolecular complexes from solution into the gas phase. One potential pitfall is the occurrence of pH-induced changes that can affect the analyte while it is still surrounded by solvent. Most native ESI-MS studies employ neutral aqueous ammonium acetate solutions. It is a widely perpetuated misconception that ammonium acetate buffers the analyte solution at neutral pH. By definition, a buffer consists of a weak acid and its conjugate weak base. The buffering range covers the weak acid pKa ± 1 pH unit...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710130/dead-or-alive-using-membrane-failure-and-chlorophyll-fluorescence-to-predict-mortality-from-drought
#6
Carmela Rosaria Guadagno, Brent E Ewers, Heather N Speckman, Timothy L Aston, Bridger J Huhn, Stanley B DeVore, Joshua T Ladwig, Rachel N Strawn, Cynthia Weinig
Climate models predict widespread increases in both drought intensity and duration in the next decades. Although water deficiency is one of the greatest environmental pressures to plant survival, limited understanding of how plants respond to extreme drought impedes adequate forecasts of how increasing aridity will impact both forest and crop productivity. Drought induces a suite of physiological responses; however, we lack an accurate mechanistic description of plant response to lethal drought that would improve predictive understanding of the timing of lethal drought with climate change...
July 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674542/physiological-mechanism-of-enhancing-salt-stress-tolerance-of-perennial-ryegrass-by-24-epibrassinolide
#7
Wenli Wu, Qiang Zhang, Erik H Ervin, Zhiping Yang, Xunzhong Zhang
Brassinosteroids (BR) regulate plant tolerance to salt stress but the mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. This study was to investigate physiological mechanisms of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR)'s impact on salt stress tolerance in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) The grass seedlings were treated with EBR at 0, 10, and 100 nM, and subjected to salt stress (250 mM NaCl). The grass irrigated with regular water without EBR served as the control. Salt stress increased leaf electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced photosynthetic rate (Pn)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566357/living-with-a-leaky-skin-upregulation-of-ion-transport-proteins-during-sloughing
#8
Nicholas C Wu, Rebecca L Cramp, Craig E Franklin
Amphibian skin is a multifunctional organ providing protection from the external environment and facilitating the physiological exchange of gases, water and salts with the environment. In order to maintain these functions, the outer layer of skin is regularly replaced in a process called sloughing. During sloughing, the outermost layer of the skin is removed in its entirety, which has the potential to interfere with skin permeability and ion transport, disrupting homeostasis. In this study, we measured, in vivo, the effects of sloughing on the cutaneous efflux of ions in toads Rhinella marina kept in freshwater conditions...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488060/arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-pseudomonas-in-reduce-drought-stress-damage-in-flax-linum-usitatissimum-l-a-field-study
#9
Saeedeh Rahimzadeh, Alireza Pirzad
Drought stress, which is one of the most serious world environmental threats to crop production, might be compensated by some free living and symbiotic soil microorganisms. The physiological response of flax plants to inoculation with two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Funneliformis mosseae or Rhizophagus intraradices) and a phosphate solubilizing bacterium (Pseudomonas putida P13; PSB) was evaluated under different irrigation regimes (irrigation after 60, 120, and 180 mm of evaporation from Class A pan as well-watered, mild, and severe stress, respectively)...
August 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483560/the-influence-of-a-12-carbohydrate-electrolyte-beverage-on-self-paced-soccer-specific-exercise-performance
#10
Liam D Harper, Emma J Stevenson, Ian Rollo, Mark Russell
OBJECTIVES: To assess the physiological and performance effects of a 12% carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage consumed at practically applicable time-points (i.e., before each half) throughout simulated soccer match-play. DESIGN: Randomised, counterbalanced, crossover. METHODS: Fed players (n=15) performed 90-min of soccer-specific exercise (including self-paced exercise at the end of each half). Players consumed carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO; 60g×500ml(-1), Na(+) 205mg×500ml(-1)), placebo-electrolyte (PL) or water (Wat) beverages at the end of the warm-up (250ml) and half-time (250ml plus ad-libitum water)...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456128/natural-herbicide-activity-of-satureja-hortensis-l-essential-oil-nanoemulsion-on-the-seed-germination-and-morphophysiological-features-of-two-important-weed-species
#11
Hossein Hazrati, Mohammad Jamal Saharkhiz, Mehrdad Niakousari, Mahmoodreza Moein
The aim of the present study was to obtain an oil/water (O/W) nanoemulsion (NE) containing garden savory (Satureja hortensis) essential oil (EO) and evaluating its herbicidal activity against Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the chemical composition of the EO. Carvacrol (55.6%) and γ-terpinene (31.9%) were the major EO components. Low energy method was applied, allowing achievement of EO nanodroplets...
August 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444701/is-electrolyte-transfer-across-the-urothelium-important-ici-rs-2015
#12
REVIEW
Karen D McCloskey, Bahareh Vahabi, Christopher H Fry
AIMS: This article summarizes discussion at the International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society (ICI-RS) 2015 meeting of urine modification in the urinary tract by the urothelium. It considers the literature and proposes pertinent questions that need to be addressed to understand this phenomenon within a physiological context. METHODS: Following the ICI-RS meeting, publications in PubMed relating to urine modification in the renal pelvis, ureter, and bladder were reviewed...
