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Klaas E Stephan, Zina M Manjaly, Christoph D Mathys, Lilian A E Weber, Saee Paliwal, Tim Gard, Marc Tittgemeyer, Stephen M Fleming, Helene Haker, Anil K Seth, Frederike H Petzschner
This paper outlines a hierarchical Bayesian framework for interoception, homeostatic/allostatic control, and meta-cognition that connects fatigue and depression to the experience of chronic dyshomeostasis. Specifically, viewing interoception as the inversion of a generative model of viscerosensory inputs allows for a formal definition of dyshomeostasis (as chronically enhanced surprise about bodily signals, or, equivalently, low evidence for the brain's model of bodily states) and allostasis (as a change in prior beliefs or predictions which define setpoints for homeostatic reflex arcs)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Dirk De Ridder, Patrick Manning, Sook Ling Leong, Samantha Ross, Sven Vanneste
Homeostasis is the basis of modern medicine and allostasis, a further elaboration of homeostasis, has been defined as stability through change, which was later modified to predictive reference resetting. It has been suggested that pleasure is related to salience (behavioral relevance), and withdrawal has been linked to allostasis in addictive types. The question arises how the clinical and neural signatures of pleasure, salience, allostasis and withdrawal relate, both in a non-addicted and addicted state. Resting state EEGs were performed in 66 people, involving a food-addicted obese group, a non-food addicted obese group and a lean control group...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
Robert-Paul Juster, Jennifer J Russell, Daniel Almeida, Martin Picard
Stress-related pathophysiology drives comorbid trajectories that elude precise prediction. Allostatic load algorithms that quantify biological "wear and tear" represent a comprehensive approach to detect multisystemic disease processes of the mind and body. However, the multiple morbidities directly or indirectly related to stress physiology remain enigmatic. Our aim in this article is to propose that biological comorbidities represent discrete pathophysiological processes captured by measuring allostatic load...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Gary D James
Variability is a normative property of blood pressure necessary for survival which likely contributes to morbidity and mortality through allostatic load. Because of its allostatic and adaptive properties blood pressure responses to peculiar situations like the visit to the clinic can lead to the misdiagnosis of hypertension. Cuff methods of blood pressure measurement can also create blood pressure variation when there really is none. There are also physiological differences between populations related to their evolutionary history that likely further affect the extent of population differences in 24-h blood pressure variability...
October 9, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Catherine M Cahill, Wendy Walwyn, Anna M W Taylor, Amynah A A Pradhan, Christopher J Evans
Mechanisms of opioid tolerance have focused on adaptive modifications within cells containing opioid receptors, defined here as cellular allostasis, emphasizing regulation of the opioid receptor signalosome. We review additional regulatory and opponent processes involved in behavioral tolerance, and include mechanistic differences both between agonists (agonist bias), and between μ- and δ-opioid receptors. In a process we will refer to as pass-forward allostasis, cells modified directly by opioid drugs impute allostatic changes to downstream circuitry...
September 23, 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Douglas S Ramsay, Stephen C Woods
Contrary to dogma, much physiological regulation utilizes learning from past experience to make responses that preemptively and effectively neutralize anticipated regulatory challenges. Understanding physiological regulation therefore requires expanding explanatory models beyond homeostasis and allostasis to emphasize the prominence of conditioning.
September 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Lidia López-Jiménez, Julio Blas, Alessandro Tanferna, Sonia Cabezas, Tracy Marchant, Fernando Hiraldo, Fabrizio Sergio
In long-lived animals, the challenges that threaten individual homeostasis, and the way they are dealt with, are expected to vary in an age-related manner, encompassing the progressive selection of superior phenotypes and the acquisition and improvement of key skills (e.g. foraging, breeding and fighting abilities). Since exposure to homeostatic challenges typically elevates circulating glucocorticoid (GC) levels in vertebrates (modulating the behavioural and physiological responses that mediate allostasis), we may expect concomitant age-related changes in these hormones...
August 27, 2016: Oecologia
Libin Liu, Paul F Pilch
Ribosomal RNA transcription mediated by RNA polymerase I represents the rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis. In eukaryotic cells, nutrients and growth factors regulate ribosomal RNA transcription through various key factors coupled to cell growth. We show here in mature adipocytes, ribosomal transcription can be acutely regulated in response to metabolic challenges. This acute response is mediated by PTRF (polymerase I transcription and release factor, also known as cavin-1), which has previously been shown to play a critical role in caveolae formation...
2016: ELife
Bruce S McEwen, Craig A McEwen
To be useful, the concept of stress needs to be defined in biological terms linked to a broader framework of allostasis and its role in the adaptation of brain and body to positive and negative life experiences. A clear biological framework helps connect and organize animal and human research on stress. In particular, the concepts of "toxic stress" and "allostatic load and overload" highlight those experiences and situations that, as Kagan says, "compromise an organism's health and capacity to cope with daily challenges" (p...
July 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Megan E Fox, Nathan T Rodeberg, R Mark Wightman
Dysregulated catecholamine signaling has long been implicated in drug abuse. Although much is known about adaptations following chronic drug administration, little work has investigated how a single drug exposure paired with withdrawal influences catecholamine signaling in vivo. We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in freely moving rats to measure real-time catecholamine overflow during acute morphine exposure and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in two regions associated with the addiction cycle: the dopamine-dense nucleus accumbens (NAc) and norepinephrine-rich ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vBNST)...
August 17, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Hsiao-Lan Wang, Constance Visovsky, Ming Ji, Maureen Groer
BACKGROUND: Female veterans experience multiple stresses during their lifetime. Some of them seek care in the civilian community. Common physical and psychological symptoms among female veterans include pain, fatigue, sleep quality, and depression. Physical activity has the potential to improve their well-being. OBJECTIVES: This study was guided by the concept of allostasis. The purpose of the study was to determine the associations among stress-related biobehavioral responses and symptoms as well as to determine if physical activity moderated these associations among female veterans...
