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Allostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571820/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-a-disorder-of-the-hpa-axis-and-sympathetic-nervous-system
#1
John R Richards
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS), a variant of cyclic vomiting syndrome, is an enigmatic and challenging clinical disorder. As cannabis legalization, use, and potency has increased worldwide over the past decade, so has the prevalence of CHS. These patients often require acute care and inpatient treatment for refractory emesis, electrolyte derangement, dehydration, acute renal failure, and injury to the upper gastrointestinal tract. Routinely-prescribed antiemetics are frequently associated with treatment failure in CHS, necessitating use of sedating agents such as benzodiazepines and antipsychotics...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566944/in-immune-defense-redefining-the-role-of-the-immune-system-in-chronic-disease
#2
Katya B Rubinow, David R Rubinow
The recognition of altered immune system function in many chronic disease states has proven to be a pivotal advance in biomedical research over the past decade. For many metabolic and mood disorders, this altered immune activity has been characterized as inflammation, with the attendant assumption that the immune response is aberrant. However, accumulating evidence challenges this assumption and suggests that the immune system may be mounting adaptive responses to chronic stressors. Further, the inordinate complexity of immune function renders a simplistic, binary model incapable of capturing critical mechanistic insights...
March 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554610/reverse-allostasis-in-biological-systems-minimal-conditions-and-implications
#3
Nasrollah Rezaei-Ghaleh, Davood Bakhtiari, Armin Rashidi
Biological control systems regulate the behavior of biological systems in a constantly changing environment. Homeostasis is the most widely studied outcome of biological control systems. Homeostatic systems maintain the system in its desired state despite variations in system parameters or the externally-determined input rates of their constituents, i.e. they have zero or near zero steady state error. On the other hand, allostatic systems are not resistant against environmental changes and the steady state level of their controlled variables responds positively to the changes in their input rates...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551591/evidence-that-anhedonia-is-a-symptom-of-opioid-dependence-associated-with-recent-use
#4
Joshua B B Garfield, Sue M Cotton, Nicholas B Allen, Ali Cheetham, Marni Kras, Murat Yücel, Dan I Lubman
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia is prevalent among substance-dependent populations. The hedonic allostasis model suggests this is due to the effects of addictive substances on neural substrates of reward processing. However, previous research may have been confounded by other factors likely to influence anhedonia, including tobacco use, psychopathology, and history of trauma and other stressors. Thus it remains unclear whether elevated anhedonia in substance-dependent populations is caused by substance use itself, or is due to other correlates of substance dependence...
May 17, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483870/how-birds-cope-physiologically-and-behaviourally-with-extreme-climatic-events
#5
REVIEW
John C Wingfield, Jonathan H Pérez, Jesse S Krause, Karen R Word, Paulina L González-Gómez, Simeon Lisovski, Helen E Chmura
As global climate change progresses, the occurrence of potentially disruptive climatic events such as storms are increasing in frequency, duration and intensity resulting in higher mortality and reduced reproductive success. What constitutes an extreme climatic event? First we point out that extreme climatic events in biological contexts can occur in any environment. Focusing on field and laboratory data on wild birds we propose a mechanistic approach to defining and investigating what extreme climatic events are and how animals cope with them at physiological and behavioural levels...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445556/allostasis-and-the-epigenetics-of-brain-and-body-health-over-the-life-course-the-brain-on-stress
#6
Bruce S McEwen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350080/homeostasis-and-the-concept-of-interstitial-fluids-hierarchy-relevance-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-sodium-concentrations-and-brain-temperature-control%C3%A2-review
#7
Luigi F Agnati, Manuela Marcoli, Giuseppina Leo, Guido Maura, Diego Guidolin
