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Maria Stefania Latrofa, Giada Annoscia, Vito Colella, Maria Alfonsa Cavalera, Carla Maia, Coralie Martin, Jan Šlapeta, Domenico Otranto
The ocular onchocercosis is caused is by the zoonotic parasite Onchocerca lupi (Spirurida: Onchocercidae). A major hindrance to scientific progress is the absence of a reliable diagnostic test in affected individuals. Microscopic examination of skin snip sediments and the identification of adults embedded in ocular nodules are seldom performed and labour-intensive. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was herein standardized for the detection of O. lupi DNA and the results compared with microscopic examination and conventional PCR (cPCR)...
April 4, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Vito Colella, Carla Maia, André Pereira, Nuno Gonçalves, Marta Caruso, Coralie Martin, Luís Cardoso, Lenea Campino, Ivan Scandale, Domenico Otranto
The genus Onchocerca encompasses parasitic nematodes including Onchocerca volvulus, causative agent of river blindness in humans, and the zoonotic Onchocerca lupi infecting dogs and cats. In dogs, O. lupi adult worms cause ocular lesions of various degrees while humans may bear the brunt of zoonotic onchocercosis with patients requiring neurosurgical intervention because of central nervous system localization of nematodes. Though the zoonotic potential of O. lupi has been well recognized from human cases in Europe, the United States and the Middle East, a proper therapy for curing this parasitic infection in dogs is lacking...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Bim Boijsen, Henrik Uhlhorn, Erik Ågren, Johan Höglund
The presence of subcutaneous nodular onchocercosis was investigated at slaughter of 151 red deer ( Cervus elaphus ) (107 juveniles and 44 adults) between October-December 2015. The prevalence of subcutaneous nodules was 56%. Nodules were located in the lumbar region of the back in 96% of the cases, and 38% of the infected red deer had additional parasitic nodules in other body locations, such as rump, thorax, forelimbs and neck. The number of nodules per deer was 1-10 in two-thirds of the affected animals, and only 2% had more than 50 nodules...
December 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Shigehiko Uni, Masako Fukuda, Kou Ogawa, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim, Takeshi Agatsuma, Naruemon Bunchom, Weerachai Saijuntha, Yasushi Otsuka, Subha Bhassu, Ahmad Syihan Mat Udin, Nur Afiqah Zainuri, Hasmahzaiti Omar, Jun Nakatani, Makoto Matsubayashi, Haruhiko Maruyama, Rosli Ramli, Mohd Sofian Azirun, Hiroyuki Takaoka
An 11-year-old boy living in Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture, Kansai Region, Western Honshu, Japan had zoonotic onchocercosis. The patient developed a painful swelling on the little finger of his left hand. The worm detected in the excised mass had external transverse ridges but did not have inner striae in the cuticle. On the basis of the parasite's histopathological characteristics, the causative agent was identified as a female Onchocerca dewittei japonica (Spirurida: Onchocercidae). The species of the filarial parasite was confirmed by sequencing the cox1 gene of the parasite...
June 23, 2017: Parasitology International
Riccardo Paolo Lia, Yasen Mutafchiev, Vincenzo Veneziano, Alessio Giannelli, Francesca Abramo, Mario Santoro, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Cinzia Cantacessi, Coralie Martin, Domenico Otranto, Andrea Bertuglia, Barbara Riccio
Equids can be infected by a range of skin-dwelling filarial nematodes, including four species of the genus Onchocerca. Current literature on equine onchocercosis is fragmentary and often limited to isolated case reports. The present study aimed to describe a clinical case of equine onchocercosis caused by Onchocerca boehmi (Supperer, 1953) (syn. Elaeophora boehmi) in an 8-year-old gelding Belgian show jumper from northern Italy. The horse was presented with a firm and painless mass on the proximal third of the right metacarpal region...
January 2017: Parasitology Research
Felix Bosch, Ralph Manzanell, Alexander Mathis
Twenty-seven species of the genus Onchocerca (Nematoda; Filarioidea) can cause a vector-borne parasitic disease called onchocercosis. Most Onchocerca species infect wild and domestic ungulates or the dog, and one species causes river blindness in humans mainly in tropical Africa. The European red deer (Cervus e. elaphus) is host to four species, which are transmitted by blackflies (simuliids) or biting midges (ceratopogonids). Two species, Onchocerca flexuosa and Onchocerca jakutensis, produce subcutaneous nodules, whereas Onchocerca skrjabini and Onchocerca garmsi live free in the hypodermal serous membranes...
