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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222528/comparing-approaches-to-optimize-cut-off-scores-for-short-cognitive-screening-instruments-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#1
Rónán O'Caoimh, Yang Gao, Anton Svendovski, Paul Gallagher, Joseph Eustace, D William Molloy
BACKGROUND: Although required to improve the usability of cognitive screening instruments (CSIs), the use of cut-off scores is controversial yet poorly researched. OBJECTIVE: To explore cut-off scores for two short CSIs: the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE) and Quick Mild Cognitive Impairment (Qmci) screen, describing adjustments in scores for diagnosis (MCI or dementia), age (≤, >75 years), and education (<, ≥12 years), comparing two methods: the maximal accuracy approach, derived from receiver operating characteristic curves, and Youden's Index...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222369/what-can-gait-tell-us-about-dementia-review-of-epidemiological-and-neuropsychological-evidence
#2
REVIEW
Vyara Valkanova, Klaus P Ebmeier
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment and gait disorders in people over the age of 65 represent major public health issues because of their high frequency, their link to poor outcomes and high costs. Research has demonstrated that these two geriatric syndromes are closely related. METHODS AND RESULTS: We aim to review the evidence supporting the relationship between gait and cognitive impairment, particularly focusing on epidemiological and neuropsychological studies in patients with Mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease and Vascular dementia...
February 9, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220347/stercoral-colitis-mimicking-appendicitis
#3
Abdelghafour Elkoundi, Mustapha Bensghir, Charki Haimeur
BACKGROUND: Stercoral colitis is an inflammatory process involving the colonic wall related to fecal impaction. This rare condition is associated with high morbidity-mortality. FINDINGS: We report a case of a 78-year-old woman with a history of dementia under clozapine who presented a clinical and sonographic presentation of acute appendicitis. The worsening of her clinical condition prompted us to review our diagnosis and modify our approach using the CT scan which was consistent with stercoral colitis...
December 2017: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220251/triple-aim-improvement-for-individuals-services-and-society-in-dementia-care-the-dementianet-collaborative-care-approach
#4
M S Nieuwboer, A Richters, M A van der Marck
BACKGROUND: A redesigning of primary care is required to meet dementia patients' needs. In the Netherlands, current dementia care still falls short in areas including ad hoc collaboration, lack of feedback on quality to professionals involved, and insufficient implementation of established multidisciplinary guidelines. OBJECTIVE: DementiaNet is a collaborative care approach, which aims to reduce the burden of the disease on individuals, healthcare services and society via network-based care that encourages collaboration, enhances knowledge and skills and stimulates quality improvement cycles...
February 20, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219828/treating-cognitive-impairment-with-transcranial-low-level-laser-therapy
#5
Jack C de la Torre
This report examines the potential of low level laser therapy (LLLT) to alter brain cell function and neurometabolic pathways using red or near infrared (NIR) wavelengths transcranially for the prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment. Although laser therapy on human tissue has been used for a number of medical conditions since the late 1960s, it is only recently that several clinical studies have shown its value in raising neurometabolic energy levels that can improve cerebral hemodynamics and cognitive abilities in humans...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217759/frontal-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-concentrations-are-associated-with-cognitive-performance-in-older-adults
#6
Eric C Porges, Adam J Woods, Richard A E Edden, Nicolaas A J Puts, Ashley D Harris, Huaihou Chen, Amanda M Garcia, Talia R Seider, Damon G Lamb, John B Williamson, Ronald A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the brain's principal inhibitory neurotransmitter, has been associated with perceptual and attentional functioning. Recent application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provides in vivo evidence for decreasing GABA concentrations during adulthood. It is unclear, however, how age-related decrements in cerebral GABA concentrations contribute to cognitive decline, or whether previously reported declines in cerebral GABA concentrations persist during healthy aging...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215753/preserving-personhood-the-strategies-of-men-negotiating-the-experience-of-dementia
#7
Edward Tolhurst, Bernhard Weicht
An understanding of dementia requires sensitivity to the complex breadth of factors that comprise the person's experiential and social context. This is necessary to ensure that academic and public perspectives on dementia are not subsumed under homogenising discourses that prioritise the neurodegenerative basis of the condition. Gender is one such factor of this 'social location' that must be acknowledged. Cultural standards of masculinity have particular impacts upon men with the condition, thus generating distinctive challenges...