In this review, the aspects and further developments of the concept of homeostasis are discussed also in the perspective of their possible impact in the clinical practice, particularly as far as psychic homeostasis is concerned. A brief historical survey and comments on the concept of homeostasis and allostasis are presented to introduce our proposal that is based on the classical assumption of the interstitial fluid (ISF) as the internal medium for multicellular organisms. However, the new concept of a hierarchic role of ISF of the various organs is introduced...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291298/-neurobiology-of-alcohol-dependence-and-implications-on-treatment
#8
Ertuğrul Eşel, Köksal Dinç
The process of alcohol dependence has been conceptualized as a progress from controlled alcohol intake to compulsive alcohol consumption or a shift from alcohol intake for pleasure to compulsory alcohol seeking behavior. Hereditary and physical factors and the interaction of individuals with their environment, as well as permanent changes in the neurotransmitter and neurohormonal systems in the brain due to alcohol use, play the most important role in the etiology of alcohol dependence. The effects of ethanol on the neurotransmitter, neuropeptide and neuroendocrine systems not only account for its acute physiological and euphoric/reinforcing effects but also seem to be responsible for the development of dependence...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210209/lactate-shuttles-in-neuroenergetics-homeostasis-allostasis-and-beyond
#9
REVIEW
Shayne Mason
Understanding brain energy metabolism-neuroenergetics-is becoming increasingly important as it can be identified repeatedly as the source of neurological perturbations. Within the scientific community we are seeing a shift in paradigms from the traditional neurocentric view to that of a more dynamic, integrated one where astrocytes are no longer considered as being just supportive, and activated microglia have a profound influence. Lactate is emerging as the "good guy," contrasting its classical "bad guy" position in the now superseded medical literature...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204813/homeostasis-and-the-concept-of-interstitial-fluids-hierarchy-relevance-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-sodium-concentrations-and-brain-temperature-control%C3%A2-review
#10
REVIEW
Luigi F Agnati, Manuela Marcoli, Giuseppina Leo, Guido Maura, Diego Guidolin
In this review, the aspects and further developments of the concept of homeostasis are discussed also in the perspective of their possible impact in the clinical practice, particularly as far as psychic homeostasis is concerned. A brief historical survey and comments on the concept of homeostasis and allostasis are presented to introduce our proposal that is based on the classical assumption of the interstitial fluid (ISF) as the internal medium for multicellular organisms. However, the new concept of a hierarchic role of ISF of the various organs is introduced...
March 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177541/allostatic-load-a-useful-concept-for-advancing-nursing-research
#11
Marie-Anne S Rosemberg, Yang Li, Julia Seng
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the historical development of the allostatic load concept, alongside its use in nursing research, and to explore how allostatic load has been investigated among two stress-vulnerable populations. BACKGROUND: 'Stress' is a prominent term in understanding the development of disease. Allostatic load is among several approaches undertaken to quantify the magnitude of stress and understand how stress can affect health. METHOD: We explored the advent of allostatic load including its antecedents, and consequences...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105719/allostatic-load-and-biological-anthropology
#12
Ashley N Edes, Douglas E Crews
Multiple stressors affect developing and adult organisms, thereby partly structuring their phenotypes. Determining how stressors influence health, well-being, and longevity in human and nonhuman primate populations are major foci within biological anthropology. Although much effort has been devoted to examining responses to multiple environmental and sociocultural stressors, no holistic metric to measure stress-related physiological dysfunction has been widely applied within biological anthropology. Researchers from disciplines outside anthropology are using allostatic load indices (ALIs) to estimate such dysregulation and examine life-long outcomes of stressor exposures, including morbidity and mortality...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080969/an-active-inference-theory-of-allostasis-and-interoception-in-depression
#13
Lisa Feldman Barrett, Karen S Quigley, Paul Hamilton
In this paper, we integrate recent theoretical and empirical developments in predictive coding and active inference accounts of interoception (including the Embodied Predictive Interoception Coding model) with working hypotheses from the theory of constructed emotion to propose a biologically plausible unified theory of the mind that places metabolism and energy regulation (i.e. allostasis), as well as the sensory consequences of that regulation (i.e. interoception), at its core. We then consider the implications of this approach for understanding depression...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080966/active-interoceptive-inference-and-the-emotional-brain
