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Osmolarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637712/shrinking-daughters-rlm1-dependent-g1-s-checkpoint-maintains-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-daughter-cell-size-and-viability
#1
Sarah Piccirillo, Deepshikha Neog, David Spade, J David Van Horn, LeAnn M Tiede-Lewis, Sarah L Dallas, Tamas Kapros, Saul M Honigberg
The Rlm1 transcription factor is a target of the cell-wall integrity pathway. We report that an rlm1Δ; mutant grown on a non-fermentable carbon source at low osmolarity forms cell groups in which a mother cell is surrounded by smaller "satellite daughter" cells. Mother cells in these groups progressed through repeated rounds of cell division with normal rates of bud growth and genetic stability; however, these cells underwent precocious START relative to wild-type mothers. Thus, once activated, Rlm1 delays the transition from G1 to S, a mechanism we term the CW/START checkpoint...
June 21, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627956/evaluating-the-effects-of-botulinum-toxin-a-on-tear-metrics-in-patients-with-hemifacial-spasm
#2
Yasmin Poustchi Mali, Robert L Schultze, Edward J Wladis
Hemifacial spasm has been previously shown to result in dry eye and ocular surface diseases. This study was performed to assess the impact of chemodenervation with botulinum toxin on clinically-relevant metrics of tears. Tear osmolarity and lipid layer thickness were measured in patients with hemifacial spasm after they achieved relief from hemifacial spasm via botulinum toxin injections. Twelve eyes of 6 patients with hemifacial spasm (2 men and 4 women; mean age 55.5 years) were assessed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and IRB approval...
June 19, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619721/hagfish-slime-exudate-stabilization-and-its-effect-on-slime-formation-and-functionality
#3
L J Böni, R Zurflüh, M Widmer, P Fischer, E J Windhab, P A Rühs, S Kuster
Hagfish produce record breaking amounts of slime when under attack, making it the most dilute hydrogel known to date and a highly interesting material for biomaterial research. The slime forms from a glandular secrete called exudate, which deploys upon contact with seawater. To study the slime formation ex vivo and to characterize its material properties, stabilization of the sensitive slime exudate is crucial. In this study we compared the two main stabilization methods, high osmolarity citrate/PIPES (CP) buffer and immersion in oil and tested the influence of time, temperature, and pH on the stability of the exudate and functionality of the slime...
June 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614813/polycystic-kidney-disease-and-the-vasopressin-pathway
#4
Maatje D A van Gastel, Vicente E Torres
Vasopressin, also known as arginine vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone, plays a pivotal role in maintaining body homeostasis. Increased vasopressin concentrations, measured by its surrogate copeptin, have been associated with disease severity as well as disease progression in polycystic kidney disease (PKD), and in experimental studies vasopressin has been shown to directly regulate cyst growth. Blocking vasopressin effects on the kidney via the vasopressin V2-receptor and lower circulating vasopressin concentration are potential treatment opportunities that have been the subject of study in PKD in recent years...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606910/na-k-pump-inactivation-subsarcolemmal-na-measurements-and-cytoplasmic-ion-turnover-kinetics-contradict-restricted-na-spaces-in-murine-cardiac-myocytes
#5
Fang-Min Lu, Donald W Hilgemann
Decades ago, it was proposed that Na transport in cardiac myocytes is modulated by large changes in cytoplasmic Na concentration within restricted subsarcolemmal spaces. Here, we probe this hypothesis for Na/K pumps by generating constitutive transsarcolemmal Na flux with the Na channel opener veratridine in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Using 25 mM Na in the patch pipette, pump currents decay strongly during continuous activation by extracellular K (τ, ∼2 s). In contradiction to depletion hypotheses, the decay becomes stronger when pump currents are decreased by hyperpolarization...