January 2017: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212496/antipsychotic-use-in-dementia
#8
Julia Kirkham, Chelsea Sherman, Clive Velkers, Colleen Maxwell, Sudeep Gill, Paula Rochon, Dallas Seitz
Antipsychotics are necessary for many older adults to treat major mental illnesses or reduce distressing psychiatric symptoms. Current controversy exists over the role of antipsychotics in the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in persons with dementia. Although some NPS may be appropriately and safely treated with antipsychotics, a fine balance must be achieved between the benefits of these medications, which are often modest, and adverse events, which may have significant consequences. Approximately one-third of all persons with dementia are currently prescribed antipsychotic medications, and there is significant variation in the use of antipsychotics across care settings and providers...
March 2017: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210939/deep-phenotyping-of-systemic-arterial-hemodynamics-in-hfpef-part-1-physiologic-and-technical-considerations
#9
REVIEW
Julio A Chirinos
A better understanding of the pathophysiology of heart failure with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF) is important. Detailed phenotyping of pulsatile hemodynamics has provided important insights into the pathophysiology of left ventricular remodeling and fibrosis, diastolic dysfunction, microvascular disease, and impaired oxygen delivery to peripheral skeletal muscle, all of which contribute to exercise intolerance, the cardinal feature of HFpEF. Furthermore, arterial pulsatile hemodynamic mechanisms likely contribute to the frequent presence of comorbidities, such as renal failure and dementia, in this population...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202615/il-13-mediated-regulation-of-learning-and-memory
#10
Tiroyaone M Brombacher, Justin K Nono, Keisha S De Gouveia, Nokuthula Makena, Matthew Darby, Jacqueline Womersley, Ousman Tamgue, Frank Brombacher
The role of proinflammatory cytokines in cognitive function has been investigated with both beneficial and possible detrimental effects, depending on the cytokine. More recently, the type 2 IL-4 has been demonstrated to play a role in cognition. In this study, using the Morris water maze task, we demonstrate that IL-13-deficient mice are significantly impaired in working memory as well as attenuated reference memory, both functions essential for effective complex learning. During the learning process, wild-type mice increased the number of CD4(+) T cells in the meninges and production of IL-13, whereas neither Morris water maze-trained IL-4 nor trained IL-13-deficient mice were able to increase CD4(+) T cells in the meninges...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197591/predicting-brain-network-changes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-with-link-prediction-algorithms
#11
Sadegh Sulaimany, Mohammad Khansari, Peyman Zarrineh, Madelaine Daianu, Neda Jahanshad, Paul M Thompson, Ali Masoudi-Nejad
Link prediction is a promising research area for modeling various types of networks and has mainly focused on predicting missing links. Link prediction methods may be valuable for describing brain connectivity, as it changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its precursor, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, we analyzed 3-tesla whole-brain diffusion-weighted images from 202 participants in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) - 50 healthy controls, 72 with earlyMCI (eMCI) and 38 with lateMCI (lMCI) and 42 AD patients...
February 15, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196556/approach-to-atypical-alzheimer-s-disease-and-case-studies-of-the-major-subtypes
#12
Bradford C Dickerson, Scott M McGinnis, Chenjie Xia, Bruce H Price, Alireza Atri, Melissa E Murray, Mario F Mendez, David A Wolk
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has long been recognized as a heterogeneous illness, with a common clinical presentation of progressive amnesia and less common "atypical" clinical presentations, including syndromes dominated by visual, aphasic, "frontal," or apraxic symptoms. Our knowledge of atypical clinical phenotypes of AD comes from clinicopathologic studies, but with the growing use of in vivo molecular biomarkers of amyloid and tau pathology, we are beginning to recognize that these syndromes may not be as rare as once thought...
February 15, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196475/nutrition-and-dementia-care-developing-an-evidence-based-model-for-nutritional-care-in-nursing-homes
#13
Jane L Murphy, Joanne Holmes, Cindy Brooks
BACKGROUND: There is a growing volume of research to offer improvements in nutritional care for people with dementia living in nursing homes. Whilst a number of interventions have been identified to support food and drink intake, there has been no systematic research to understand the factors for improving nutritional care from the perspectives of all those delivering care in nursing homes. The aim of this study was to develop a research informed model for understanding the complex nutritional problems associated with eating and drinking for people with dementia...