August 2016: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
Bronwyn Campbell, Helder Cortes, Giada Annoscia, Alessio Giannelli, Antonio Parisi, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Luís Cardoso, Domenico Otranto
BACKGROUND: Of increasing importance to the medical and veterinary communities is the zoonotic filarioid nematode Onchocerca lupi. Onchocercosis, thus far found in wolves, dogs, cats and humans, is diagnosed via skin snips to detect microfilariae and surgical removal of adults from the eye of the host. These methods are time-consuming, laborious and invasive, highlighting the need for new tools for the diagnosis of O. lupi in susceptible hosts. Symptoms related to the presence of the adults in the eye can range from none apparent to severe, including blindness...
September 7, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Poliana Tudor, Mihai Turcitu, Cosmin Mateescu, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Niculae Tudor, Florica Bărbuceanu, Lavinia Ciuca, Ioana Burcoveanu, Dumitru Acatrinei, Laura Rinaldi, Romanița Mateescu, Adina Bădicu, Iuliana Ionașcu, Domenico Otranto
Onchocerca lupi is a filarial nematode, which infects the scleral conjunctival tissue of dogs, wolves and cats. Whilst adult nematodes localize in the conjunctive tissue of sclera or in the retrobulbar, microfilariae are found in the skin, and they are rarely diagnosed in asymptomatic animals. Since the first report of human ocular infection 5 years ago, up to 10 zoonotic cases have been identified in patients worldwide. We report, for the first time in Romania, three cases of canine ocular onchocercosis in dogs...
February 2016: Parasitology Research
Bruno B Chomel
Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as "family members" within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad), but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Bacterial zoonoses include bacteria transmitted by bites or scratches, such as pasteurellosis or cat scratch disease, leading to severe clinical manifestations in people because of their age or immune status and also because of our closeness, not to say intimacy, with our pets...
July 15, 2014: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Masako Fukuda, Shigehiko Uni, Yasushi Otsuka, Yuki Eshita, Jun Nakatani, Kazuhiko Ihara, Yasuji Yoshikawa, Mizuki Goto, Sakuhei Fujiwara, Rosli Ramli, Mohd Sofian Azirun, Hiroyuki Takaoka
A case of zoonotic onchocercosis has been found in a resident who lived in Iizuka City, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan for some time. A 24-year-old male developed a painful nodule on the middle finger of his right hand. The nodule was surgically removed from the vagina fibrosa tendinis of the finger at Beppu Medical Center, Beppu City, Oita Prefecture in 2012. The causative agent was identified as a female Onchocerca dewittei japonica based on its histopathological characteristics. The identity of the filarioid has been confirmed by sequencing the cox1 gene...
December 2015: Parasitology International
Shigehiko Uni, Masako Fukuda, Takeshi Agatsuma, Odile Bain, Yasushi Otsuka, Jun Nakatani, Makoto Matsubayashi, Masashi Harada, Hasmahzaiti Omar, Rosli Ramli, Rosli Hashim, Mohd Sofian Azirun, Hiroyuki Takaoka
Human zoonotic onchocercosis is caused by Onchocerca dewittei japonica, parasitic in wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax) in Japan. Previously, microfilariae longer than those of Onchocerca dewittei japonica were observed in skin snips from wild boars during the study of O. dewittei japonica. Moreover, the third-stage larvae (L3) of these longer microfilariae were obtained from the blackfly Simulium bidentatum after experimental injections. Based on morphometric and molecular studies, similar L3 were found in blackflies during fieldwork in Oita, Japan...
December 2015: Parasitology International
Anastasia Th Komnenou, Angelos L N Thomas, Elias Papadopoulos, Alex F Koutinas
OBJECTIVE: Canine ocular onchocercosis may represent an important ocular disease with zoonotic potential and widespread geographical distribution. An uncommon localization of Onchocerca lupi adult worm in the anterior chamber of the eye is described for the first time. ANIMAL STUDIED: A 4-year-old, intact, male, mixed-breed dog was admitted with profuse lacrimation and severe squinting. On the right eye, there were mucopurulent discharge, chemosis, and all typical signs of anterior uveitis which were attributed to the presence of a moving filarial worm within the anterior chamber...
April 30, 2015: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Domenico Otranto, Alessio Giannelli, Maria S Latrofa, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Nicole Scotty Trumble, Matt Chavkin, Gavin Kennard, Mark L Eberhard, Dwight D Bowman
Infections with Onchocerca lupi nematodes are diagnosed sporadically in the United States. We report 8 cases of canine onchocercosis in Minnesota, New Mexico, Colorado, and Florida. Identification of 1 cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene haplotype identical to 1 of 5 from Europe suggests recent introduction of this nematode into the United States.
