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Allostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105719/allostatic-load-and-biological-anthropology
#1
Ashley N Edes, Douglas E Crews
Multiple stressors affect developing and adult organisms, thereby partly structuring their phenotypes. Determining how stressors influence health, well-being, and longevity in human and nonhuman primate populations are major foci within biological anthropology. Although much effort has been devoted to examining responses to multiple environmental and sociocultural stressors, no holistic metric to measure stress-related physiological dysfunction has been widely applied within biological anthropology. Researchers from disciplines outside anthropology are using allostatic load indices (ALIs) to estimate such dysregulation and examine life-long outcomes of stressor exposures, including morbidity and mortality...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080969/an-active-inference-theory-of-allostasis-and-interoception-in-depression
#2
Lisa Feldman Barrett, Karen S Quigley, Paul Hamilton
In this paper, we integrate recent theoretical and empirical developments in predictive coding and active inference accounts of interoception (including the Embodied Predictive Interoception Coding model) with working hypotheses from the theory of constructed emotion to propose a biologically plausible unified theory of the mind that places metabolism and energy regulation (i.e. allostasis), as well as the sensory consequences of that regulation (i.e. interoception), at its core. We then consider the implications of this approach for understanding depression...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080966/active-interoceptive-inference-and-the-emotional-brain
#3
REVIEW
Anil K Seth, Karl J Friston
We review a recent shift in conceptions of interoception and its relationship to hierarchical inference in the brain. The notion of interoceptive inference means that bodily states are regulated by autonomic reflexes that are enslaved by descending predictions from deep generative models of our internal and external milieu. This re-conceptualization illuminates several issues in cognitive and clinical neuroscience with implications for experiences of selfhood and emotion. We first contextualize interoception in terms of active (Bayesian) inference in the brain, highlighting its enactivist (embodied) aspects...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#4
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035531/neuroimmune-modulation-of-gut-function
#5
Terez Shea-Donohue, Joseph F Urban
Neuroimmune communications are facilitated by the production of neurotransmitters by immune cells and the generation of immune mediators by immune cells, which form a functional entity called the "neuroimmune synapse." There are several mechanisms that further facilitate neuroimmune interactions including the anatomic proximity between immune cells and nerves, the expression of receptors for neurotransmitters on immune cells and for immune mediators on nerves, and the receptor-mediated activation of intracellular signaling pathways that modulate nerve and immune phenotype and function...
December 30, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988258/allostatic-load-and-pain-severity-in-older-adults-results-from-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing
#6
Kimberly T Sibille, John McBeth, Diane Smith, Ross Wilkie
Pain is common in older adults, is frequently experienced as stressful, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Stress regulatory systems are adaptive to challenge and change, allostasis, until demands exceed the adaptive capacity contributing to dysregulation, resulting in a high allostatic load. A high allostatic load is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Pain severity, based on the average intensity of frequent pain, was hypothesized to be positively associated with AL...
