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Allostasis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445338/synaptic-homeostasis-and-allostasis-in-the-dentate-gyrus-caused-by-inflammatory-and-neuropathic-pain-conditions
#1
Rui-Rui Wang, Yan Wang, Su-Min Guan, Zhen Li, Saurabh Kokane, Fa-Le Cao, Wei Sun, Chun-Li Li, Ting He, Yan Yang, Qing Lin, Jun Chen
It has been generally accepted that pain can cause imbalance between excitation and inhibition (homeostasis) at the synaptic level. However, it remains poorly understood how this imbalance (allostasis) develops in the CNS under different pain conditions. Here, we analyzed the changes in both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission and modulation of the dentate gyrus (DG) under two pain conditions with different etiology and duration. First, it was revealed that the functions of the input-output (I/O) curves for evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) following the perforant path (PP) stimulation were gained under both acute inflammatory and chronic neuropathic pain conditions relative to the controls...
2018: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432781/pleiotropy-the-physiologic-basis-for-biologic-fields
#2
REVIEW
John S Torday
Biologic organisms act like fields. Hypothetically, pleiotropy results from the systematic re-purposing of genes over the course of the evolutionary history of the organism as pre-adaptations or exaptations. Mechanistically, pleiotropic genes are selected for during the process of evolution with reference to the First Principles of Physiology (FPP). Under stress conditions, pleiotropic genes will act as a functional network to cohesively maintain allostasis. There are strong homologies between Quantum Mechanics and the FPP...
February 9, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382627/migration-influences-on-the-allostatic-load-of-children-systematic-review-protocol
#3
Ivan Neil Gomez, Cynthia Yy Lai, Trevor Wk Yung, Chetwyn Ch Chan, Hector Wh Tsang
BACKGROUND: Migration is a worldwide phenomenon in recent times. Recently, documented studies suggest that the change in environments involved in migration may have an influence on children's allostatic load related to health and well-being. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to systematically search the extant literature and critically examine the evidence on how migration affects allostatic load in children and describe the relevant methods in measuring allostatic load...
January 30, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379966/conceptualizing-addiction-from-an-osteopathic-perspective-dopamine-homeostasis
#4
Dave Baron, Kenneth Blum, Anthony Chen, Mark Gold, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
Addiction is a public health crisis in the United States. Understanding the cause and providing effective treatment for patients-in particular, those with substance use disorders-is challenging. Research has demonstrated that addiction is not a flaw in one's moral fiber or a disease of choice; rather, it is driven by alterations in neuronal mechanisms, especially those that involve the neurotransmitter dopamine, which plays a critical role in the brain's reward pathway. Much of osteopathic philosophy is based on the concept of total body homeostasis and allostasis...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310960/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-pathophysiology-and-treatment-in-the-emergency-department
#5
John R Richards
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a challenging clinical disorder. CHS patients frequently present to the emergency department and may require treatment for intractable emesis, dehydration, and electrolyte abnormalities. Thought to be a variant of cyclic vomiting syndrome, CHS has become more prevalent with increasing cannabis potency and use, as enabled by various states having legalized the recreational use of cannabis. OBJECTIVE: This aim of this review is to investigate the pathophysiology of CHS and evaluate the published literature on pharmacologic treatment in the emergency department...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130725/-eighth-jes%C3%A3%C2%BAs-culebras-lecture-critical-care-nutrition-and-hyperglycemia-a-close-relationship
#6
Alfonso Mesejo
Critically ill patients show a metabolic response to injury that affects carbohydrate metabolism, causing hyperglycemia and an increase in glycemic variability that makes the critically ill patient susceptible to infection, resulting in morbidity and mortality increase. Also, severe hypoglycemia was detected as a consequence of intensive insulin treatment that provokes deleterious effects in their clinical evolution, so a correct monitoring of plasma glucose would contribute to reduce morbidity and mortality...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983518/evidence-for-a-large-scale-brain-system-supporting-allostasis-and-interoception-in-humans
#7
Ian R Kleckner, Jiahe Zhang, Alexandra Touroutoglou, Lorena Chanes, Chenjie Xia, W Kyle Simmons, Karen S Quigley, Bradford C Dickerson, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Large-scale intrinsic brain systems have been identified for exteroceptive senses (e.g., sight, hearing, touch). We introduce an analogous system for representing sensations from within the body, called interoception, and demonstrate its relation to regulating peripheral systems in the body, called allostasis. Employing the recently introduced Embodied Predictive Interoception Coding (EPIC) model, we used tract-tracing studies of macaque monkeys, followed by two intrinsic functional magnetic resonance imaging samples (N = 280 and N = 270) to evaluate the existence of an intrinsic allostatic/interoceptive system in the human brain...
