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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166247/does-sodium-knowledge-affect-dietary-choices-and-health-behaviors-results-from-a-survey-of-los-angeles-county-residents
#1
George Dewey, Ranjana N Wickramasekaran, Tony Kuo, Brenda Robles
INTRODUCTION: In 2010, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health launched a local sodium-reduction initiative to address the rising prevalence of high blood pressure (hypertension) and related cardiovascular conditions in the population. To inform this effort, we evaluated self-reported knowledge and health behaviors related to sodium intake among Los Angeles County residents. METHODS: We administered 3 cross-sectional Internet panel surveys on knowledge about dietary sodium to a sample of Los Angeles County adults, at intervals from December 2014 through August 2016...
November 22, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166159/local-regulation-of-trail-networks-of-the-arboreal-turtle-ant-cephalotes-goniodontus
#2
Deborah M Gordon
This study examines how an arboreal ant colony maintains, extends, and repairs its network of foraging trails and nests, built on a network of vegetation. Nodes are junctions where a branch forks off from another or where a branch of one plant touching another provides a new edge on which ants could travel. The ants' choice of edge at a node appears to be reinforced by trail pheromone. Ongoing pruning of the network tends to eliminate cycles and minimize the number of nodes and thus decision points, but not the distance traveled...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165107/description-of-the-healthy-eating-indices-based-diet-quality-in-turkish-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Eda Koksal, Merve Seyda Karacil Ermumcu, Hande Mortas
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to describe the dietary status of Turkish adults using two different versions of the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). METHODS: In this cross sectional study, 494 healthy participants (311 females) with randomly selected and living in Ankara were included between September 2013 and March 2014. A questionnaire was completed and anthropometric measurements (weight and height) were performed. The 24-h dietary recall of individuals was collected...
March 20, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163414/control-of-antimicrobial-resistance-requires-an-ethical-approach
#4
REVIEW
Ben Parsonage, Philip K Hagglund, Lloyd Keogh, Nick Wheelhouse, Richard E Brown, Stephanie J Dancer
Ethical behavior encompasses actions that benefit both self and society. This means that tackling antimicrobial resistance (AMR) becomes an ethical obligation, because the prospect of declining anti-infectives affects everyone. Without preventive action, loss of drugs that have saved lives over the past century, will condemn ourselves, people we know, and people we don't know, to unacceptable risk of untreatable infection. Policies aimed at extending antimicrobial life should be considered within an ethical framework, in order to balance the choice, range, and quality of drugs against stewardship activities...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162843/behavioral-responses-of-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-to-natural-and-synthetic-xenobiotics-in-food
#5
Ling-Hsiu Liao, Wen-Yen Wu, May R Berenbaum
While the natural foods of the western honey bee (Apis mellifera) contain diverse phytochemicals, in contemporary agroecosystems honey bees also encounter pesticides as floral tissue contaminants. Whereas some ubiquitous phytochemicals in bee foods up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes, thereby benefiting nestmates, many agrochemical pesticides adversely affect bee health even at sublethal levels. How honey bees assess xenobiotic risk to nestmates as they forage is poorly understood. Accordingly, we tested nine phytochemicals ubiquitous in nectar, pollen, or propolis, as well as five synthetic xenobiotics that frequently contaminate hives-two herbicides (atrazine and glyphosate) and three fungicides (boscalid, chlorothalonil, and prochloraz)...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161953/mental-simulation-of-visceral-states-affects-preferences-and-behavior
#6
Janina Steinmetz, Brittany M Tausen, Jane L Risen
Preferences and behavior are heavily influenced by one's current visceral experience, yet people often fail to anticipate such effects. Although research suggests that this gap is difficult to overcome-to act as if in another visceral state-research on mental simulation has demonstrated that simulations can substitute for experiences, albeit to a weaker extent. We examine whether mentally simulating visceral states can impact preferences and behavior. We show that simulating a specific visceral state (e.g., being cold or hungry) shifts people's preferences for relevant activities (Studies 1a-2) and choices of food portion sizes (Study 3)...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160811/relationships-between-vacant-homes-and-food-swamps-a-longitudinal-study-of-an-urban-food-environment
#7
Yeeli Mui, Jessica C Jones-Smith, Rachel L J Thornton, Keshia Pollack Porter, Joel Gittelsohn
