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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222962/safety-of-parenteral-nutrition-in-newborns-results-from-a-nationwide-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Alexandre Lapillonne, Marie-Pierre Berleur, Yvette Brasseur, Sophie Calvez
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Limited or delayed availability of parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions, as well as difficulties in ordering are often identified as reasons for non-compliance with international guidelines in newborns. This study aims at assessing the modality of use and safety of premixed standardized PN solutions in a nationwide prospective cohort of newborns treated in clinical practice. METHODS: Two premixed fixed formulations with respective osmolarity of 715 and 790 mOsm/L specifically designed for neonates were made available throughout the country for clinical use from birth onwards...
February 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207920/paper-based-microfluidic-system-for-tear-electrolyte-analysis
#2
Ali K Yetisen, Nan Jiang, Ali Tamayol, Guillermo U Ruiz-Esparza, Yu Shrike Zhang, Sofía Medina-Pando, Aditi Gupta, James S Wolffsohn, Haider Butt, Ali Khademhosseini, Seok-Hyun Yun
The analysis of tear constituents at point-of-care settings has a potential for early diagnosis of ocular disorders such as dry eye disease, low-cost screening, and surveillance of at-risk subjects. However, current minimally-invasive rapid tear analysis systems for point-of-care settings have been limited to assessment of osmolarity or inflammatory markers and cannot differentiate between dry eye subclassifications. Here, we demonstrate a portable microfluidic system that allows quantitative analysis of electrolytes in the tear fluid that is suited for point-of-care settings...
February 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205647/microcin-pdi-regulation-and-proteolytic-cleavage-are-unique-among-known-microcins
#3
Zhe Zhao, Lisa H Orfe, Jinxin Liu, Shao-Yeh Lu, Thomas E Besser, Douglas R Call
Microcin PDI inhibits a diversity of pathogenic Escherichia coli through the action of an effector protein, McpM. In this study we demonstrated that expression of the inhibitory phenotype is induced under low osmolarity conditions and expression is primarily controlled by the EnvZ/OmpR two-component regulatory system. Functional, mutagenesis and complementation experiments were used to empirically demonstrate that EnvZ is required for the inhibitory phenotype and that regulation of mcpM is dependent on binding of the phosphorylated OmpR to the mcpM promoter region...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188657/a-substance-exchanger-based-bioreactor-culture-of-pig-discs-for-studying-the-immature-nucleus-pulposus
#4
Pei Li, Yibo Gan, Haoming Wang, Yuan Xu, Lei Song, Liyuan Wang, Bin Ouyang, Qiang Zhou
Various research models have been developed to study the biology of disc cells. Recently, the adult disc nucleus pulposus (NP) has been well studied. However, the immature NP is underinvestigated due to a lack of a suitable model. This study aimed to establish an organ culture of immature porcine disc by optimizing culture conditions and using a self-developed substance exchanger-based bioreactor. Immature porcine discs were first cultured in the bioreactor for 7 days at various levels of glucose (low, medium, high), osmolarity (hypo-, iso-, hyper-) and serum (5, 10, 20%) to determine the respective optimal level...
February 11, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184150/randomized-masked-in-vitro-comparison-of-three-commercially-available-tear-film-osmometers
#5
Guillermo Rocha, Eric Gulliver, Armand Borovik, Clara C Chan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the precision and accuracy of commercially available tear film osmometers. METHODS: Contrived tear solution target values representing the physiological range of tear osmolarity (normal eyes 297 mOsm/L, moderately dry eyes 342 mOsm/L, and severe dry eyes 383 mOsm/L) were constructed using a mix of mono- and divalent electrolytes, metabolites, serum albumin, and pH balanced to 7.4. Solution values were randomized and masked from the investigators during testing...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183578/a-case-of-central-diabetes-insipidus-after-ketamine-infusion-during-an-external-to-internal-carotid-artery-bypass
#6
Sharib Gaffar, Jonathan P Eskander, Burton D Beakley, Brian P McClure, Peter Amenta, Nakeisha Pierre
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We report the first teenage case of ketamine-induced transient central diabetes insipidus. CASE SUMMARY: The patient was an 18-year-old woman with moyamoya disease undergoing an external carotid to internal carotid bypass and given a low-dose ketamine infusion. After approximately 2 hours in the supine position, with 0.5 Minimum Alveolar Concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane, a propofol infusion at 50 μg/kg/min, a remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min, and a ketamine infusion at a dose of 10 μg/kg/min, this patient had an excessive urine output...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175535/376%C3%A2-the-salt-versus-sugar-debate-urinary-sodium-losses-following-hypertonic-saline-administration-curtails-its-superior-osmolar-effect-in-comparison-to-mannitol-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Aniruddha Tekkatte Jagannatha, Sriganesh Kamath, Indira Devi, Umamaheswara G S Rao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169101/-patient-safety-in-antibiotics-administration-risk-assessment
#8
REVIEW
M Maqueda Palau, E Pérez Juan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the level of risk in the preparation and administration of antibiotics frequently used in the Intensive Care Unit using a risk matrix. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A study was conducted using situation analysis and literature review of databases, protocols and good practice guidelines on intravenous therapy, drugs, and their administration routes. The most used antibiotics in the ICU registered in the ENVIN-HELICS program from 1 April to 30 June 2015 were selected...
