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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732188/adapted-methods-for-scanning-electron-microscopy-in-assessment-of-human-sperm-morphology
#1
Petra Nussdorfer, Ines Cilenšek, Branko Zorn, Daniel Petrovič
Infertility is a widespread problem, and in some cases, the routine basic semen analysis is not sufficient to detect the cause of male infertility. The use of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) could provide a detailed insight into spermatozoa morphology, but it requires specific sample preparation techniques. The purpose of this study was to select, adjust, and optimize a method for the preparation of spermatozoa samples prior to SEM analysis, and to establish the protocol required for its use in clinical practice...
July 21, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730896/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-potential-mechanisms-for-the-benefit-of-capsaicin-and-hot-water-hydrotherapy-in-treatment
#2
John R Richards, Jeff M Lapoint, Guillermo Burillo-Putze
INTRODUCTION: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a clinical disorder that has become more prevalent with increasing use of cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids, and which is difficult to treat. Standard antiemetics commonly fail to alleviate the severe nausea and vomiting characteristic of the syndrome. Curiously, cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome patients often report dramatic relief of symptoms with hot showers and baths, and topical capsaicin. OBJECTIVES: In this review, we detail the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of capsaicin and explore possible mechanisms for its beneficial effect, including activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and neurohumoral regulation...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728128/radionuclide-biokinetics-in-the-russian-sturgeon-and-phylogenetic-consistencies-with-cartilaginous-and-bony-marine-fishes
#3
Ross A Jeffree, Scott J Markich, Francois Oberhaensli, Jean-Louis Teyssie
The biokinetics of eight radionuclides ((241)Am, (109)Cd, (134)Cs, (75)Se, (54)Mn, (110m)Ag, (65)Zn, (60)Co) absorbed from the aquatic medium by juvenile Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) were experimentally determined in fresh (0.42‰) and brackish (9.0‰) waters, of a similar salinity range to the Caspian Sea, and in conjunction with chemical speciation modelling. Uptake and loss rate constants were determined for each radionuclide for a 14 day exposure at each salinity and during 28 days of exposure to radionuclide-free conditions...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721663/influence-of-direct-or-indirect-contact-for-the-cytotoxicity-and-blood-compatibility-of-spider-silk
#4
J W Kuhbier, V Coger, J Mueller, C Liebsch, F Schlottmann, V Bucan, P M Vogt, S Strauss
Spider silk became one of the most-researched biomaterials in the last years due to its unique mechanical strength and most favourable chemical composition for tissue engineering purposes. However, standardized analysis of cytocompatibility is missing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate hemolysis, cytotoxicity of native spider silk as well as influences on the cell culture medium. Changes of cell culture medium composition, osmolarity as well as glucose and lactate content were determined via ELISA measurement...
August 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713335/a-novel-regulatory-cascade-involving-blur-ycgz-and-lon-controls-the-expression-of-escherichia-coli-ompf-porin
#5
Valérie Duval, Kimberly Foster, Jennifer Brewster, Stuart B Levy
In Escherichia coli, OmpF is an important outer membrane protein, which serves as a passive diffusion pore for small compounds including nutrients, antibiotics, and toxic compounds. OmpF expression responds to environmental changes such as temperature, osmolarity, nutrients availability, and toxic compounds via complex regulatory pathways involving transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Our study identified a new regulatory cascade that controls the expression of OmpF porin. This pathway involves BluR, a transcriptional regulator repressing the expression of the ycgZ-ymgABC operon...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708716/the-influence-of-contrast-agent-s-osmolarity-on-iodine-delivery-protocol-in-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-comparison-between-iso-osmolar-iodixanol-320-and-low-osmolar-iomeprol-370
#6
Xiaohan Yang, Weiwei Huang, Wangyan Liu, Yinsu Zhu, Yi Xu, Guanyu Yang, Lijun Tang, Xiaomei Zhu
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess whether iodine-contained contrast agents with different osmolarity affect iodine delivery protocol during coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS: Patients who underwent CCTA were randomized to receive contrast media either iodixanol-320 (iso-osmolar group) or iopromide-370 (low-osmolar group). Contrast protocols were recorded. Tube voltage of 100 kV was chosen for patients with body mass index of less than or equal to 25 (n = 224) and tube voltage of 120 kV for patients with body mass index of greater than 25 (n = 165)...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708022/is-intravenous-administration-of-iodixanol-associated-with-increased-risk-of-acute-kidney-injury-dialysis-or-mortality-a-propensity-score-adjusted-study
#7
Jennifer S McDonald, Robert J McDonald, Eric E Williamson, David F Kallmes
Purpose To compare the rates of acute kidney injury (AKI), emergent dialysis, and short-term mortality between patients who underwent intravenous administration of the iso-osmolar contrast material (IOCM) iodixanol 320 and patients who underwent a noncontrast computed tomography (CT) examination. Materials and Methods Study design and implementation were overseen by an institutional review board and conformed to HIPAA guidelines on patient data integrity. All patients who underwent an iodixanol-enhanced (IOCM group) or a noncontrast (noncontrast group) CT examination from January 2003 to December 2014 were identified...
