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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101229/-almg-responsible-for-polymyxin-resistance-in-pandemic-v-cholerae-is-a-glycyl-transferase-distantly-related-to-lipid-a-late-acyltransferases
#1
Jeremy C Henderson, Carmen M Herrera, M Stephen Trent
Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs), such as polymyxins are used as a last-line defense in treatment of many bacterial infections. However, some bacteria have developed resistance mechanisms to survive these compounds. Current pandemic O1 Vibrio cholerae biotype El Tor is resistant to polymyxins, whereas previous pandemic strain of the classical biotype is polymyxin sensitive. The almEFG operon found in El Tor V. cholerae confers >100-fold resistance to antimicrobial peptides through aminoacylation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), expected to decrease the negatively charged surface of the V...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099761/the-role-of-carbohydrates-in-the-lipopolysaccharide-lps-toll-like-receptor-4-tlr4-signalling
#2
REVIEW
Florent Cochet, Francesco Peri
The interactions between sugar-containing molecules from the bacteria cell wall and pattern recognition receptors (PRR) on the plasma membrane or cytosol of specialized host cells are the first molecular events required for the activation of higher animal's immune response and inflammation. This review focuses on the role of carbohydrates of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS, lipooligosaccharide, LOS, and lipid A), in the interaction with the host Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (TLR4/MD-2) complex...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050611/structure-and-in-vitro-anticancer-activity-of-sulfated-o-polysaccharide-from-marine-bacterium-poseidonocella-pacifica-kmm-9010-t
#3
Maxim S Kokoulin, Alexandra S Kuzmich, Anatoly I Kalinovsky, Eugene S Rubtsov, Lyudmila A Romanenko, Valery V Mikhailov, Nadezhda A Komandrova
We presented the structure of the sulfated polysaccharide moiety and anticancer activity in vitro of the О-deacylated lipopolysaccharide (DPS) isolated from the marine bacterium Poseidonocella pacifica KMM 9010(T). The structure of O-polysaccharide was investigated by chemical methods along with (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The O-polysaccharide was built up of sulfated disaccharide repeating units consisted of d-rhamnose (d-Rhaр) and 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdop): →7)-β-Kdoр4Ac5S-(2→3)-β-d-Rhaр2S-(1→...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028168/synthesis-of-a-pentasaccharide-fragment-related-to-the-inner-core-region-of-rhizobial-and-agrobacterial-lipopolysaccharides
#4
Nino Trattnig, Jean-Baptiste Farcet, Philipp Gritsch, Anna Christler, Ralph Pantophlet, Paul Kosma
The pentasaccharide fragment α-d-Man-(1 → 5)-[α-d-Kdo-(2 → 4)-]α-d-Kdo-(2 → 6)-β-d-GlcNAc-(1 → 6)-α-d-GlcNAc equipped with a 3-aminopropyl spacer moiety was prepared by a sequential assembly of monosaccharide building blocks. The glucosamine disaccharide-as a backbone surrogate of the bacterial lipid A region-was synthesized using an 1,3-oxazoline donor, which was followed by coupling with an isopropylidene-protected Kdo-fluoride donor to afford a protected tetrasaccharide intermediate. Eventually, an orthogonally protected manno-configured trichloroacetimidate donor was used to achieve the sterically demanding glycosylation of the 5-OH group of Kdo in good yield...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018092/molecular-characterization-and-verification-of-azido-3-8-dideoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic-acid-incorporation-into-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide
#5
Inga Nilsson, Kerri Grove, Dustin Dovala, Tsuyoshi Uehara, Guillaume Lapointe, David A Six
3-Deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) is an essential component of LPS in the outer leaflet of the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane. While labeling of Escherichia coli with the chemical reporter 8-azido-3,8-dideoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo-N3) has been reported, its incorporation into LPS has not been directly shown. We have now verified Kdo-N3 incorporation into E. coli LPS at the molecular level. Using PAGE analysis, we show that Kdo-N3 is localized to the outer membrane and specifically incorporates into rough and deep-rough LPS...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874446/characterization-of-two-novel-lipopolysaccharide-phosphoethanolamine-transferases-in-pasteurella-multocida-and-their-role-in-resistance-to-cathelicidin-2
#6
Marina Harper, Amy Wright, Frank St Michael, Jianjun Li, Deanna Deveson Lucas, Mark Ford, Ben Adler, Andrew D Cox, John D Boyce
The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced by the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Pasteurella multocida has phosphoethanolamine (PEtn) residues attached to lipid A, 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo), heptose, and galactose. In this report, we show that PEtn is transferred to lipid A by the P. multocida EptA homologue, PetL, and is transferred to galactose by a novel PEtn transferase that is unique to P. multocida called PetG. Transcriptomic analyses indicated that petL expression was positively regulated by the global regulator Fis and negatively regulated by an Hfq-dependent small RNA...
