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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088900/synaptic-plasticity-dementia-and-alzheimer-disease
#1
Pietro Giusti, Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso
Neuroplasticity is not only shaped by learning and memory but is also a mediator of responses to neuron attrition and injury (compensatory plasticity). As an ongoing process it reacts to neuronal cell activity and injury, death, and genesis, which encompasses the modulation of structural and functional processes of axons, dendrites, and synapses. The range of structural elements that comprise plasticity includes long-term potentiation (a cellular correlate of learning and memory), synaptic efficacy and remodelling, synaptogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendritic remodelling, and neurogenesis and recruitment...
January 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088047/sliding-doors-did-drama-based-inter-professional-education-improve-the-tensions-round-person-centred-nursing-and-social-care-delivery-for-people-with-dementia-a-mixed-method-exploratory-study
#2
Lindsay Dingwall, Jane Fenton, Timothy B Kelly, John Lee
This educational intervention takes place when the population of older people with dementia is increasing. Health and Social care professionals must work jointly in increasingly complex contexts. Negative attitudes towards older people are cited as a contributor to poor care delivery, including the use of dismissive and/or patronising language, failing to meet fundamental needs and afford choice. 'Sliding Doors to Personal Futures' is a joint, drama-based, educational initiative between NHS Education Scotland and the Scottish Social Services Council, delivered using interprofessional education (IPE) towards encouraging person-centred health and social care...
December 21, 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086861/managing-shades-of-grey-a-focus-group-study-exploring-community-dwellers-views-on-advance-care-planning-in-older-people
#3
Natasha Michael, Clare O'Callaghan, Emma Sayers
BACKGROUND: Community-dwelling consumers of healthcare are increasing, many aging with life-limiting conditions and deteriorating cognition. However, few have had advance care planning discussions or completed documentation to ensure future care preferences are acted upon. This study examines the awareness, attitudes, and experiences of advance care planning amongst older people and unrelated offspring/caregivers of older people residing in the community. METHODS: Qualitative descriptive research, which included focus groups with older people (55+ years) and older people's offspring/caregivers living in an Australian city and surrounding rural region...
January 13, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080146/perceptions-vs-evidence-therapeutic-substitutes-for-antipsychotics-in-patients-with-dementia-in-long-term-care
#4
Brianne L Olivieri-Mui, John W Devlin, Aileen Ochoa, Danielle Schenck, Becky Briesacher
OBJECTIVE: To compare differences between clinician perceptions of therapeutic substitutes for antipsychotics prescribed to patients with dementia in long term care (LTC) and published evidence. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach that included a drug information search, online survey of 55 LTC clinicians and a comprehensive literature review was used. For 41 pharmacologic antipsychotic substitute candidates identified, LTC clinicians rated the likelihood they would substitute each for patients with dementia and identified non-pharmacologic antipsychotic substitutes...
January 12, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078993/mirnas-new-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets-in-dementia
#5
Ana Teresa de Bastos Viegas, Joana Ribeiro Guedes, Ana Rafaela Oliveira, Ana Maria Sequeira Cardoso, Ana Luísa Colaço Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a complex pathological state that affects millions of individuals worldwide and is responsible for a huge socioeconomic burden, making it a major health concern of current times. Given the impact of dementia in both patients and caregivers, it is crucial to fully clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying dementia-associated disorders, since without this knowledge our ability to correctly diagnose and treat these diseases is severely hampered. METHODS: Epigenetic mechanisms, such as miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation, have been reported to play a role in dementia pathogenesis...
January 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077453/state-regulatory-approaches-for-dementia-care-in-residential-care-and-assisted-living
#6
Paula C Carder
PURPOSE: This policy study analyzed states' residential care and assisted living (RC/AL) regulations for dementia care requirements. Estimates suggest that at least half of RC/AL residents have dementia, and 22% of settings provide or specialize in dementia care. Residents with dementia might benefit from regulations that account for specific behaviors and needs associated with dementia, making states' RC/AL regulations address dementia care an important policy topic. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study examined RC/AL regulations in all 50 states and the District of Columbia for regulatory requirements on five topics important to the quality of life of RC/AL residents with dementia: pre-admission assessment, consumer disclosure, staffing types and levels, administrator training, and physical environment...
