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homosexuality genes

Fan Li, Liying Ma, Yi Feng, Jing Hu, Na Ni, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao
HIV-1 transmission in intravenous drug users (IDUs) has been characterized by high genetic multiplicity and suggests a greater challenge for HIV-1 infection blocking. We investigated a total of 749 sequences of full-length gp160 gene obtained by single genome sequencing (SGS) from 22 HIV-1 early infected IDUs in Xinjiang province, northwest China, and generated a transmitted and founder virus (T/F virus) consensus sequence (IDU.CON). The T/F virus was classified as subtype CRF07_BC and predicted to be CCR5-tropic virus...
March 2, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Xinli Lu, Cuiying Zhao, Wei Wang, Chenxi Nie, Yuqi Zhang, Hongru Zhao, Suliang Chen, Ze Cui
BACKGROUND: Since the first HIV-1 case in 1989, Hebei province has presented a clearly rising trend of HIV-1 prevalence, and HIV-1 genetic diversity has become the vital barrier to HIV prevention and control in this area. To obtain detailed information of HIV-1 spread in different populations and in different areas of Hebei, a cross-sectional HIV-1 molecular epidemiological investigation was performed across the province. METHODS: Blood samples of 154 newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals were collected from ten prefectures in Hebei using stratified sampling...
January 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
Qiuyan Li, Yuandong Qiao, Guangfa Zhang, Ning He, Xuelong Zhang, Xueyuan Jia, Haiming Sun, Chuntao Wang, Lidan Xu
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV infection. The APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide 3G) protein is a component of innate antiviral immunity that inhibits HIV-1 replication. In the present study, a total of 483 HIV-1 seropositive men and 493 HIV-1 seronegative men were selected to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the APOBEC3G gene and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and AIDS progression among MSM residing in northern China...
January 2017: Archives of Virology
Walter Geoffrey Roper
This hypothesis clearly proposes the true and previously undiscovered cause of male homosexuality or bisexuality and in most cases the predictability in infancy of the development of this sexuality in adulthood. It is based on compelling new evidence which has accumulated over many years. The fetal and neonatal periods are of the utmost importance in human development because they encompass critical periods which must be adhered to, for normal development. Biological variations may occur during these times, without implying the process of disease...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Dan Tu, Ruiwei Xu, Guanglu Zhao, Binbin Wang, Tiejian Feng
Sexual orientation is influenced by both environmental factors and biological factors. Family and twin studies have shown that genetic factors play an important role in the formation of male homosexuality. Genome-wide scan also revealed candidate chromosomal regions which may be associated with male homosexuality, but so far no clearly related genes have been found. This article reviews the progress of relevant studies and candidate genes which are related to male homosexuality.
August 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Giorgi Chaladze
Homosexuality has been documented throughout history and is found in almost all human cultures. Twin studies suggest that homosexuality is to some extent heritable. However, from an evolutionary perspective, this poses a problem: Male homosexuals tend to have on average five times fewer children than heterosexual males, so how can a phenomenon associated with low reproductive success be maintained at relatively stable frequencies? Recent findings of increased maternal fecundity of male homosexuals suggest that the genes responsible for homosexuality in males increase fecundity in the females who carry them...
October 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Marina Pedroso Oliveira, Pollyanne Sousa Lemes, Márcia Alves Dias Matos, Nativa Helena Alves Del-Rios, Megmar Aparecida Santos Carneiro, Ágabo Macedo Costa Silva, Carmen Luci Rodrigues Lopes, Sheila Araújo Teles, Rodrigo Sebba Aires, Bárbara Vieira Lago, Natalia Motta Araujo, Regina Maria Bringel Martins
Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection is common, only few data are available on HBV among HIV patients including occult hepatitis B infection (OBI), regardless of serological markers. This study aims to determine the prevalence of OBI and overall HBV infection, associated factors, HBV genotypes, and surface (S) gene mutations in a population of treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients in Central Brazil...