November 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794950/structure-of-the-lipopolysaccharide-from-the-bradyrhizobium-sp-ors285-rfal-mutant-strain
#7
Flaviana Di Lorenzo, Angelo Palmigiano, Katarzyna A Duda, Mateusz Pallach, Nicolas Busset, Luisa Sturiale, Eric Giraud, Domenico Garozzo, Antonio Molinaro, Alba Silipo
The importance of the outer membrane and of its main constituent, lipopolysaccharide, in the symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous host plants has been well studied. Here, the first complete structural characterization of the entire lipopolysaccharide from an O-chain-deficient Bradyrhizobium ORS285 rfaL mutant is achieved by a combination of chemical analysis, NMR spectroscopy, MALDI MS and MS/MS. The lipid A structure is shown to be consistent with previously reported Bradyrhizobium lipid A, that is, a heterogeneous blend of penta- to hepta-acylated species carrying a nonstoichiometric hopanoid unit and possessing very-long-chain fatty acids ranging from 26:0(25-OH) to 32:0(31-OH)...
August 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646448/purification-of-the-exopolysaccharide-produced-by-alteromonas-infernus-identification-of-endotoxins-and-effective-process-to-remove-them
#8
Alicia Grivaud-Le Du, Agata Zykwinska, Corinne Sinquin, Jacqueline Ratiskol, Pierre Weiss, Claire Vinatier, Jérôme Guicheux, Christine Delbarre-Ladrat, Sylvia Colliec-Jouault
Alteromonas infernus bacterium isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents can produce by fermentation a high molecular weight exopolysaccharide (EPS) called GY785. This EPS described as a new source of glycosaminoglycan-like molecule presents a great potential for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications. However, this unusual EPS is secreted by a Gram-negative bacterium and can be therefore contaminated by endotoxins, in particular the lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Biochemical and chemical analyses of the LPS extracted from A...
June 23, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533794/boron-supply-enhances-aluminum-tolerance-in-root-border-cells-of-pea-pisum-sativum-by-interacting-with-cell-wall-pectins
#9
Xue Wen Li, Jia You Liu, Jing Fang, Lin Tao, Ren Fang Shen, Ya Lin Li, Hong Dong Xiao, Ying Ming Feng, Hai Xiang Wen, Jia Hua Guan, Li Shu Wu, Yong Ming He, Heiner E Goldbach, Min Yu
Aluminum (Al) toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop growth in acidic soils. Boron (B) alleviates Al toxicity in plants, which is mainly considered to be due to the formation of Rhamnogalacturonan II-B (RGII-B) complexes, which helps to stabilize the cytoskeleton. It is unclear yet whether this is due to the increasing of net negative charges and/or further mechanisms. Kinetics of Al accumulation and adsorption were investigated using entire cells, cell wall and pectin of root border cells (RBCs) of pea (Pisum sativum), to reveal the mechanism of B in interacting with alkali-soluble and chelator-soluble pectin for an increased Al tolerance in RBCs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478910/gold-i-catalyzed-synthesis-of-%C3%AE-kdo-glycosides-using-kdo-ortho-hexynylbenzoate-as-donor
#10
Xuemeng Mi, Qixin Lou, Wenjing Fan, Liqin Zhuang, You Yang
A gold(I)-catalyzed glycosylation of Kdo with glycosyl ortho-hexynylbenzoate as donor is reported. The couplings of Kdo ortho-hexynylbenzoate with a set of alcohols promoted by PPh3AuOTf afford Kdo glycosides with good β-selectivities. This glycosylation method allows for the synthesis of β-Kdo monosaccharide with a C5 linker at the reducing end for subsequent conjugation to carrier proteins and arrays.