December 14, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895566/allostatic-self-efficacy-a-metacognitive-theory-of-dyshomeostasis-induced-fatigue-and-depression
#7
Klaas E Stephan, Zina M Manjaly, Christoph D Mathys, Lilian A E Weber, Saee Paliwal, Tim Gard, Marc Tittgemeyer, Stephen M Fleming, Helene Haker, Anil K Seth, Frederike H Petzschner
This paper outlines a hierarchical Bayesian framework for interoception, homeostatic/allostatic control, and meta-cognition that connects fatigue and depression to the experience of chronic dyshomeostasis. Specifically, viewing interoception as the inversion of a generative model of viscerosensory inputs allows for a formal definition of dyshomeostasis (as chronically enhanced surprise about bodily signals, or, equivalently, low evidence for the brain's model of bodily states) and allostasis (as a change in prior beliefs or predictions which define setpoints for homeostatic reflex arcs)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876789/allostasis-in-health-and-food-addiction
#8
Dirk De Ridder, Patrick Manning, Sook Ling Leong, Samantha Ross, Sven Vanneste
Homeostasis is the basis of modern medicine and allostasis, a further elaboration of homeostasis, has been defined as stability through change, which was later modified to predictive reference resetting. It has been suggested that pleasure is related to salience (behavioral relevance), and withdrawal has been linked to allostasis in addictive types. The question arises how the clinical and neural signatures of pleasure, salience, allostasis and withdrawal relate, both in a non-addicted and addicted state. Resting state EEGs were performed in 66 people, involving a food-addicted obese group, a non-food addicted obese group and a lean control group...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739386/allostatic-load-and-comorbidities-a-mitochondrial-epigenetic-and-evolutionary-perspective
#9
Robert-Paul Juster, Jennifer J Russell, Daniel Almeida, Martin Picard
Stress-related pathophysiology drives comorbid trajectories that elude precise prediction. Allostatic load algorithms that quantify biological "wear and tear" represent a comprehensive approach to detect multisystemic disease processes of the mind and body. However, the multiple morbidities directly or indirectly related to stress physiology remain enigmatic. Our aim in this article is to propose that biological comorbidities represent discrete pathophysiological processes captured by measuring allostatic load...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722957/understanding-blood-pressure-variation-and-variability-biological-importance-and-clinical-significance
#10
Gary D James
Variability is a normative property of blood pressure necessary for survival which likely contributes to morbidity and mortality through allostatic load. Because of its allostatic and adaptive properties blood pressure responses to peculiar situations like the visit to the clinic can lead to the misdiagnosis of hypertension. Cuff methods of blood pressure measurement can also create blood pressure variation when there really is none. There are also physiological differences between populations related to their evolutionary history that likely further affect the extent of population differences in 24-h blood pressure variability...
October 9, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670390/allostatic-mechanisms-of-opioid-tolerance-beyond-desensitization-and-downregulation
#11
REVIEW
Catherine M Cahill, Wendy Walwyn, Anna M W Taylor, Amynah A A Pradhan, Christopher J Evans
Mechanisms of opioid tolerance have focused on adaptive modifications within cells containing opioid receptors, defined here as cellular allostasis, emphasizing regulation of the opioid receptor signalosome. We review additional regulatory and opponent processes involved in behavioral tolerance, and include mechanistic differences both between agonists (agonist bias), and between μ- and δ-opioid receptors. In a process we will refer to as pass-forward allostasis, cells modified directly by opioid drugs impute allostatic changes to downstream circuitry...
November 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626192/physiological-regulation-how-it-really-works
#12
Douglas S Ramsay, Stephen C Woods
Contrary to dogma, much physiological regulation utilizes learning from past experience to make responses that preemptively and effectively neutralize anticipated regulatory challenges. Understanding physiological regulation therefore requires expanding explanatory models beyond homeostasis and allostasis to emphasize the prominence of conditioning.
September 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27568027/lifetime-variation-in-feather-corticosterone-levels-in-a-long-lived-raptor
#13
Lidia López-Jiménez, Julio Blas, Alessandro Tanferna, Sonia Cabezas, Tracy Marchant, Fernando Hiraldo, Fabrizio Sergio
In long-lived animals, the challenges that threaten individual homeostasis, and the way they are dealt with, are expected to vary in an age-related manner, encompassing the progressive selection of superior phenotypes and the acquisition and improvement of key skills (e.g. foraging, breeding and fighting abilities). Since exposure to homeostatic challenges typically elevates circulating glucocorticoid (GC) levels in vertebrates (modulating the behavioural and physiological responses that mediate allostasis), we may expect concomitant age-related changes in these hormones...
August 27, 2016: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528195/ptrf-cavin-1-promotes-efficient-ribosomal-rna-transcription-in-response-to-metabolic-challenges
#14
Libin Liu, Paul F Pilch
Ribosomal RNA transcription mediated by RNA polymerase I represents the rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis. In eukaryotic cells, nutrients and growth factors regulate ribosomal RNA transcription through various key factors coupled to cell growth. We show here in mature adipocytes, ribosomal transcription can be acutely regulated in response to metabolic challenges. This acute response is mediated by PTRF (polymerase I transcription and release factor, also known as cavin-1), which has previously been shown to play a critical role in caveolae formation...