February 14, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188358/protective-effect-of-valproic-acid-in-streptozotocin-induced-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model-possible-involvement-of-the-cholinergic-system
#14
Mirna Ezzat Sorial, Nesrine Salah El Dine El Sayed
Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder that is the most common form of dementia. Cholinergic system dysfunction and amyloid beta formation are the two main underlying pathological mechanisms for the disease development. In recent studies, insulin receptor desensitization and disturbances in the downstream effects of insulin receptor signaling were observed in the brains of Alzheimer's patients. Currently, intracereberoventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) is found to induce behavioral, neurochemical, and structural alterations in animals resembling those found in SAD patients...
February 10, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186618/study-of-individualization-and-bias-in-nursing-home-fall-prevention-practices
#15
Cathleen S Colón-Emeric, Kirsten Corazzini, Eleanor McConnell, Wei Pan, Mark Toles, Rasheeda Hall, Melissa Batchelor-Murphy, Tracey L Yap, Amber L Anderson, Andrew Burd, Ruth A Anderson
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about how nursing home staff use resident characteristics to individualize care delivery or whether care is affected by implicit bias. DESIGN: Randomized factorial clinical vignette survey. SETTING: Sixteen nursing homes in North Carolina. PARTICIPANTS: Nursing, rehabilitation, and social services staff (n = 433). MEASUREMENTS: Vignettes describing hypothetical residents were generated from a matrix of clinical and demographic characteristics...
February 10, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185441/evaluation-of-the-ladder-to-the-moon-culture-change-studio-engagement-programme-staff-training-two-quasi-experimental-case-studies
#16
Azucena Guzmán, Jennifer Wenborn, Tom Swinson, Martin Orrell
AIM: To evaluate the impact of the CCSEP on care home staff in two care settings for older people in one nursing home and one residential home. BACKGROUND: Care homes provide personal care and accommodation for older people. The English Dementia Strategy aims to improve the quality of service provision for people with dementia. This includes specific mention of improving the quality of life in care homes and as such includes objectives related to developing the workforce knowledge and skills...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Older People Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184153/multimorbidity-as-specific-disease-combinations-an-important-predictor-factor-for-mortality-in-octogenarians-the-octabaix-study
#17
Assumpta Ferrer, Francesc Formiga, Héctor Sanz, Jesús Almeda, Glòria Padrós
BACKGROUND: The population is aging and multimorbidity is becoming a common problem in the elderly. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of multimorbidity patterns on mortality for all causes at 3- and 5-year follow-up periods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective community-based cohort (2009-2014) embedded within a randomized clinical trial was conducted in seven primary health care centers, including 328 subjects aged 85 years at baseline. Sociodemographic variables, sensory status, cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidity, and geriatric tests were analyzed...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181711/a-systematic-review-of-intervention-approaches-for-driving-cessation-in-older-adults
#18
REVIEW
Mark J Rapoport, Duncan H Cameron, Sarah Sanford, Gary Naglie
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this project was to review the literature on interventions aimed at facilitating driving cessation in older adults, with and without dementia. METHODS: A literature search was performed using the databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central, Embase, and PsycINFO, from 1994 to September 2014. Two independent raters screened articles for inclusion and extracted study data. We only included articles if they directly addressed the topic of intervention approaches to facilitate the process of driving cessation in older adults or to support the adaptation of older adults who have had to stop driving and included a control group...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178862/marie-boltz-and-james-e-galvin-eds-dementia-care-an-evidence-based-approach-boltz-marie-and-galvin-james-e-eds-dementia-care-an-evidence-based-approach-springer-international-publishing-switzerland-2016-325-pp-ibsn-978-3-319-18376-3-129-00-sbk
#19
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178859/an-ordinary-life-people-with-dementia-living-in-a-residential-setting
#20
Tula Brannelly, Jean A Gilmour, Heidi O'Reilly, Mary Leighton, Allana Woodford
The aim of this research was to explore the experiences of care support workers and family members of the impact of a new care approach in a specialised unit as it shifted from a clinical to an inclusive model, focused on creating an ordinary life for people with dementia and their families. The research was a partnership between the unit staff and university researchers. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected in focus groups with 11 family members and nine staff members. Thematic analysis identified the themes personalised care for people with dementia, family involvement - continuing to care, and staff competence and confidence to care...
January 1, 2017: Dementia
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