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Ashley D Franklin, William T Waddell, Karen L Goodrowe
Cryopreserving genetic resources is becoming increasingly important for species management. In the zoo-based red wolf (Canis rufus) population, inbreeding continues to increase in the absence of new founders. Through banking sperm, we preserve genetic diversity and create the ability to decrease inbreeding accumulation in the future. The quality and quantity of banked sperm can be affected by cryopreservation media and semen collection methods. This study's objectives were to further optimize semen extender used for red wolf sperm cryopreservation, investigate effects of post-thaw holding temperature, and to determine if urethral catheterization is an effective method for semen collection in this species...
May 16, 2018: Theriogenology
Masanari Kuwabara, Ichiro Hisatome, Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Koichiro Niwa, Ana Andres-Hernando, Thomas Jensen, Petter Bjornstad, Tamara Milagres, Christina Cicerchi, Zhilin Song, Gabriela Garcia, Laura G Sánchez-Lozada, Minoru Ohno, Miguel A Lanaspa, Richard J Johnson
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169137.].
2018: PloS One
Travis C Jackson, C Edward Dixon, Keri Janesko-Feldman, Vincent Vagni, Shawn E Kotermanski, Edwin K Jackson, Patrick M Kochanek
Suprachiasmatic nucleus circadian oscillatory protein (SCOP) (a.k.a. PHLPP1) regulates long-term memory consolidation in the brain. Using a mouse model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) we tested if (1) brain tissue levels of SCOP/PHLPP1 increase after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), and (2) if SCOP/PHLPP1 gene knockout (KO) mice have improved (or worse) neurologic outcomes. Blood chemistry (pH, pCO2 , pO2 , pSO2 , base excess, sodium bicarbonate, and osmolarity) and arterial pressure (MAP) differed in isoflurane anesthetized WT vs...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sujuan Xu, Shizheng Huang, Zhilin Luan, Tingyue Chen, Yuanyi Wei, Miaomiao Xing, Yaqing Li, Chunxiu Du, Bing Wang, Feng Zheng, Nanping Wang, Youfei Guan, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Xiaoyan Zhang
Hypertonicity in renal medulla is critical for the kidney to produce concentrated urine. Renal medullary cells have to survive high medullary osmolarity during antidiuresis. Previous study reported that farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor transcription factor activated by endogenous bile acids, increases urine concentrating ability by up-regulating aquaporin 2 expression in medullary collecting duct cells (MCDs). However, whether FXR is also involved in the maintenance of cell survival of MCDs under dehydration condition and hypertonic stress remains largely unknown...
May 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chi Zhang, Xiuhua Meng, Huiyu Gu, Zhihua Ma, Ling Lu
Glycerol plays an important role in the adaptation of fungi to various microenvironments and stressors, including heat shock, anoxic conditions and osmotic stress. Glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) is able to catalyze dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P), which is subsequently dephosphorylated into glycerol. However, current knowledge about the functions of G3PDH homologs in glycerol biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus is limited. Here, we show that the A. fumigatus G3PDH gene, gfdA, is crucial for normal colony growth in glucose media under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions...
May 8, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Junyi Zhang, Yufeng Jiang, Qing Rui, Min Chen, Nannan Zhang, Huajia Yang, Yafeng Zhou
BACKGROUND: The use of contrast agents during coronary angiography can result in contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), particularly in patients with renal dysfunction. On the contrary, different contrast agents can induce different degree of changes in cardiac function. The objective of our meta-analysis was to compare the clinical safety of iso-osmolar contrast medium iodixanol to low-osmolar contrast medium iopromide in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing coronary angiography with or without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jessica J Hung, Barton J Dear, Aileen K Dinin, Ameya U Borwankar, Sumarth K Mehta, Thomas T Truskett, Keith P Johnston
PURPOSE: To explain the effects of the osmolyte proline on the protein-protein interactions (PPI), viscosity and stability of highly concentrated antibody solutions in contrast to other neutral osmolytes. METHODS: The viscosity of ~225 mg/mL mAb solutions was measured with proline, glycine and trehalose as a function of pH and co-solute concentration up to 1.3 M. The stability was assessed via turbidity as well as size exclusion chromatography after 4 weeks storage at 40°C...