2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474133/response-to-jerome-kagan-s-essay-on-stress-2016
#15
Bruce S McEwen, Craig A McEwen
To be useful, the concept of stress needs to be defined in biological terms linked to a broader framework of allostasis and its role in the adaptation of brain and body to positive and negative life experiences. A clear biological framework helps connect and organize animal and human research on stress. In particular, the concepts of "toxic stress" and "allostatic load and overload" highlight those experiences and situations that, as Kagan says, "compromise an organism's health and capacity to cope with daily challenges" (p...
July 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27461081/reciprocal-catecholamine-changes-during-opiate-exposure-and-withdrawal
#16
Megan E Fox, Nathan T Rodeberg, R Mark Wightman
Dysregulated catecholamine signaling has long been implicated in drug abuse. Although much is known about adaptations following chronic drug administration, little work has investigated how a single drug exposure paired with withdrawal influences catecholamine signaling in vivo. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in freely moving rats to measure real-time catecholamine overflow during acute morphine exposure and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in two regions associated with the addiction cycle: the dopamine-dense nucleus accumbens (NAc) and norepinephrine-rich ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vBNST)...
February 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27372810/stress-related-biobehavioral-responses-symptoms-and-physical-activity-among-female-veterans-in-the-community-an-exploratory-study
#17
Hsiao-Lan Wang, Constance Visovsky, Ming Ji, Maureen Groer
BACKGROUND: Female veterans experience multiple stresses during their lifetime. Some of them seek care in the civilian community. Common physical and psychological symptoms among female veterans include pain, fatigue, sleep quality, and depression. Physical activity has the potential to improve their well-being. OBJECTIVES: This study was guided by the concept of allostasis. The purpose of the study was to determine the associations among stress-related biobehavioral responses and symptoms as well as to determine if physical activity moderated these associations among female veterans...
December 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344031/stress-physiology-in-infancy-and-early-childhood-cortisol-flexibility-attunement-and-coordination
#18
REVIEW
L Atkinson, B Jamieson, J Khoury, J Ludmer, A Gonzalez
Research on stress physiology in infancy has assumed increasing importance due to its lifelong implications. In this review, we focus on measurement of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function, in particular, and on complementary autonomic processes. We suggest that the measure of HPA function has been overly exclusive, focusing on individual reactivity to single, pragmatically selected laboratory challenges. We advocate use of multiple, strategically chosen challenges and within-subject designs. By administering one challenge that typically does not provoke reactivity and another that does, it is possible to represent allostatic load in terms of "flexibility," the capacity to titrate response to challenge...
August 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296493/neuroendocrine-immune-interaction-evolutionarily-conserved-mechanisms-that-maintain-allostasis-in-an-ever-changing-environment
#19
B M Lidy Verburg-van Kemenade, Nicholas Cohen, Magdalena Chadzinska
It has now become accepted that the immune system and neuroendocrine system form an integrated part of our physiology. Immunological defense mechanisms act in concert with physiological processes like growth and reproduction, energy intake and metabolism, as well as neuronal development. Not only are psychological and environmental stressors communicated to the immune system, but also, vice versa, the immune response and adaptation to a current pathogen challenge are communicated to the entire body, including the brain, to evoke adaptive responses (e...
June 11, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27112802/adaptive-homeostasis
#20
REVIEW
Kelvin J A Davies
Homeostasis is a central pillar of modern Physiology. The term homeostasis was invented by Walter Bradford Cannon in an attempt to extend and codify the principle of 'milieu intérieur,' or a constant interior bodily environment, that had previously been postulated by Claude Bernard. Clearly, 'milieu intérieur' and homeostasis have served us well for over a century. Nevertheless, research on signal transduction systems that regulate gene expression, or that cause biochemical alterations to existing enzymes, in response to external and internal stimuli, makes it clear that biological systems are continuously making short-term adaptations both to set-points, and to the range of 'normal' capacity...
June 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
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