May 2015: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Domenico Otranto, Alessio Giannelli, Nicole Scotty Trumble, Matt Chavkin, Gavin Kennard, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Dwight D Bowman, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Mark L Eberhard
BACKGROUND: Onchocerca lupi, a filarioid of zoonotic concern, infects dogs and cats causing ocular lesions of different degrees, from minor to severe. However, infected animals do not always display overt clinical signs, rendering the diagnosis of the infection obscure to the majority of veterinarians. Canine onchocercosis has been reported in the Old World and the information on its occurrence in the United States, as well as its pathogenesis and clinical management is still meagre. This study reports on the largest case series of O...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
Domenico Otranto, Alessio Giannelli, Nicole Scotty Trumble, Matt Chavkin, Gavin Kennard, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Dwight D Bowman, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Mark L Eberhard
BACKGROUND: Onchocerca lupi, a filarioid of zoonotic concern, infects dogs and cats causing ocular lesions of different degrees, from minor to severe. However, infected animals do not always display overt clinical signs, rendering the diagnosis of the infection obscure to the majority of veterinarians. Canine onchocercosis has been reported in the Old World and the information on its occurrence in the United States, as well as its pathogenesis and clinical management is still meagre. This study reports on the largest case series of O...
December 2015: Parasites & Vectors
Shigehiko Uni, Masako Fukuda, Yasushi Otsuka, Nobuo Hiramatsu, Kenichi Yokobayashi, Hiroshi Takahashi, Susumu Murata, Kenji Kusatake, Eishin Morita, Haruhiko Maruyama, Hideo Hasegawa, Kuninori Shiwaku, Rosli Ramli, Mohd Sofian Azirun, Hiroyuki Takaoka
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic infections with Onchocerca species are uncommon, and to date only 25 clinical cases have been reported worldwide. In Japan, five previous zoonotic infections were concentrated in Oita, Kyushu (the southern island), with one previous case in Hiroshima in the western part of Honshu (the main island). The causative agent in Japan was identified as Onchocerca dewittei japonica Uni, Bain & Takaoka, 2001 from Japanese wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax Temminck, 1842). Here we report two infections caused by a female and male O...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
Delia Franchini, Alessio Giannelli, Giancarlo Di Paola, Helder Cortes, Luís Cardoso, Riccardo Paolo Lia, Bronwyn Evelyn Campbell, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Diana Lenoci, Eyad Abu Assad, Mario Ricciardi, Carmela Valastro, Leonardo Cavaliere, Antonio Di Bello, Domenico Otranto
Onchocerca lupi, a zoonotic nematode infecting the eyes of carnivores, has been increasingly reported in dogs from Europe and the USA. In order to improve the current status of knowledge on this neglected filarioid, diagnostic imaging tools (i.e., ultrasound scan, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) are herein used to diagnose canine onchocercosis in two dogs, which scored positive for O. lupi microfilariae at the skin snip test and to assess the anatomical location of the nematode within the ocular apparatus...
June 16, 2014: Veterinary Parasitology
Hatice Deniz Ilhan, Aylin Yaman, Yasuyuki Morishima, Hiromu Sugiyama, Maki Muto, Hiroshi Yamasaki, Hideo Hasegawa, Banu Lebe, Meltem Soylev Bajin
Onchocerpa lupi was first isolated from a wolf in Russia. Since then, canine ocular onchocercosis has been increasingly reported, particularly in Europe and the United States. It is thought that blackflies and midges are the vectors of transmission, and it is possible that these vectors could transmit the parasite to humans. The first human case of O. lupi in Turkey was reported in 2011. In this report we present the third human case of O. lupi infection in Turkey. Our patient was a 28-year-old male who displayed a painless, immobile mass under the conjunctiva...
September 2013: Acta Parasitologica
Amber L Labelle, Carol W Maddox, Joshua B Daniels, Saraswathi Lanka, Therese E Eggett, Richard R Dubielzig, Philippe Labelle
Canine ocular onchocerciasis has a worldwide distribution and has been associated in Europe with Onchocerca lupi based on morphologic and molecular analysis. In the United States, canine ocular onchocerciasis is reportedly associated with Onchocerca lienalis. This association is based solely on histopathologic examination of ocular tissues. The purpose of this study was to use molecular analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded canine ocular tissue to determine the genetic identity of Onchocerca associated with canine ocular onchocerciasis in the United States...
March 31, 2013: Veterinary Parasitology
Federico Morandi, Andreas Krueger, Serena Panarese, Giuseppe Sarli, Ranieri Verin, Sandro Nicoloso, Cinzia Benazzi, Roberta Galuppi
Onchocercosis is a vector-transmitted parasitic disease involving wild and domestic ungulates, humans, and dogs. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) host numerous Onchocerca spp. which have precise anatomic sites in the host and two species, Onchocerca flexuosa Wedl, 1856 and Onchocerca jakutensis Guba-now, 1964, are found inside subcutaneous nodules. Between September and November 2007, subcutaneous nodules were observed on both thighs in shot red deer of a Tuscany population. We observed cystic structures, surrounded by a fibrous capsule, containing nematodes...
October 2011: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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