April 30, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Seth Donoughe, Chiyoung Kim, Cassandra G Extavour
High-throughput live-imaging of embryos is an essential technique in developmental biology, but it is difficult and costly to mount and image embryos in consistent conditions. Here, we present OMMAwell, a simple, reusable device to easily mount dozens of embryos in arrays of agarose microwells with customizable dimensions and spacing. OMMAwell can be configured to mount specimens for upright or inverted microscopes, and includes a reservoir to hold live-imaging medium to maintain constant moisture and osmolarity of specimens during time-lapse imaging...
April 30, 2018: Biology Open
Morgan R Godin, Sandra S Stinnett, Preeya K Gupta
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of thermal pulsation treatment in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and dry eye secondary to Sjogren disease. METHODS: Twenty-four eyes from 13 patients with previously diagnosed Sjogren disease who presented to our institution with dry eye symptoms and had thermal pulsation treatment were prospectively followed up. Patients underwent comprehensive slit-lamp examination, including MGD grading, gland oil flow, corneal and conjunctival staining scores, and tear break-up time (TBUT)...
April 26, 2018: Cornea
Qing Cai, Juan-Juan Wang, Wei Shao, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
BACKGROUND: Rtt109 is a histone acetyltransferase that catalyzes histone H3K56 acetylation required for genomic stability, DNA damage repair and virulence-related gene activity in yeast-like human pathogens but remains functionally unknown in fungal insect pathogens. This study seeks to elucidate catalytic activity of Rtt109 orthologue and its possible role in sustaining biological control potential of Beauveria bassiana, a fungal entomopathogen. RESULTS: Deletion of rtt109 in B...
April 27, 2018: Pest Management Science
Robert A Honkanen, Liqun Huang, Gang Xie, Basil Rigas
Dry eye disease (DED), an inflammatory disease of the ocular surface, affects 15% of humans worldwide. No satisfactory treatment exists for DED partly because of the lack of informative animal models of this disease. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory phosphosulindac (PS) for the treatment of DED using a new rabbit model of chronic DED. In this model, based on the concanavalin A (Con A) acute DED model, we injected all lacrimal glands with Con A 3 times weekly under ultrasound guidance, which prolonged DED to >3 weeks, and used concurrently 4 parameters of efficacy: tear break-up time (TBUT), tear osmolarity, Schirmer test, and tear lactoferrin levels, making efficacy assessment robust...
April 10, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Inna Sokolova
Mitochondria are the key organelles involved in energy and redox homeostasis, cellular signaling and survival. Animal mitochondria are exquisitely sensitive to environmental stress, and stress-induced changes in the mitochondrial integrity and function have major consequences for the organismal performance and fitness. Studies in the model organisms such as terrestrial mammals and insects showed that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major cause of injury during pathological conditions and environmental insults such as hypoxia, ischemia-reperfusion and exposure to toxins...
April 26, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Justin C Sherwin, Gokulan Ratnarajan, Babar Elahi, Anna Bilkiewicz-Pawelec, John F Salmon
IMPORTANCE: Ocular surface disease (OSD) is common and can reduce treatment compliance and quality of life. BACKGROUND: To determine whether a punctal plug improves OSD and reduces IOP in patients using prostaglandin-analogue monotherapy. DESIGN: Randomised-controlled trial PARTICIPANTS: Sixty eligible subjects aged >18 years with symptomatic OSD from glaucoma clinics were invited to participate. Lacrimal or glaucoma surgery, lid malposition and contact lens wear were exclusion criteria...
April 26, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
David L Schreibman, Caron M Hong, Kaspar Keledjian, Svetlana Ivanova, Solomiya Tsymbalyuk, Volodymyr Gerzanich, J Marc Simard
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) leaves most survivors dependent at follow-up. The importance of promoting M2-like microglial responses is increasingly recognized as a key element to ameliorate brain injury following ICH. The osmotherapeutic agents, mannitol and hypertonic saline (HTS), which are routinely used to reduce intracranial pressure, have been shown to reduce neuroinflammation in experimental ischemic and traumatic brain injury, but anti-inflammatory effects of osmotherapies have not been investigated in ICH...