February 3, 2017: Revista de Calidad Asistencial: Organo de la Sociedad Española de Calidad Asistencial
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166657/ocular-surface-effects-of-repeated-application-of-povidone-iodine-in-patients-receiving-frequent-intravitreal-injections
#9
Habiba Saedon, Jennifer Nosek, Julian Phillips, Nirodhini Narendran, Yit C Yang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the patient reported symptoms and objective signs of tear film and ocular surface abnormalities experienced by patients undergoing repeated exposure to povidone iodine as a consequence of requiring frequent intravitreal injections for wet macular degeneration. METHODS: This was a prospective study of consecutive patients who had received recent povidone 5% solution for sterile preparation of intravitreal injection less than 3 months prior to inclusion with a total of at least 3 intravitreal injections for macular degeneration...
February 6, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161299/cell-culture-chamber-with-gas-supply-for-prolonged-recording-of-human-neuronal-cells-on-microelectrode-array
#10
Joose Kreutzer, Laura Ylä-Outinen, Antti-Juhana Mäki, Mervi Ristola, Susanna Narkilahti, Pasi Kallio
BACKGROUND: Typically, live cell analyses are performed outside an incubator in an ambient air, where the lack of sufficient CO2 supply results in a fast change of pH and the high evaporation causes concentration drifts in the culture medium. That limits the experiment time for tens of minutes. In many applications, e.g. in neurotoxicity studies, a prolonged measurement of extracellular activity is, however, essential. NEW METHOD: We demonstrate a simple cell culture chamber that enables stable culture conditions during prolonged extracellular recordings on a microelectrode array (MEA) outside an incubator...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160148/frequent-occurrence-of-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-hetero-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-in-different-african-countries
#11
C Coelho, H de Lencastre, M Aires-de-Sousa
High rates of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) resistance, a combination of two antifolate antibiotics trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ), have been reported among Staphylococcus aureus isolates in Portuguese-speaking African countries. Our study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of TMP resistance markers in major SXT(R) methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones from these countries. We accessed also different fitness traits that could explain the success of these isolates over the Brazilian MRSA (the most successful SXT(R) MRSA clone worldwide but never identified in these countries)...
February 3, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155146/enzyme-histochemistry-for-functional-histology-in-invertebrates
#12
Francesca Cima
In invertebrates, enzyme histochemistry has recently found a renaissance regarding its applications in morphology and ecology. Many enzyme activities are useful for the morphofunctional characterization of cells, as biomarkers of biological and pathologic processes, and as markers of the response to environmental stressors. Here, the adjustments to classic techniques, including the most common enzymes used for digestion, absorption, transport, and oxidation, as well as techniques for azo-coupling, metal salt substitution and oxidative coupling polymerization, are presented in detail for various terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147407/-significance-of-new-methods-of-examining-the-tear-film-in-dry-eye-disease-tear-film-osmolarity-and-matrix-metalloproteinases-mmp-9
#13
M Schargus, G Geerling, S C Joachim
Dry eye disease is one of the most common diagnoses in ophthalmology. A variety of subjective and objective test methods with imprecise limits and highly different sensitivities and specificities complicate the diagnosis. Especially mild to moderate pathological findings can be misdiagnosed. In recent years, new options have opened, through the development of new, clinical practicable diagnostic equipment, for example, for the analysis of tear film osmolarity or matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9). The value of tear film osmolarity and determination of MMP-9 levels in the diagnosis of dry eye and its subtypes will be discussed and evaluated objectively, on the basis of published study results...