2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940503/measuring-arterial-blood-pressure-in-humans-auscultatory-and-automatic-measurement-techniques-for-human-biological-field-studies
#8
Gary D James, Linda M Gerber
Human biologists have been examining arterial blood pressure since they began studying the effects of the environment and culture on the health of diverse populations. The Korotkoff auscultatory technique with a trained observer and aneroid sphygmomanometer is the method of choice for blood pressure measurement in many bioanthropological field contexts. Korotkoff sounds (the first and fifth phases) are the preferred determinants of systolic and diastolic pressure, even in infants, children, pregnant women, and the elderly...
September 22, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880949/maternal-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-response-to-foraging-uncertainty-a-model-of-individual-vs-social-allostasis-and-the-superorganism-hypothesis
#9
Jeremy D Coplan, Nishant K Gupta, Asif Karim, Anna Rozenboym, Eric L P Smith, John G Kral, Leonard A Rosenblum
INTRODUCTION: Food insecurity is a major global contributor to developmental origins of adult disease. The allostatic load of maternal food uncertainty from variable foraging demand (VFD) activates corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) without eliciting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation measured on a group level. Individual homeostatic adaptations of the HPA axis may subserve second-order homeostasis, a process we provisionally term "social allostasis." We postulate that maternal food insecurity induces a "superorganism" state through coordination of individual HPA axis response...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868531/a-control-theory-model-of-smoking
#10
Georgiy Bobashev, John Holloway, Eric Solano, Boris Gutkin
We present a heuristic control theory model that describes smoking under restricted and unrestricted access to cigarettes. The model is based on the allostasis theory and uses a formal representation of a multiscale opponent process. The model simulates smoking behavior of an individual and produces both short-term ("loading up" after not smoking for a while) and long-term smoking patterns (e.g., gradual transition from a few cigarettes to one pack a day). By introducing a formal representation of withdrawal- and craving-like processes, the model produces gradual increases over time in withdrawal- and craving-like signals associated with abstinence and shows that after 3 months of abstinence, craving disappears...
June 2017: Methods Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862266/genomic-and-epigenomic-mechanisms-of-glucocorticoids-in-the-brain
#11
REVIEW
Jason D Gray, Joshua F Kogan, Jordan Marrocco, Bruce S McEwen
Following the discovery of glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus and other brain regions, research has focused on understanding the effects of glucocorticoids in the brain and their role in regulating emotion and cognition. Glucocorticoids are essential for adaptation to stressors (allostasis) and in maladaptation resulting from allostatic load and overload. Allostatic overload, which can occur during chronic stress, can reshape the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis through epigenetic modification of genes in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and other stress-responsive brain regions...
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856337/neurobiological-and-systemic-effects-of-chronic-stress
#12
Bruce S McEwen
The brain is the central organ of stress and adaptation to stress because it perceives and determines what is threatening, as well as the behavioral and physiological responses to the stressor, which promote adaptation ("allostasis") but also contribute to pathophysiology ("allostatic load/overload") when overused and dysregulated. The adult as well as developing brain possesses a remarkable ability to show structural and functional plasticity in response to stressful and other experiences, including neuronal replacement, dendritic remodeling and synapse turnover...
January 2017: Chronic stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843112/bio-behavioral-synchrony-promotes-the-development-of-conceptualized-emotions
#13
REVIEW
Shir Atzil, Maria Gendron
As adults, we have structured conceptual representations of our emotions that help us to make sense of and regulate our ongoing affective experience. The ability to use emotion concepts is critical to make predictions about the world and choose appropriate action, such as 'I am afraid, and going to run away' or 'I am hungry and going to eat'. Thus, emotion concepts have an important role in helping us maintain our ongoing physiological balance, or allostasis. We will suggest here that infants can learn emotion concepts for the purpose of allostasis regulation, and that conceptualization is key component in emotional development...