April 26, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Hyowon Choi, Weera Chaiyamongkol, Alexandra C Doolittle, Zariel I Johnson, Shilpa S Gogate, Zachary R Schoepflin, Irving M Shapiro, Makarand V Risbud
The nucleus pulposus (NP) of intervertebral disc experiences dynamic changes in tissue osmolarity due to diurnal loading of the spine. TonEBP/NFAT5 is a transcription factor that is critical in osmoregulation as well as survival of NP cells in the hyperosmotic milieu. The goal of this study was to investigate whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is osmo-responsive and dependent on TonEBP, and whether it serves osmo-protective role. NP cells upregulated COX-2 expression in hyperosmotic media. The induction of COX-2 was dependent on elevation of intracellular calcium levels and p38 MAPK pathway, but independent of calcineurin signaling as well as MEK/ERK and JNK pathways...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Petra Spidlova, Pavla Stojkova, Vera Dankova, Iva Senitkova, Marina Santic, Dominik Pinkas, Vlada Philimonenko, Jiri Stulik
D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase, product of dacD gene in Francisella , belongs to penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) and is involved in remodeling of newly synthetized peptidoglycan. In E. coli , PBPs are synthetized in various growth phases and they are able to substitute each other to a certain extent. The DacD protein was found to be accumulated in fraction enriched in membrane proteins from severely attenuated dsbA deletion mutant strain. It has been presumed that the DsbA is not a virulence factor by itself but that its substrates, whose correct folding and topology are dependent on the DsbA oxidoreductase and/or isomerase activities, are the primary virulence factors...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Alison Ng, Adam Keech, Lyndon Jones
Purpose: To evaluate tear osmolarity after using a hydroxypropyl-guar (HP-guar)-based lubricating eye drop four times daily (QID) for 3 weeks. Methods: Thirty-one participants with dry eye disease (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI] score ≥20 and tear osmolarity ≥300 mOsm/L in at least one eye) were enrolled in this prospective, dispensing, non-randomized study involving a baseline visit and 3-week follow-up. Tear osmolarity, non-invasive tear break up time (NITBUT), conjunctival hyperemia, corneal and conjunctival staining were determined at baseline...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Petra Mazancová, Veronika Némethová, Dušana Treľová, Lucia Kleščíková, Igor Lacík, Filip Rázga
Ionically crosslinked chitosan/tripolyphosphate (Chit/TPP) particles have been widely tested in biomedical applications, particularly as potential carriers for controlled drug delivery. Since Chit/TPP particles are typically prepared under acidic conditions, their application in physiological environment and correct evaluation of biological data ultimately require knowledge on their physico-chemical properties and overall behaviour at physiological pH, as they may differ substantially from those exhibited after preparation...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Swapnil Hiremath, Ayub Akbari, George A Wells, Benjamin J W Chow
PURPOSE: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury is a prominent complication following cardiac catheterization, though the risk has progressively decreased in recent times with appropriate risk stratification and use of safer contrast agents. Despite data supporting further lowering of risk with the iso-osmolar agent, iodixanol, uptake has lagged, perhaps due to increased upfront cost of this agent. We undertook an economic analysis to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a strategy utilizing iodixanol compared to using a low-osmolar contrast agent...
April 23, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
R M Hazarbassanov, N G T Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, J N Barros, J A P Gomes
Background: Dry eye disease (DED) is one of the most common complications following refractive surgery. Purpose: Evaluate the efficacy of an osmoprotective eye drop (Optive®) for the management of induced DED in refractive surgery patients. Design: Double-masked randomised controlled trial. Methods: Twenty-two refractive surgery patients oriented to apply FreshTears (FT; n = 13) or Optive (Op; n = 9), topically, QID, for 3 months...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
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