July 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Maria Elena Tosti, Valeria Alfonsi, Eleonora Lacorte, Alfonso Mele, Cristina Galli, Alessandro Remo Zanetti, Luisa Romanò
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B vaccination has proven to be very safe and highly effective. This study assessed the proportion of successfully vaccinated individuals among cases with acute hepatitis B, the proportion of preventable cases if individuals were vaccinated as recommended, and the reasons for failures. METHODS: We analyzed data reported to the Italian Surveillance System for Acute Viral Hepatitis from 1993 to 2014. RESULTS: A total of 362 of 11 311 (3...
June 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Xinli Lu, Cuiying Zhao, Wei Wang, Chenxi Nie, Yuqi Zhang, Hongru Zhao, Suliang Chen, Ze Cui
BACKGROUND: Since the first HIV-1 case in 1989, Hebei province has presented a clearly rising trend of HIV-1 prevalence, and HIV-1 genetic diversity has become the vital barrier to HIV prevention and control in this area. To obtain detailed information of HIV-1 spread in different populations and in different areas of Hebei, a cross-sectional HIV-1 molecular epidemiological investigation was performed across the province. METHODS: Blood samples of 154 newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals were collected from ten prefectures in Hebei using stratified sampling...
2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
Wei Yu, Dan Tu, Fuchang Hong, Jing Wang, Xiaoli Liu, Yumao Cai, Ruiwei Xu, Guanglu Zhao, Feng Wang, Hong Pan, Shinan Wu, Tiejian Feng, Binbin Wang
INTRODUCTION: Male sexual orientation is thought to have a genetic component. However, previous studies have failed to generate positive results from among candidate genes. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), located on chromosome 22, has six exons, spans 27 kb, and encodes a protein of 271 amino acids. COMT has an important role in regulating the embryonic levels of catecholamine neurotransmitters (such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) and estrogens. COMT is also thought to be related to sexual orientation...
September 2015: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Ali Vahidnia, Pieter Jan van Empel, Sandra Costa, Rob T N Oud, Tahar van der Straaten, Harry Bliekendaal, Joke Spaargaren
A 53-year-old homosexual man presented at his general practitioner (GP) practice with a suspicion of sexually transmitted infection. Initial NAAT screening was performed for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The patient was positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae both for his urine and rectal sample. The subsequent confirmation test for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by a second laboratory was only confirmed for the urine sample and the rectal sample was negative. We report a case of a potential false-negative diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae due to mutations of DNA sequence in the probe region of opa-MGB assay of the rectal sample...
July 2015: New Microbiologica
Li-Juan Hou, Hong-Wei Wang, Shu-Peng Duan, Ya Zhuo, Yan-Cai Zhou, Hong-Jie Wu, Bao-Sheng Shen
To estimate the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance (DR) in a population of men who have sex with men (MSM) from Henan Province of China and to identify the DR-associated HIV-1 mutations in these MSM. The HIV-positive status of the MSM subjects in this study was confirmed using ELISA and Western blotting. The MSM subjects were classified into non-treatment group (n = 106) and treatment group (n = 313). CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts were obtained by flow cytometry, and viral load was measured by branched DNA (bDNA) signal amplification assay...
August 2015: Archives of Virology
Zheng Li, Jia Li, Yi Feng, Marcia L Kalish, Hongyan Lu, Lu Yin, Lingjie Liao, Han-Zhu Qian, Simon D W Frost, Yuhua Ruan, Sten H Vermund, Yiming Shao, Hui Xing
We report here two novel HIV-1 recombinant forms (CRF01_AE/B) isolated from two HIV-positive male subjects infected through homosexual contact in Beijing, China. Recombination contributes substantially to the genetic diversity of HIV-1, and is likely to occur in populations in which multiple subtypes circulate. Molecular epidemiological studies showed that subtype B, CRF01_AE, and CRF07_BC are currently cocirculating in parallel among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, providing the opportunity for the emergence of new recombinants...
September 2015: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Jing Zhang, Zhi-Yong Shen, Zheng Li, Shu-Jia Liang, Cui He, Fu-Xiong Liang, Yi Feng, Jian-Jun Li, Yu-Hua Ruan, Yue-Jiao Zhou, Yi-Ming Shao, Hui Xing, Ling-Jie Liao
The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of clusters and drug resistance of CRF01_AE among newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve HIV-infected teenagers and young adults in 3 major HIV-affected geographic regions of Guangxi Province, including the cities of Hezhou, Liuzhou, and Nanning. Samples were sequentially collected from newly diagnosed HIV-infected 16- to 25-year olds in these 3 regions from 2009 to 2013. The viral genome was extracted, and the partial pol gene was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses were used to determine HIV-1 subtypes and CRF01_AE clusters...