Research indicates that living in neighborhoods with high concentrations of boarded-up vacant homes is associated with premature mortality due to cancer and diabetes, but the mechanism for this relationship is unclear. Boarded-up housing may indirectly impact residents' health by affecting their food environment. We evaluated the association between changes in vacancy rates and changes in the density of unhealthy food outlets as a proportion of all food outlets, termed the food swamp index, in Baltimore, MD (USA) from 2001 to 2012, using neighborhood fixed-effects linear regression models...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160021/sleep-timing-is-associated-with-diet-and-physical-activity-levels-in-9-11-year-old-children-from-dunedin-new-zealand-the-pedals-study
#8
Harriet A L Harrex, Sheila A Skeaff, Katherine E Black, Brittany K Davison, Jillian J Haszard, Kim Meredith-Jones, Robin Quigg, Pouya Saeedi, Lee Stoner, Jyh E Wong, Paula M L Skidmore
It is well documented that short sleep duration is associated with excess body weight and poor food intake in children. It has been suggested that sleep timing behaviour may also be an important predictor of weight and other related behaviours, independent of sleep duration; however, there is a lack of research investigating these relationships. The present study investigated sleep timing in association with diet and physical activity levels in 439 children aged 9-11 years old from New Zealand. Sleep and physical activity data were collected using accelerometry, and food choice using a short food-frequency questionnaire...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159315/l-arginine-biosensors-a-comprehensive-review
#9
REVIEW
Neelam Verma, Ashish Kumar Singh, Minni Singh
Arginine has been considered as the most potent nutraceutics discovered ever, due to its powerful healing property, and it's been known to scientists as the Miracle Molecule. Arginine detection in fermented food products is necessary because, high level of arginine in foods forms ethyl carbamate (EC) during the fermentation process. Therefore, L-arginine detection in fermented food products is very important as a control measure for quality of fermented foods, food supplements and beverages including wine. In clinical analysis arginine detection is important due to their enormous inherent versatility in various metabolic pathways, topmost in the synthesis of Nitric oxide (NO) and tumor growth...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156372/psychometric-properties-of-the-intuitive-eating-scale-2-ies-2-in-a-culturally-diverse-hispanic-american-sample
#10
Jessica F Saunders, Kristin A Nichols-Lopez, Leslie D Frazier
BACKGROUND: Intuitive eating is an adaptive eating tendency consistently associated with positive physical and mental health outcomes, including lower risk for obesity and eating disorders (EDs). Obesity rates are disproportionately high in Hispanic American populations, yet the properties of intuitive eating remain to be examined in such samples. METHOD: The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) in a Hispanic American sample of adult college students (N=482), and related IES-2 scores to levels of disordered eating, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetable consumption, and body shape satisfaction...
November 14, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155278/mecp2-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-risky-decision-making
#11
Jay V Deng, Caitlin A Orsini, Kristy G Shimp, Barry Setlow
Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal decision making involving risk of punishment, but the underlying molecular basis remains poorly understood. Methyl CpG-binding Protein 2 (MeCP2) is an epigenetic factor that regulates transcription by directly binding to methylated DNA. Here, we evaluated MeCP2 expression in the context of risk-taking behaviors using the Risky Decision-making Task (RDT), in which rats make discrete choices between a small "safe" food reward and a large "risky" food reward accompanied by varying probabilities of punishment...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154887/food-consumption-when-travelling-abroad-young-chinese-sojourners-food-consumption-in-the-uk
#12
Dorothy Ai-Wan Yen, Benedetta Cappellini, Cheng Lu Wang, Bang Nguyen
This qualitative study investigates the everyday food choices of 21 Chinese sojourners living in two different localities in the UK. Findings from a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews reveal how participants adopt a food consumption pattern, negotiating between ordinary and extraordinary food choices, including home-made Chinese food, Chinese restaurant food, global brands, British food, to "foods of the world". Their zooming in and out of different food consumption choices reflects the transformative identity of the sojourners, between their student role during the week and becoming tourists at the weekends, meshing work and tourism during their sojourning in the UK...
November 14, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154609/influence-of-sedentary-social-and-physical-alternatives-on-food-reinforcement
#13
Katelyn A Carr, Leonard H Epstein
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the potential for nonfood alternative activities to compete with the reinforcing value of food. Participants rated the frequency and pleasantness of engaging in a variety of activities and made hypothetical choices between food and 4 types of alternatives; cognitive-enriching (reading, listening to music), social (attending a party or event), sedentary (watching TV), and physically active (running, biking). METHOD: Two-hundred seventy-six adults completed an online survey using a crowdsourcing platform...