April 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443102/effect-of-hbdhn1-and-hbdhn2-genes-on-abiotic-stress-responses-in-arabidopsis
#13
Yuxin Cao, Xian Xiang, Mengting Geng, Qin You, Xi Huang
Dehydrin is a type of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein. The dehydrin genes, HbDHN1 and HbDHN2, in Hevea brasiliensis were previously found to be induced at the wounding site of epicormic shoots, with local tissue dehydration identified as the key signal for laticifer differentiation. However, the exact role of the HbDHNs remains unknown. In this study, HbDHN1 and HbDHN2 expression was examined under multiple abiotic stresses; namely, cold, salt, drought, wounding, abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ET), and jasmonic acid (JA) treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433592/toxicity-assessment-of-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-on-cucurbita-pepo-l-under-well-watered-and-water-stressed-conditions
#14
Mehrnaz Hatami
The rapid increase in the production and application of various types of nanomaterials increases the possibility of their presence in total environment, which subsequently raises concerns about their potential threats to the first trophic level of organisms, specifically under varying environmental constraints. In this work, seeds of Cucurbita pepo L. were cultured in MS basal medium exposed to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at different concentrations (0, 125, 250, 500 and 1000μgmL(-1)) under two levels of water potential, well-watered (0MPa) and water stress (-1...
August 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409340/drosophila-malpighian-tubules-a-model-for-understanding-kidney-development-function-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Naveen Kumar Gautam, Puja Verma, Madhu G Tapadia
The Malpighian tubules of insects are structurally simple but functionally important organs, and their integrity is important for the normal excretory process. They are functional analogs of human kidneys which are important physiological organs as they maintain water and electrolyte balance in the blood and simultaneously help the body to get rid of waste and toxic products after various metabolic activities. In addition, it receives early indications of insults to the body such as immune challenge and other toxic components and is essential for sustaining life...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379482/investigating-proteins-and-proteases-composing-amniotic-and-allantoic-fluids-during-chicken-embryonic-development
#16
M Da Silva, V Labas, Y Nys, S Réhault-Godbert
In amniotes, the amniotic fluid is a significant contributor to fetal development and health. While numerous studies have been conducted in mammalian amniotic fluid, the composition of amniotic and other extraembryonic fluids in avian egg along with their physiological functions remain largely unexplored. In such a context, our objective was to characterize the chicken amniotic fluid (AmF) and allantoic fluid (AlF) properties, protein composition, and some associated functions from day 8 to day 16 of incubation...
March 31, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337744/tknockdown-of-an-inflorescence-meristem-specific-cytokinin-oxidase-osckx2-in-rice-reduces-yield-penalty-under-salinity-stress-condition
#17
Rohit Joshi, Khirod Kumar Sahoo, Amit Kumar Tripathi, Ritesh Kumar, Brijesh Kumar Gupta, Ashwani Pareek, Sneh Lata Singla-Pareek
Cytokinins play a significant role in determining grain yield in plants. Cytokinin oxidases catalyze irreversible degradation of cytokinins and hence modulate cellular cytokinin levels. Here, we studied the role of an inflorescence meristem-specific rice cytokinin oxidase - OsCKX2, in reducing yield penalty under salinity stress conditions. We utilized an RNAi-based approach to study the function of OsCKX2 in maintaining grain yield under salinity stress condition. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-based estimation revealed a significant increase in cytokinins in the inflorescence meristem of OsCKX2-knockdown plants...
March 24, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337209/transcriptional-responses-of-chilean-quinoa-chenopodium-quinoa-willd-under-water-deficit-conditions-uncovers-aba-independent-expression-patterns
#18
Andrea Morales, Andres Zurita-Silva, Jonathan Maldonado, Herman Silva
HIGHLIGHTS R49 genotype displayed best performance on selected physiological parameters and highest tolerance to drought.R49 drought over-represented transcripts has exhibited 19% of genes (306 contigs) that presented no homology to published databases.Expression pattern for canonical responses to drought such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced in response to drought were assessed by qPCR. Global freshwater shortage is one of the biggest challenges of our time, often associated to misuse, increased consumption demands and the effects of climate change, paralleled with the desertification of vast areas...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336818/increased-exposure-to-sodium-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-changes-basal-and-induced-behavioral-and-neuroendocrine-responses-in-adult-male-offspring
#19
Marcia S Silva, Fabiana Lúcio-Oliveira, Andre Souza Mecawi, Lucas F Almeida, Silvia G Ruginsk, Michael P Greenwood, Mingkwan Greenwood, Laura Vivas, Lucila L K Elias, David Murphy, José Antunes-Rodrigues
Excessive sodium (Na(+)) intake in modern society has been associated with several chronic disorders such as hypertension. Several studies suggest that early life events can program physiological systems and lead to functional changes in adulthood. Therefore, we investigated behavioral and neuroendocrine responses under basal conditions and after 48 h of water deprivation in adult (60-day-old Wistar rats) male, Wistar rats originating from dams were offered only water or 0.15 mol/L NaCl during pregnancy and lactation...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330954/physiological-and-biochemical-changes-associated-with-acute-experimental-dehydration-in-the-desert-adapted-mouse-peromyscus-eremicus
#20
Lauren Kordonowy, Kaelina D Lombardo, Hannah L Green, Molly D Dawson, Evice A Bolton, Sarah LaCourse, Matthew D MacManes
Characterizing traits critical for adaptation to a given environment is an important first step in understanding how phenotypes evolve. How animals adapt to the extreme heat and aridity commonplace to deserts is an exceptionally interesting example of these processes, and has been the focus of study for decades. In contrast to those studies, where experiments are conducted on either wild animals or captive animals held in non-desert conditions, the study described here leverages a unique environmental chamber that replicates desert conditions for captive Peromyscus eremicus (cactus mouse)...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
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