January 10, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077155/modem-a-comprehensive-approach-to-modelling-outcome-and-costs-impacts-of-interventions-for-dementia-protocol-paper
#7
Adelina Comas-Herrera, Martin Knapp, Raphael Wittenberg, Sube Banerjee, Ann Bowling, Emily Grundy, Carol Jagger, Nicolas Farina, Daniel Lombard, Klara Lorenz, David McDaid
BACKGROUND: The MODEM project (A comprehensive approach to MODelling outcome and costs impacts of interventions for DEMentia) explores how changes in arrangements for the future treatment and care of people living with dementia, and support for family and other unpaid carers, could result in better outcomes and more efficient use of resources. METHODS: MODEM starts with a systematic mapping of the literature on effective and (potentially) cost-effective interventions in dementia care...
January 11, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076975/book-reviews-boltz-marie-and-galvin-james-e-eds-dementia-care-an-evidence-based-approach-springer-international-publishing-switzerland-2016-325-pp-ibsn-978-3-319-18376-3-129-00-sbk-beard-ren%C3%A3-e-l-living-with-alzheimer-s-managing-memory-loss-identity-and-illness
#8
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074409/management-of-depression-in-patients-with-dementia-is-pharmacological-treatment-justified
#9
REVIEW
Andrew H Ford, Osvaldo P Almeida
Depression in the context of dementia is common and contributes to poorer outcomes in individuals and those who care for them. Non-pharmacological treatments are the preferred initial approach to managing these symptoms but data in support of these are scarce. There are a number of pharmacological treatment options available to clinicians but efficacy is uncertain and concern about potential side effects in an aging and vulnerable population needs to be taken into consideration. This review aims to provide a concise overview of pharmacological treatments for depression in dementia...
January 10, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071830/awareness-of-functional-ability-in-people-with-early-stage-dementia
#10
Anthony Martyr, Linda Clare
OBJECTIVES: Assessment of functional ability in people with early-stage dementia (PwD) is an important area of study because it forms part of the diagnostic process and may help in monitoring disease progression. Most researchers and clinicians rely on informant ratings rather than observing actual functional performance or employing self-ratings. There has however been little research to verify whether informant ratings of functioning are accurate, and there has been even less research investigating the accuracy of self-ratings of functional ability in PwD...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069027/reliability-of-health-related-quality-of-life-assessments-made-by-older-adults-and-significant-others-for-health-states-of-increasing-cognitive-impairment
#11
Gina Bravo, Modou Sene, Marcel Arcand
BACKGROUND: Older adults are encouraged by many organizations to engage in advance care planning in the event of decisional incapacity. Planning for future health care often involves anticipating health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in states of reduced cognitive functioning. No study has yet examined whether anticipated HRQoL is stable over time. The accuracy with which significant others can predict how an older adult envisions HRQoL in a future state of cognitive impairment is also unknown...
January 7, 2017: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068789/pragmatic-trial-of-video-education-in-nursing-homes-the-design-and-rationale-for-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomized-trial-in-the-nursing-home-setting
#12
Vincent Mor, Angelo E Volandes, Roee Gutman, Constantine Gatsonis, Susan L Mitchell
Background/Aims Nursing homes are complex healthcare systems serving an increasingly sick population. Nursing homes must engage patients in advance care planning, but do so inconsistently. Video decision support tools improved advance care planning in small randomized controlled trials. Pragmatic trials are increasingly employed in health services research, although not commonly in the nursing home setting to which they are well-suited. This report presents the design and rationale for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial that evaluated the "real world" application of an Advance Care Planning Video Program in two large US nursing home healthcare systems...
January 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063859/assessing-palliative-care-content-in-dementia-care-guidelines-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Pamela Durepos, Abigail Wickson-Griffiths, Afeez Abiola Hazzan, Sharon Kaasalainen, Vasilia Vastis, Lisa Battistella, Alexandra Papaioannou
CONTEXT: Families of persons with dementia continue to report unmet needs during end-of-life. Strategies to improve care and quality of life for persons with dementia include development of clinical practice guidelines (CPG) and an integrative palliative approach. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess palliative care content in dementia CPGs in order to identify the presence or limitations of recommendations and discussion pertaining to common issues or domains affected by illness as described by the Canadian Hospice Palliative Care 'Square of Care'...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062720/multimodal-characterization-of-older-apoe2-carriers-reveals-selective-reduction-of-amyloid-load
#14
Michel J Grothe, Sylvia Villeneuve, Martin Dyrba, David Bartrés-Faz, Miranka Wirth
OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively assess neurobiological effects of the protective APOE2 allele in the aged brain using a cross-sectional multimodal neuroimaging approach. METHODS: Multimodal neuroimaging data were obtained from a total of 572 older individuals without dementia (cognitively normal and mild cognitive impairment) enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and included assessments of regional amyloid load with AV45-PET, glucose metabolism with fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, and gray matter volume with structural MRI...