February 1, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145211/-fatal-cerebral-oedema-during-the-treatment-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-an-adult-male
#14
T J A Dekker, J A Janson, E J Hoorn, Y W J Sijpkens
Diabetic ketoacidosis is relatively common, but the optimal treatment of this condition is still controversial. Cerebral oedema is a rare, but potentially fatal complication. We present the case of an adult patient who presented with de novo diabetic ketoacidosis that was complicated by cerebral oedema during treatment. In this article we discuss factors that may have played a role in the development of this complication. A prolonged hyperosmolar state in diabetic ketoacidosis may increase the risk of cerebral oedema as a result of cerebral compensatory mechanisms...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131203/temporal-evolution-of-the-trident-and-piglet-signs-of-osmotic-demyelination-syndrome
#15
Shin C Beh
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a potentially-devastating complication of rapid osmolar shifts, classically attributed to overlyaggressive correction of chronic hyponatremia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed earlier diagnosis of CPM, but most importantly, it has revealed that the odds of good functional recovery are surprisingly high. A trident shaped pontine lesion is a typical finding in CPM (the trident sign). The "piglet sign" is a much less well-known radiologic finding in CPM. Due to the rarity of CPM, very little has been published on the evolution of these MRI findings...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127212/the-effects-of-ramadan-fasting-on-patients-with-prosthetic-heart-valve-taking-warfarin-for-anticoagulation
#16
Muhammad O Awiwi, Zeynep Aslan Yagli, Ferruh Elbir, Ahmet Arif Aglar, Erhan Guler, Unsal Vural
INTRODUCTION: Oral anticoagulation with warfarin is indicated for patients with prosthetic heart valves. The effects of religious fasting during Ramadan month (in the Islamic calendar) on anticoagulation aren't clear. OBJECTIVES: To study the impact of Ramadan fasting on international normalized ratio (INR), quality of anticoagulation, dose of warfarin used and blood osmolarity. METHODS: 18 patients were followed-up prospectively for 3 months (pre- Ramadan, Ramadan and post-Ramadan months)...
January 2017: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122407/effects-of-latisse-bimatoprost-0-03-per-cent-topical-solution-on-the-ocular-surface
#17
Etty Bitton, Claudine Courey, Pamela Giancola, Vasile Diaconu, Jack Wise, Walter Wittich
PURPOSE: LATISSE is marketed for the treatment of hypotrichosis (loss of eyelashes), using a prostamide analogue and preserved with benzalkonium chloride, which is an effective preservative; however, it also causes irritation to the ocular surface. LATISSE is applied to the lid margin; however, with the blink, some solution may fall onto the ocular surface. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of LATISSE on the ocular surface over two months. METHODS: Non-dry eye participants interested in eyelash lengthening were invited to a prospective uncontrolled, open-label clinical study using LATISSE for two months...
January 25, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122183/shape-and-mechanical-control-of-poly-ethylene-oxide-based-polymersome-with-polyoxometalates-via-hydrogen-bond
#18
Benxin Jing, Xiaofeng Wang, Haitao Wang, Jie Qiu, Yi Shi, Haifeng Gao, Yingxi Zhu
Polymersomes are self-assembled vesicles of amphiphilic block copolymers and have been explored for wide applications from drug delivery to micro/nanoreactors. As polymersomes are soft and highly deformable, their shape instability due to osmolarity difference across polymer membranes and low elasticity could conversely limit their practical use. Instead of selecting particular polymer chemical reactions to enhance the mechanical properties, we have employed inorganic polyoxometalate (POM) clusters as simple physical cross-linkers to control the shape and mechanical stability of polymersomes in aqueous suspensions...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114576/estimating-the-osmolarities-of-tears-during-evaporation-through-the-eyes-of-the-corneal-nerves
#19
Harumitsu Hirata, Kamila Mizerska, Valentina Dallacasagrande, Mark I Rosenblatt
Purpose: A population of corneal neurons in rats preferentially sense and monitor the hyperosmolar conditions of tears when the tears begin to evaporate during corneal dryness. The present study exploited this ability in an effort to estimate tear osmolarities by comparing the responses to corneal dryness to their responses to hyperosmolar stimuli. Methods: Extracellular recordings were performed from single neurons in the trigeminal ganglia innervating the corneas of rats...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106307/normal-saline-is-associated-with-increased-sickle-red-cell-stiffness-and-prolonged-transit-times-in-a-microfluidic-model-of-the-capillary-system
#20
Marcus A Carden, Meredith Fay, Yumiko Sakurai, Brynn McFarland, Sydney Blanche, Caleb Diprete, Clinton H Joiner, Todd Sulchek, Wilbur A Lam
Vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) is a complex process that occurs in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and is often associated with pain and urgent hospitalization. A major instigator of VOC is microvascular obstruction by pathologically stiffened sickle red blood cells (RBCs), and thus therapy relies heavily on optimizing intravenous fluid (IVF) hydration to increase RBC deformability. However, no evidence-based guidelines regarding the choice of IVF currently exist. We therefore analyzed alterations in biomechanical properties of sickle RBCs isolated from patients with homozygous SCD (hemoglobin SS) after exposure to different osmolarities of clinical IVF formulations...
January 20, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
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