November 20, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154529/consumer-perception-of-the-food-and-drug-administration-s-newest-recommended-food-facility-inspection-format-words-matter
#14
Jooho Kim, Jing Ma, Barbara Almanza
The Food and Drug Administration recommended restaurant inspection scores change to a format that incorporated three new categories of violations: priority, priority foundation, and core. It was uncertain whether interested consumers would value the more in-depth information or become more confused. The purpose of this study was to assess consumer perception of the recommended inspection system. Data were collected from an online survey. Results showed that consumers want convenient access to the information either online or on the wall of restaurants, and some consumers do want to read inspection reports and use them in making dining decisions...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152731/decision-making-under-risk-of-gain-in-young-children-and-mangabey-monkeys
#15
James Rivière, Mathilde Stomp, Elisa Augustin, Alban Lemasson, Catherine Blois-Heulin
In contrast to human adults, risk proneness in the gain domain is usually observed in both young children and non-human primates. It is currently unclear what mechanism might be underlying such economic preferences. We investigated decision-making under risk of gain in toddlers and monkeys. The choices of 2.5-year-old children and red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus) were examined in a gambling task for food reward in which participants have to choose between two options, a secure option and a risky option...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151813/dietary-energy-density-applying-behavioural-science-to-weight-management
#16
B J Rolls
Studies conducted by behavioural scientists show that energy density (kcal/g) provides effective guidance for healthy food choices to control intake and promote satiety. Energy density depends upon a number of dietary components, especially water (0 kcal/g) and fat (9 kcal/g). Increasing the proportion of water or water-rich ingredients, such as vegetables or fruit, lowers a food's energy density. A number of studies show that when the energy density of the diet is reduced, both adults and children spontaneously decrease their ad libitum energy intake...
September 2017: Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150472/are-food-and-drink-retailers-within-nhs-venues-adhering-to-nice-quality-standard-94-guidance-on-childhood-obesity-a-cross-sectional-study-of-two-large-secondary-care-nhs-hospitals-in-england
#17
Alice James, Laura Birch, Peter Fletcher, Sally Pearson, Catherine Boyce, Andy R Ness, Julian P Hamilton-Shield, Fiona E Lithander
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the food and drink retail outlets in two major National Health Service (NHS) district general hospitals in England adhere to quality statements 1-3 of the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) quality standard 94. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, descriptive study to assess the food and drink options available in vending machines, restaurants, cafes and shops in two secondary care hospitals. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adherence to quality statement 1 whereby the food and drink items available in the vending machines were classified as either healthy or less healthy using the Nutrient Profiling Model (NPM)...
November 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150400/changes-in-student-athletes-self-efficacy-for-making-healthful-food-choices-and-food-preparation-following-a-cooking-education-intervention
#18
Jenna Ellis, Katie Brown, Samantha Ramsay, Jeremy Falk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149038/adherence-to-hunger-training-over-6-months-and-the-effect-on-weight-and-eating-behaviour-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Michelle R Jospe, Rachael W Taylor, Josie Athens, Melyssa Roy, Rachel C Brown
Monitoring blood glucose prior to eating can teach individuals to eat only when truly hungry, but how adherence to 'hunger training' influences weight loss and eating behaviour is uncertain. This exploratory, secondary analysis from a larger randomized controlled trial examined five indices of adherence to 'hunger training', chosen a priori, to examine which adherence measure best predicted weight loss over 6 months. We subsequently explored how the best measure of adherence influenced eating behavior in terms of intuitive and emotional eating...
November 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147473/bioresorbable-vascular-scaffold-versus-metallic-stent-in-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-results-of-the-aida-trial
#20
Syed Raza Shah, Mazia Fatima, Amin Muhammad Dharani, Waqas Shahnawaz, Syed Arbab Shah
Drug-eluting stents have significantly improved the long-term outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) by decreasing the excessive growth of neointima. However, conventional stents have some limitations. PCI with a bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) has emerged as an alternative since the presence of the prosthesis in the coronary artery is transient. A US Food and Drug Administration advisory panel of experts recommended approval of BVS based on the analysis of its risks and rewards in July 2016...
2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
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