October 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761937/allostatic-breakdown-of-cascading-homeostat-systems-a-computational-approach
#14
Alison Acevedo, Ioannis P Androulakis
Homeostasis posits that physiological systems compensate setpoint deviations in an attempt to maintain a state of internal constancy. Allostasis, on the other hand, suggests that physiological regulation is more appropriately described by predictive modulatory actions that, by adjusting setpoints, anticipate and react to changes in internal and external demand. In other words, "maintaining stability through change." The allostatic perspective enabled the rationalization of predictive and reactive homeostasis...
July 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705731/do-glucocorticoids-mediate-the-link-between-environmental-conditions-and-telomere-dynamics-in-wild-vertebrates-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Frédéric Angelier, David Costantini, Pierre Blévin, Olivier Chastel
Following the discoveries of telomeres and of their implications in terms of health and ageing, there has been a growing interest into the study of telomere dynamics in wild vertebrates. Telomeres are repeated sequences of non-coding DNA located at the terminal ends of chromosomes and they play a major role in maintaining chromosome stability. Importantly, telomeres shorten over time and shorter telomeres seem to be related with lower survival in vertebrates. Because of this potential link with longevity, it is crucial to understand not only the ecological determinants of telomere dynamics but also the regulatory endocrine mechanisms that may mediate the effect of the environment on telomeres...
July 10, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571820/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-a-disorder-of-the-hpa-axis-and-sympathetic-nervous-system
#16
John R Richards
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS), a variant of cyclic vomiting syndrome, is an enigmatic and challenging clinical disorder. As cannabis legalization, use, and potency has increased worldwide over the past decade, so has the prevalence of CHS. These patients often require acute care and inpatient treatment for refractory emesis, electrolyte derangement, dehydration, acute renal failure, and injury to the upper gastrointestinal tract. Routinely-prescribed antiemetics are frequently associated with treatment failure in CHS, necessitating use of sedating agents such as benzodiazepines and antipsychotics...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566944/in-immune-defense-redefining-the-role-of-the-immune-system-in-chronic-disease
#17
Katya B Rubinow, David R Rubinow
The recognition of altered immune system function in many chronic disease states has proven to be a pivotal advance in biomedical research over the past decade. For many metabolic and mood disorders, this altered immune activity has been characterized as inflammation, with the attendant assumption that the immune response is aberrant. However, accumulating evidence challenges this assumption and suggests that the immune system may be mounting adaptive responses to chronic stressors. Further, the inordinate complexity of immune function renders a simplistic, binary model incapable of capturing critical mechanistic insights...
March 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554610/reverse-allostasis-in-biological-systems-minimal-conditions-and-implications
#18
Nasrollah Rezaei-Ghaleh, Davood Bakhtiari, Armin Rashidi
Biological control systems regulate the behavior of biological systems in a constantly changing environment. Homeostasis is the most widely studied outcome of biological control systems. Homeostatic systems maintain the system in its desired state despite variations in system parameters or the externally-determined input rates of their constituents, i.e. they have zero or near zero steady state error. On the other hand, allostatic systems are not resistant against environmental changes and the steady state level of their controlled variables responds positively to the changes in their input rates...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551591/evidence-that-anhedonia-is-a-symptom-of-opioid-dependence-associated-with-recent-use
#19
Joshua B B Garfield, Sue M Cotton, Nicholas B Allen, Ali Cheetham, Marni Kras, Murat Yücel, Dan I Lubman
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia is prevalent among substance-dependent populations. The hedonic allostasis model suggests this is due to the effects of addictive substances on neural substrates of reward processing. However, previous research may have been confounded by other factors likely to influence anhedonia, including tobacco use, psychopathology, and history of trauma and other stressors. Thus it remains unclear whether elevated anhedonia in substance-dependent populations is caused by substance use itself, or is due to other correlates of substance dependence...
August 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483870/how-birds-cope-physiologically-and-behaviourally-with-extreme-climatic-events
#20
REVIEW
John C Wingfield, Jonathan H Pérez, Jesse S Krause, Karen R Word, Paulina L González-Gómez, Simeon Lisovski, Helen E Chmura
As global climate change progresses, the occurrence of potentially disruptive climatic events such as storms are increasing in frequency, duration and intensity resulting in higher mortality and reduced reproductive success. What constitutes an extreme climatic event? First we point out that extreme climatic events in biological contexts can occur in any environment. Focusing on field and laboratory data on wild birds we propose a mechanistic approach to defining and investigating what extreme climatic events are and how animals cope with them at physiological and behavioural levels...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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