April 28, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438125/chlamydia-spp-development-is-differentially-altered-by-treatment-with-the-lpxc-inhibitor-lpc-011
#11
Erik D Cram, Daniel D Rockey, Brian P Dolan
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular bacteria that infect a broad range of mammalian hosts. Members of related genera are pathogens of a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species. Despite the diversity of Chlamydia, all species contain an outer membrane lipooligosaccharide (LOS) that is comprised of a genus-conserved, and genus-defining, trisaccharide 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid Kdo region. Recent studies with lipopolysaccharide inhibitors demonstrate that LOS is important for the C...
April 24, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342805/phosphoethanolamine-addition-to-the-heptose-i-of-the-lipopolysaccharide-modifies-the-inner-core-structure-and-has-an-impact-on-the-binding-of-polymyxin-b-to-the-escherichia-coli-outer-membrane
#12
Javier Salazar, Mackarenna Alarcón, Jaime Huerta, Belén Navarro, Daniel Aguayo
Phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) decoration of E. coli Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provides resistance to the antimicrobial Polymyxin B (PolB). While EptA and EptB enzymes catalyze the addition of pEtN to the Lipid A and Kdo (pEtN-Kdo-Lipid A), EptC catalyzes the pEtN addition to the Heptose I (pEtN-HeptI). In this study, we investigated the contribution of pEtN-HeptI to PolB resistance using eptA/eptB and eptC deficient E. coli K12 and its wild-type parent strains. These mutations were shown to decrease the antimicrobial activity of PolB on cells grown under pEtN-addition inducing conditions...
April 15, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328947/a-spontaneous-mutation-in-kdsd-a-biosynthesis-gene-for-3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic-acid-occurred-in-a-ciprofloxacin-resistant-strain-of-francisella-tularensis-and-caused-a-high-level-of-attenuation-in-murine-models-of-tularemia
#13
Taylor Chance, Jennifer Chua, Ronald G Toothman, Jason T Ladner, Jonathan E Nuss, Jo Lynne Raymond, Fabrice V Biot, Samandra Demons, Lynda Miller, Stephanie Halasohoris, Sherry Mou, Galina Koroleva, Sean Lovett, Gustavo Palacios, Nicholas J Vietri, Patricia L Worsham, Christopher K Cote, Todd M Kijek, Joel A Bozue
Francisella tularensis, a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen, is the causative agent of tularemia and able to infect many mammalian species, including humans. Because of its ability to cause a lethal infection, low infectious dose, and aerosolizable nature, F. tularensis subspecies tularensis is considered a potential biowarfare agent. Due to its in vitro efficacy, ciprofloxacin is one of the antibiotics recommended for post-exposure prophylaxis of tularemia. In order to identify therapeutics that will be efficacious against infections caused by drug resistant select-agents and to better understand the threat, we sought to characterize an existing ciprofloxacin resistant (CipR) mutant in the Schu S4 strain of F...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306723/the-redefinition-of-helicobacter-pylori-lipopolysaccharide-o-antigen-and-core-oligosaccharide-domains
#14
Hong Li, Tiandi Yang, Tingting Liao, Aleksandra W Debowski, Hans-Olof Nilsson, Alma Fulurija, Stuart M Haslam, Barbara Mulloy, Anne Dell, Keith A Stubbs, Barry J Marshall, Mohammed Benghezal
Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide promotes chronic gastric colonisation through O-antigen host mimicry and resistance to mucosal antimicrobial peptides mediated primarily by modifications of the lipid A. The structural organisation of the core and O-antigen domains of H. pylori lipopolysaccharide remains unclear, as the O-antigen attachment site has still to be identified experimentally. Here, structural investigations of lipopolysaccharides purified from two wild-type strains and the O-antigen ligase mutant revealed that the H...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137848/single-polysaccharide-assembly-protein-that-integrates-polymerization-termination-and-chain-length-quality-control
#15
Danielle M Williams, Olga G Ovchinnikova, Akihiko Koizumi, Iain L Mainprize, Matthew S Kimber, Todd L Lowary, Chris Whitfield
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are essential outer membrane glycolipids in most gram-negative bacteria. Biosynthesis of the O-antigenic polysaccharide (OPS) component of LPS follows one of three widely distributed strategies, and similar processes are used to assemble other bacterial surface glycoconjugates. This study focuses on the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-dependent pathway, where glycans are completed on undecaprenyl diphosphate carriers at the cytosol:membrane interface, before export by the ABC transporter...