#14
REVIEW
Anil K Seth, Karl J Friston
We review a recent shift in conceptions of interoception and its relationship to hierarchical inference in the brain. The notion of interoceptive inference means that bodily states are regulated by autonomic reflexes that are enslaved by descending predictions from deep generative models of our internal and external milieu. This re-conceptualization illuminates several issues in cognitive and clinical neuroscience with implications for experiences of selfhood and emotion. We first contextualize interoception in terms of active (Bayesian) inference in the brain, highlighting its enactivist (embodied) aspects...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#15
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035531/neuroimmune-modulation-of-gut-function
#16
Terez Shea-Donohue, Joseph F Urban
Neuroimmune communications are facilitated by the production of neurotransmitters by immune cells and the generation of immune mediators by immune cells, which form a functional entity called the "neuroimmune synapse." There are several mechanisms that further facilitate neuroimmune interactions including the anatomic proximity between immune cells and nerves, the expression of receptors for neurotransmitters on immune cells and for immune mediators on nerves, and the receptor-mediated activation of intracellular signaling pathways that modulate nerve and immune phenotype and function...
2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988258/allostatic-load-and-pain-severity-in-older-adults-results-from-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing
#17
Kimberly T Sibille, John McBeth, Diane Smith, Ross Wilkie
Pain is common in older adults, is frequently experienced as stressful, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Stress regulatory systems are adaptive to challenge and change, allostasis, until demands exceed the adaptive capacity contributing to dysregulation, resulting in a high allostatic load. A high allostatic load is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Pain severity, based on the average intensity of frequent pain, was hypothesized to be positively associated with AL...
February 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895566/allostatic-self-efficacy-a-metacognitive-theory-of-dyshomeostasis-induced-fatigue-and-depression
#18
Klaas E Stephan, Zina M Manjaly, Christoph D Mathys, Lilian A E Weber, Saee Paliwal, Tim Gard, Marc Tittgemeyer, Stephen M Fleming, Helene Haker, Anil K Seth, Frederike H Petzschner
This paper outlines a hierarchical Bayesian framework for interoception, homeostatic/allostatic control, and meta-cognition that connects fatigue and depression to the experience of chronic dyshomeostasis. Specifically, viewing interoception as the inversion of a generative model of viscerosensory inputs allows for a formal definition of dyshomeostasis (as chronically enhanced surprise about bodily signals, or, equivalently, low evidence for the brain's model of bodily states) and allostasis (as a change in prior beliefs or predictions which define setpoints for homeostatic reflex arcs)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876789/allostasis-in-health-and-food-addiction
#19
Dirk De Ridder, Patrick Manning, Sook Ling Leong, Samantha Ross, Sven Vanneste
Homeostasis is the basis of modern medicine and allostasis, a further elaboration of homeostasis, has been defined as stability through change, which was later modified to predictive reference resetting. It has been suggested that pleasure is related to salience (behavioral relevance), and withdrawal has been linked to allostasis in addictive types. The question arises how the clinical and neural signatures of pleasure, salience, allostasis and withdrawal relate, both in a non-addicted and addicted state. Resting state EEGs were performed in 66 people, involving a food-addicted obese group, a non-food addicted obese group and a lean control group...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739386/allostatic-load-and-comorbidities-a-mitochondrial-epigenetic-and-evolutionary-perspective
#20
Robert-Paul Juster, Jennifer J Russell, Daniel Almeida, Martin Picard
Stress-related pathophysiology drives comorbid trajectories that elude precise prediction. Allostatic load algorithms that quantify biological "wear and tear" represent a comprehensive approach to detect multisystemic disease processes of the mind and body. However, the multiple morbidities directly or indirectly related to stress physiology remain enigmatic. Our aim in this article is to propose that biological comorbidities represent discrete pathophysiological processes captured by measuring allostatic load...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
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