January 6, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062555/antibody-therapeutics-targeting-a%C3%AE-and-tau
#15
Gilbert Gallardo, David M Holtzman
The astonishing findings that active and passive immunization against amyloid-β (Aβ) in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dramatically decreased amyloid burden led to a rapid initiation of human clinical trials with much enthusiasm. However, methodological issues and adverse effects relating to these clinical trials arose, challenging the effectiveness and safety of these reagents. Efforts are now underway to develop safer immunotherapeutic approaches toward Aβ and the treatment of individuals at risk for AD before or in the earliest stages of cognitive decline with new hopes...
January 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062518/implementing-montessori-methods-for-dementia-a-scoping-review
#16
REVIEW
Sander L Hitzig, Christine L Sheppard
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: A scoping review was conducted to develop an understanding of Montessori-based programing (MBP) approaches used in dementia care and to identify optimal ways to implement these programs across various settings. DESIGN AND METHODS: Six peer-reviewed databases were searched for relevant abstracts by 2 independent reviewers. Included articles and book chapters were those available in English and published by the end of January 2016. Twenty-three articles and 2 book chapters met the inclusion criteria...
January 6, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060462/end-of-life-care-for-people-dying-with-dementia-in-general-practice-in-belgium-italy-and-spain-a-cross-sectional-retrospective-study
#17
Yolanda W H Penders, Gwenda Albers, Luc Deliens, Guido Miccinesi, Tomás Vega Alonso, Maite Miralles, Sarah Moreels, Lieve Van den Block
AIM: To describe and compare end-of-life care for people with mild or severe dementia in general practice in Belgium, Italy and Spain, in terms of place of care, place of death, treatment aims, use of specialized palliative care and communication with general practitioners (GPs). METHODS: Cross-sectional retrospective survey was carried out of nationwide networks of GPs in Belgium, Italy and Spain, including patients who died aged 65 years or older in 2009-2011 and were judged by the GP to have had dementia (n = 1623)...
January 6, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059692/implementation-of-data-management-and-effect-on-chronic-disease-coding-in-a-primary-care-organisation-a-parallel-cohort-observational-study
#18
Michelle Greiver, Kimberly Wintemute, Babak Aliarzadeh, Ken Martin, Shahriar Khan, Dave Jackson, Jannet Leggett, Anita Lambert-Lanning, Maggie Siu
BACKGROUND: Consistent and standardized coding for chronic conditions is associated with better care; however, coding may currently be limited in electronic medical records (EMRs) used in Canadian primary care.Objectives To implement data management activities in a community-based primary care organisation and to evaluate the effects on coding for chronic conditions. METHODS: Fifty-nine family physicians in Toronto, Ontario, belonging to a single primary care organisation, participated in the study...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057710/-this-man-with-dementia-1-othering-the-person-with-dementia-in-the-court-of-protection
#19
Laura Pritchard-Jones
In recent years, dementia has been subjected to an increasing ethical, legal, and political gaze. This article analyses how the Court of Protection considers the perspective of the person with dementia when making best interests decisions on their behalf under the Mental Capacity Act 2005. The article draws upon feminist and disability literature to highlight how the Court has, on occasions, 'othered' the person with dementia during the process of making best interests decisions. This is despite law and policy increasingly emphasising that the views of the person who lacks capacity should be central to any best interests decision, as well as emphasising the importance of de-stigmatisation of cognitive impairments, such as dementia...
January 5, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056068/the-association-between-polypharmacy-and-dementia-a-nested-case-control-study-based-on-a-12-year-longitudinal-cohort-database-in-south-korea
#20
Hae-Young Park, Ji-Won Park, Hong Ji Song, Hyun Soon Sohn, Jin-Won Kwon
Dementia is a major concern among growing chronic diseases in the aging society and its association with polypharmacy has not been adequately assessed. The objective of this study was to determine the association between polypharmacy and dementia through multiple statistical approaches. We conducted a nested case-control study for newly diagnosed dementia cases using the South Korean National Health Insurance Service sample cohort database (2002-2013, n = 1,025,340). Interactions between polypharmacy (an average use of ≥5 prescription drugs daily) and comorbidities or potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) were tested...
2017: PloS One
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