July 13, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704229/treatment-of-hyponatremic-encephalopathy-in-the-critically-ill
#8
Steven G Achinger, Juan Carlos Ayus
OBJECTIVES: Hyponatremic encephalopathy, symptomatic cerebral edema due to a low osmolar state, is a medical emergency and often encountered in the ICU setting. This article provides a critical appraisal and review of the literature on identification of high-risk patients and the treatment of this life-threatening disorder. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, AND DATA EXTRACTION: Online search of the PubMed database and manual review of articles involving risk factors for hyponatremic encephalopathy and treatment of hyponatremic encephalopathy in critical illness...
July 11, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699183/how-bacterial-cell-division-might-cheat-turgor-pressure-a-unified-mechanism-of-septal-division-in-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria
#9
REVIEW
Harold P Erickson
An important question for bacterial cell division is how the invaginating septum can overcome the turgor force generated by the high osmolarity of the cytoplasm. I suggest that it may not need to. Several studies in Gram-negative bacteria have shown that the periplasm is isoosmolar with the cytoplasm. Indirect evidence suggests that this is also true for Gram-positive bacteria. In this case the invagination of the septum takes place within the uniformly high osmotic pressure environment, and does not have to fight turgor pressure...
July 12, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698411/estimation-of-turgor-pressure-through-comparison-between-single-plant-cell-and-pressurized-shell-mechanics
#10
Pauline Durand-Smet, Nicolas Chastrette, Estelle Gauquelin, Arezki Boudaoud, Atef Asnacios
While plant growth is well known to rely on turgor pressure, it is challenging to quantify the contribution of turgor pressure to plant cell rheology. Here we used a custom-made micro-rheometer to quantify the viscoelastic behavior of isolated plant cells while varying their internal turgor pressure. To get insight into how plant cells adapt their internal pressure to the osmolarity of their medium, we compared the mechanical behavior of single plant cells to that of a simple, passive, pressurized shell: a soccer ball...
July 12, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694094/intracorneal-melatonin-delivery-using-2-hydroxypropyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-ophthalmic-solution-for-granular-corneal-dystrophy-type-2
#11
Jun-Hyun Ahn, Hyun-Do Kim, Sharif-Md Abuzar, Ji-Yeon Lee, Su-Eon Jin, Eung Kweon Kim, Sung-Joo Hwang
Melatonin (MT), an effective antioxidant, has therapeutic implications for granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2) treatment. Eye drop formulations containing cyclodextrins (CDs) were studied with the objective of improving MT solubility, stability, and ocular absorption, while decreasing eye irritation. MT complexes with αCD, βCD, γCD, and 2-hydroxypropyl-βCD (HPβCD) were characterized by phase solubility studies, which demonstrated Higuchi's AL-type phase solubility profiles. The MT/HPβCD complex showed the highest MT solubility (2...
July 7, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682297/wound-biofilm-current-perspectives-and-strategies-on-biofilm-disruption-and-treatments
#12
Robert J Snyder, Greg Bohn, Jason Hanft, Larry Harkless, Paul Kim, Larry Lavery, Greg Schultz, Randy Wolcott
The presence of bio lm remains a challenging factor that contributes to the delayed healing of many chronic wounds. The major threat of chronic wound bio lms is their substantial protection from host immunities and extreme tolerance to antimicrobial agents. To help guide the development of wound treatment strategies, a panel of experts experienced in clinical and laboratory aspects of biofilm convened to discuss what is understood and not yet understood about biofilms and what is needed to better identify and treat chronic wounds in which biofilm is suspected...
June 2017: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680052/hyperosmolarity-induced-aqp5-upregulation-promotes-inflammation-and-cell-death-via-jnk1-2-activation-in-human-corneal-epithelial-cells
#13
Yueping Ren, Huihui Lu, Peter S Reinach, Qinxiang Zheng, Jinyang Li, Qiufan Tan, Hanlei Zhu, Wei Chen
Tear film hyperosmolarity and anterior ocular inflammation are two clinical signs that may be indicative of dry eye disease (DED). This condition can cause pathological and functional changes to the anterior ocular surface tissues. A contributing factor may be dysfunctional aquaporin 5 (AQP5) water channels as they are the AQP subtype that expressed in the corneal epithelium and contribute to fluid efflux needed for corneal function. We determined if described hyperosmolarity-induced increases in proinflammatory cytokine expression and cell death are mediated through AQP5 upregulation and JNK1/2 MAPK signaling activation in both primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs), and in a HCEC line...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678348/nacl-and-osmolarity-produce-different-responses-in-organum-vasculosum-of-the-lamina-terminalis-neurons-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-blood-pressure
#14
Brian J Kinsman, Kirsteen N Browning, Sean D Stocker
Systemic or central infusion of hypertonic NaCl and other osmolytes readily stimulate thirst and vasopressin secretion. In contrast, central infusion of hypertonic NaCl produces a greater increase in arterial blood pressure (ABP) than equi-osmotic mannitol/sorbitol. Although these responses depend on neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), these observations suggest OVLT neurons may sense or respond differently to hypertonic NaCl versus osmolarity. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis in Sprague-Dawley rats...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674405/lack-of-evidence-for-involvement-of-tonebp-and-hyperosmotic-stimulus-in-induction-of-autophagy-in-the-nucleus-pulposus
#15
Chao Liu, Hyowon Choi, Zariel I Johnson, Jiwei Tian, Irving M Shapiro, Makarand V Risbud
Nucleus pulposus (NP) cells reside in a physiologically hyperosmotic environment within the intervertebral disc. TonEBP/NFAT5 is an osmo-sensitive transcription factor that controls expression of genes critical for cell survival under hyperosmotic conditions. A recent report on NP and studies of other cell types have shown that hyperosmolarity triggers autophagy. However, little is known whether such autophagy induction occurs through TonEBP. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of TonEBP in hyperosmolarity-dependent autophagy in NP...