May 2015: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yue Chen, Ning Li, Tong Zhang, Xiaojie Huang, Fangping Cai, Nathan Vandergrift, Ruolei Xin, Zhefeng Meng, Xiaoyan Zhang, Chunlai Jiang, Xiaoning Xu, David C Montefiori, Feng Gao, Hao Wu
BACKGROUND: The men having sex with men (MSM) population has become one of the major risk groups for HIV-1 infection in China. However, the epidemiological patterns, function of the env genes, and autologous and heterologous neutralization activity in the same MSM population have not been systematically characterized. METHODS: The env gene sequences were obtained by the single genome amplification. The time to the most recent common ancestor was estimated for each genotype using the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach...
August 1, 2015: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Jiafeng Zhang, Jiezhe Yang, Xiaohong Pan, Zhihong Guo, Xiaobei Ding, Yun Xu, Jingjing Huang, Yan Xia
OBJECTIVE: To understand the HIV-1 subtype diversity and transmission characteristics in men having sex with men (MSM) in Zhejiang province. METHODS: A total of 233 newly diagnosed as HIV-1 positive patients in 2011 were screened out by BED capture enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA). Among them, 107 eligible subjects were enrolled for further molecular epidemiological study. Viral RNA was extracted from plasma samples and followed by reverse transcription PCR and nested PCR for amplification of pol gene fragments, sequencing, and bioinformatics analysis...
January 2015: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Catherine Tamalet, Isabelle Ravaux, Jacques Moreau, Sylvie Brégigeon, Christian Tourres, Hervé Richet, Cedric Abat, Philippe Colson
The number of new HIV diagnoses is increasing in the western world and transmission clusters have been recently identified among men having sex with men despite Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy efficacy. The objective of this study was to assess temporal trends, epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of primary HIV infections. A retrospective analysis of 79 patients presenting primary HIV infections from 2005 to 2012 was performed in Marseille University Hospitals, southeastern France...
August 2015: Journal of Medical Virology
Pornsawan Leaungwutiwong, Busara Bamrungsak, Akanitt Jittmittraphap, Pannamas Maneekan, Nathamon Kosoltanapiwat, Thareerat Kalambaheti, James F Kelley
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in Thailand are a public health concern, but information on HPV infection in sex workers and men who have sex with men (MSM) is limited. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV among low- and high-risk, HIV-negative populations. METHODS: A total of 300 participants were categorized as general women, female sex workers, MSM, and MSM sex workers. Human papillomavirus infections were identified by the Papanicolaou test and nested polymerase chain reaction...
April 2015: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Andrea Burri, Tim Spector, Qazi Rahman
INTRODUCTION: Homosexuality is a stable population-level trait in humans that lowers direct fitness and yet is substantially heritable, resulting in a so-called Darwinian "paradox." Evolutionary models have proposed that polymorphic genes influencing homosexuality confer a reproductive benefit to heterosexual carriers, thus offsetting the fitness costs associated with persistent homosexuality. This benefit may consist of a "sex typicality" intermediate phenotype. However, there are few empirical tests of this hypothesis using genetically informative data in humans...
April 2015: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Di Dai, Hong Shang, Xiao-Xu Han, Bin Zhao, Jing Liu, Hai-Bo Ding, Jun-Jie Xu, Zhen-Xing Chu
To investigate the molecular subtypes of prevalent HIV-1 strains and characterize the genetics of dominant strains among men who have sex with men. Molecular epidemiology surveys in this study concentrated on the prevalent HIV-1 strains in Liaoning province by year. 229 adult patients infected with HIV-1 and part of a high-risk group of men who have sex with men were recruited. Reverse transcription and nested PCR amplification were performed. Sequencing reactions were conducted and edited, followed by codon-based alignment...
April 2015: Journal of Medical Virology
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