February 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906600/role-of-polysaccharide-and-lipid-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-prion-protein-conversion
#16
Carol L Ladner-Keay, Marcia LeVatte, David S Wishart
Conversion of native cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) from an α-helical structure to a toxic and infectious β-sheet structure (PrP(Sc)) is a critical step in the development of prion disease. There are some indications that the formation of PrP(Sc) is preceded by a β-sheet rich PrP (PrP(β)) form which is non-infectious, but is an intermediate in the formation of infectious PrP(Sc). Furthermore the presence of lipid cofactors is thought to be critical in the formation of both intermediate-PrP(β) and lethal, infectious PrP(Sc)...
November 2016: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693835/structural-elucidation-of-anti-metastatic-rhamnogalacturonan-ii-from-the-pectinase-digest-of-citrus-peels-citrus-unshiu
#17
Hye-Ryung Park, Su Beom Park, Hee-Do Hong, Hyung Joo Suh, Kwang-Soon Shin
The aim of this study was to characterize a polysaccharide found in citrus peels with an anti-metastatic property. CPE-II was purified by the pectinase digestion of citrus peels. During in vivo lung metastasis of Colon26-M3.1, administration of 10μg of CPE-II per mouse showed 81.3% inhibition of metastasis. CPE-II consists of 15 different monosaccharides and 22 different glycosyl linkages, characteristic of rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II). The primary structure was elucidated based on sugar composition, methylation analysis, oligosaccharide analysis, and sequencing using GC, GC-MS, LC-MS, and ESI-MS/MS analyses...
January 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626133/4-methoxyphenacyl-assisted-synthesis-of-%C3%AE-kdo-glycosides
#18
Marcelina Mazur, Barbara Barycza, Hanitra Andriamboavonjy, Serge Lavoie, Marielle Tamigney Kenfack, Anaïs Laroussarie, Yves Blériot, Charles Gauthier
3-Deoxy-β-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (β-Kdo) glycosides are mainly found in capsular polysaccharides and extracellular exopolysaccharides from Gram-negative bacteria. These compounds have profound biological implications in immune response and act as virulence factors. We have developed a novel methodology for the stereoselective synthesis of β-Kdo glycosides via the use of a 4'-methoxyphenacyl (Phen) auxiliary group at the C1 position of a peracetylated β-Kdo thioglycoside. Under the promotion of NIS/AgOTf in acetonitrile, a series of Kdo glycosides was synthesized in good yield and β-selectivity while minimizing the formation of undesirable glycals...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613802/the-lipopolysaccharide-of-the-crop-pathogen-xanthomonas-translucens-pv-translucens-chemical-characterization-and-determination-of-signaling-events-in-plant-cells
#19
Tim Steffens, Katarzyna Duda, Buko Lindner, Frank-Jörg Vorhölter, Hanna Bednarz, Karsten Niehaus, Otto Holst
Xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens (Xtt) is a Gram-negative pathogen of crops from the plant family Poaceae The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Xtt was isolated and chemically characterized. The analyses revealed the presence of rhamnose, xylose, mannose, glucose, galacturonic acid, phosphates, 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid (Kdo) and fatty acids (10:0, 11:0, 11:0(3-OH) i/a, 11:0(3-OH), 12:0(3-OH) i/a, 12:0(3-OH), 12:0, 13:0(3-OH) i, 13:0(3-OH) a, 13:0(3-OH), 14:0(3-OH) i/a, 14:0(3-OH) and 16:0)...
September 9, 2016: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577896/structure-and-anticancer-activity-of-sulfated-o-polysaccharide-from-marine-bacterium-cobetia-litoralis-kmm-3880-t
#20
Maxim S Kokoulin, Alexandra S Kuzmich, Anatoly I Kalinovsky, Svetlana V Tomshich, Lyudmila A Romanenko, Valery V Mikhailov, Nadezhda A Komandrova
We presented the structure of the polysaccharide moiety and anticancer activity in vitro of the sulfated lipopolysaccharide isolated from the marine bacterium Cobetia litoralis KMM 3880(T). The structure of O-polysaccharide was investigated by chemical methods along with (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The O-polysaccharide was built up of branched trisaccharide repeating units consist of D-glucose (D-Glcр), D-mannose (D-Manр) and sulfated 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo5S): →7-β-Kdoр4Ac5S-(2→4)-[β-d-Glcp-(1→2)-]-β-d-Manр6Ac-1→...
December 10, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
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