June 23, 2016: Nurse Education Today
L Atkinson, B Jamieson, J Khoury, J Ludmer, A Gonzalez
Research on stress physiology in infancy has assumed increasing importance due to its lifelong implications. In this review, we focus on measurement of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function, in particular, and on complementary autonomic processes. We suggest that the measure of HPA function has been overly exclusive, focusing on individual reactivity to single, pragmatically selected laboratory challenges. We advocate use of multiple, strategically chosen challenges and within-subject designs. By administering one challenge that typically does not provoke reactivity and another that does, it is possible to represent allostatic load in terms of "flexibility," the capacity to titrate response to challenge...
August 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
B M Lidy Verburg-van Kemenade, Nicholas Cohen, Magdalena Chadzinska
It has now become accepted that the immune system and neuroendocrine system form an integrated part of our physiology. Immunological defense mechanisms act in concert with physiological processes like growth and reproduction, energy intake and metabolism, as well as neuronal development. Not only are psychological and environmental stressors communicated to the immune system, but also, vice versa, the immune response and adaptation to a current pathogen challenge are communicated to the entire body, including the brain, to evoke adaptive responses (e...
June 11, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Kelvin J A Davies
Homeostasis is a central pillar of modern Physiology. The term homeostasis was invented by Walter Bradford Cannon in an attempt to extend and codify the principle of 'milieu intérieur,' or a constant interior bodily environment, that had previously been postulated by Claude Bernard. Clearly, 'milieu intérieur' and homeostasis have served us well for over a century. Nevertheless, research on signal transduction systems that regulate gene expression, or that cause biochemical alterations to existing enzymes, in response to external and internal stimuli, makes it clear that biological systems are continuously making short-term adaptations both to set-points, and to the range of 'normal' capacity...
June 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Anna Pliássova, Paula M Canas, Ana Carolina Xavier, Beatriz S da Silva, Rodrigo A Cunha, Paula Agostinho
Amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) is involved in synaptic formation and function. In the human cingulate cortex, AβPP was preferentially located in the presynaptic active zone as in rodents, indicating a preserved subsynaptic AβPP distribution across species and brain regions. Synaptic AβPP immunoreactivity was decreased with aging in cortical samples collected from autopsies of males (20-80 years), whereas the synaptic levels of α-secretase (ADAM10) and β-secretase (BACE1) did not significantly change...
April 18, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Maureen Wimberly Groër, Elizabeth A Kostas-Polston, Christina Dillahunt-Aspillaga, Theresa M Beckie, Versie Johnson-Mallard, Allyson Duffy, Mary E Evans
BACKGROUND: Women veterans have increased reports of sexual victimization compared to women in general, including childhood sexual assault (CSA) before military service, increasing the risk of military sexual trauma. Findings from recent studies reveal negative health effects following a history of CSA. There is a strong relationship between CSA and revictimization in civilian and military life, which may contribute to allostatic load. OBJECTIVES: (1) To determine the relationship between women veterans' CSA history and later sexual assault history and (2) to determine the relationships between women veterans' CSA and primary mediators and secondary and tertiary outcomes of allostasis...
July 2016: Biological Research for Nursing
Audrey Maille, Carsten Schradin
Cognitive performance is based on brain functions, which have energetic demands and are modulated by physiological parameters such as metabolic hormones. As both environmental demands and environmental energy availability change seasonally, we propose that cognitive performance in free-living animals might also change seasonally due to phenotypic plasticity. This is part of an emerging research field, the 'ecophysiology of cognition': environmentally induced changes in physiological traits, such as blood glucose and hormone levels, are predicted to influence cognitive performance in free-living animals...
March 28, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Cristina Benatti, Joan M C Blom, Giovanna Rigillo, Silvia Alboni, Francesca Zizzi, Riccardo Torta, Nicoletta Brunello, Fabio Tascedda
Progression of major depression, a multifactorial disorder with a neuroinflammatory signature, seems to be associated with the disruption of body allostasis. High rates of comorbidity between depression and specific medical disorders, such as, stroke, chronic pain conditions, diabetes mellitus, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, have been extensively reported. In this review, we discuss how these medical disorders may predispose an individual to develop depression by examining the impact of these disorders on some hallmarks of neuroinflammation known to be impaired in depressed patients: altered permeability of the blood brain barrier, immune cells infiltration, activated microglia, increased cytokines production, and the role of inflammasomes...
2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
S E DuRant, R de Bruijn, M N Tran, L M Romero
Chronic stress, potentially through the actions of corticosterone, is thought to directly impair the function of immune cells. However, chronic stress may also have an indirect effect by influencing allocation of energy, ultimately shifting resources away from the immune system. If so, the effects of chronic stress on immune responses may be greater during energetically-costly life history events. To test whether the effects of chronic stress on immune responses differ during expensive life history events we measured wound healing rate in molting and non-molting European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) exposed to control or chronic stress conditions...
April 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Frédéric Angelier, Charline Parenteau, Stéphanie Ruault, Nicole Angelier
In the context of global change, the physiological and hormonal stress responses have received much attention because of their implications in terms of allostasis. However, most studies have focused on glucocorticoids only as the "common" response to stressors while neglecting other endocrine axes and hormones (e.g. prolactin, thyroid hormones) that play a crucial role in metabolic adjustments. Interestingly, the responsiveness of all these endocrine axes to stress may depend on the energetic context and this context-dependent stress response has been overlooked so far...
February 23, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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