July 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673338/sustained-hyperosmolarity-increses-tgf-%C3%A3-1-and-egr-1-expression-in-the-rat-renal-medulla
#16
Miklós M Mózes, Petra Szoleczky, László Rosivall, Gábor Kökény
BACKGROUND: Although TGF-ß and the transcription factor Egr-1 play an important role in both kidney fibrosis and in response to acute changes of renal medullary osmolarity, their role under sustained hypo- or hyperosmolar conditions has not been elucidated. We investigated the effects of chronic hypertonicity and hypotonicity on the renal medullary TGF-ß and Egr-1 expression. METHODS: Male adult Sprague Dawley rats (n = 6/group) were treated with 15 mg/day furosemide, or the rats were water restricted to 15 ml/200 g body weight per day...
July 3, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663708/osmotic-concentration-in-three-races-of-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-l-under-environmental-conditions-of-arid-zone
#17
Hussain Ali, Abdulaziz S Alqarni, Ayman A Owayss, Awad M Hassan, Brian H Smith
Hemolymph osmolarity has great effect on honey bee health, especially in arid and semi-arid zones. It regulates water and nutrients in stressed tissues. Osmotic concentration in three races (Apis mellifera ligustica, A. m. carnica and A. m. jemenitica) of Apis mellifera was tested in central Saudi Arabia during spring and summer seasons in 2015. Newly emerged bee workers were first marked and later their hemolymph was extracted after intervals of 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days. A significant positive correlation between age and osmolarity was found in all three races during spring and summer seasons...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649202/neuronal-chemosensation-and-osmotic-stress-response-converge-in-the-regulation-of-aqp-8-in-c-elegans
#18
Carla Igual Gil, Mirko Jarius, Jens P von Kries, Anne-Katrin Rohlfing
Aquaporins occupy an essential role in sustaining the salt/water balance in various cells types and tissues. Here, we present new insights into aqp-8 expression and regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show, that upon exposure to osmotic stress, aqp-8 exhibits a distinct expression pattern within the excretory cell compared to other C. elegans aquaporins expressed. This expression is correlated to the osmolarity of the surrounding medium and can be activated physiologically by osmotic stress or genetically in mutants with constitutively active osmotic stress response...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637712/shrinking-daughters-rlm1-dependent-g1-s-checkpoint-maintains-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-daughter-cell-size-and-viability
#19
Sarah Piccirillo, Deepshikha Neog, David Spade, J David Van Horn, LeAnn M Tiede-Lewis, Sarah L Dallas, Tamas Kapros, Saul M Honigberg
The Rlm1 transcription factor is a target of the cell-wall integrity pathway. We report that an rlm1Δ; mutant grown on a non-fermentable carbon source at low osmolarity forms cell groups in which a mother cell is surrounded by smaller "satellite daughter" cells. Mother cells in these groups progressed through repeated rounds of cell division with normal rates of bud growth and genetic stability; however, these cells underwent precocious START relative to wild-type mothers. Thus, once activated, Rlm1 delays the transition from G1 to S, a mechanism we term the CW/START checkpoint...
June 21, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627956/evaluating-the-effects-of-botulinum-toxin-a-on-tear-metrics-in-patients-with-hemifacial-spasm
#20
Yasmin Poustchi Mali, Robert L Schultze, Edward J Wladis
Hemifacial spasm has been previously shown to result in dry eye and ocular surface diseases. This study was performed to assess the impact of chemodenervation with botulinum toxin on clinically-relevant metrics of tears. Tear osmolarity and lipid layer thickness were measured in patients with hemifacial spasm after they achieved relief from hemifacial spasm via botulinum toxin injections. Twelve eyes of 6 patients with hemifacial spasm (2 men and 4 women; mean age 55.5 years) were assessed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and IRB approval...
June 19, 2017: Orbit
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