June 12, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603715/contrast-induced-nephropathy-in-renal-transplant-recipients-a-single-center-experience
#6
Bassam G Abu Jawdeh, Anthony C Leonard, Yuvraj Sharma, Swapna Katipally, Adele R Shields, Rita R Alloway, E Steve Woodle, Charuhas V Thakar
BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in native kidneys is associated with a significant increase in mortality and morbidity. Data regarding CIN in renal allografts are limited, however. We retrospectively studied CIN in renal allografts at our institution: its incidence, risk factors, and effect on long-term outcomes including allograft loss and death. METHODS: One hundred thirty-five renal transplant recipients undergoing 161 contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans or coronary angiograms (Cath) between years 2000 and 2014 were identified...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595161/non-linear-actions-of-physiological-agents-finite-disarrangements-elicit-fitness-benefits
#7
REVIEW
Filip Sedlic, Zdenko Kovac
Finite disarrangements of important (vital) physiological agents and nutrients can induce plethora of beneficial effects, exceeding mere attenuation of the specific stress. Such response to disrupted homeostasis appears to be universally conserved among species. The underlying mechanism of improved fitness and longevity, when physiological agents act outside their normal range is similar to hormesis, a phenomenon whereby toxins elicit beneficial effects at low doses. Due to similarity with such non-linear response to toxins described with J-shaped curve, we have coined a new term "mirror J-shaped curves" for non-linear response to finite disarrangement of physiological agents...
May 18, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585267/intense-pulsed-light-treatment-and-meibomian-gland-expression-for-moderate-to-advanced-meibomian-gland-dysfunction
#8
Julie M Albietz, Katrina L Schmid
BACKGROUND: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of periocular intense pulsed light therapy combined with meibomian gland expression for chronic dry eye due to moderate to advanced meibomian gland dysfunction. METHODS: This single-institution, open-label prospective study involved 26 participants who received bilateral treatments using a proprietary intense pulsed light device (E > Eye, E-Swin, Paris, France) combined with therapeutic meibomian gland expression at baseline, Week 2 and Week 6...
June 6, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585260/randomised-controlled-trial-of-topical-antibacterial-manuka-leptospermum-species-honey-for-evaporative-dry-eye-due-to-meibomian-gland-dysfunction
#9
Julie M Albietz, Katrina L Schmid
BACKGROUND: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of standardised Manuka (Leptospermum species) antibacterial honey as adjunctive twice daily treatment to conventional therapy (warm compresses, lid massage and preservative-free lubricant), in participants with evaporative dry eye due to moderate to advanced meibomian gland dysfunction. METHODS: This prospective, open-label study involved 114 participants. After two weeks of conventional therapy participants were randomised to one of three treatment groups: Optimel Antibacterial Manuka Eye Gel (98 per cent Leptospermum species honey) plus conventional therapy (n = 37), Optimel Manuka plus Lubricant Eye Drops (16 per cent Leptospermum species honey) plus conventional therapy (n = 37) and a control (conventional therapy) (n = 40)...
June 6, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580363/targeted-metabolomics-in-colorectal-cancer-a-strategic-approach-using-standardized-laboratory-tests-of-the-blood-and-urine
#10
Katarzyna J Jerzak, Marissa Laureano, Radwa Elsharawi, Peter Kavsak, Kelvin Kw Chan, Sukhbinder K Dhesy-Thind, Kevin Zbuk
BACKGROUND: Glycolytic markers have been detected in colorectal cancer (CRC) using advanced analytical methods. METHODS: Using commercially available assays, by-products of anaerobic metabolism were prospectively measured in the blood and urine of 20 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) and 20 patients with local disease. Twenty-four-hour urine citrate, plasma lactate, ketones, venous blood gas, anion gap, and osmolar gap were investigated. Results of patients with metastatic and local CRC were compared using two-sample t-tests or equivalent nonparametric tests...
2017: Hypoxia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579744/randomized-comparison-of-in-vivo-performance-of-two-point-of-care-tear-film-osmometers
#11
Jerry Nolfi, Barbara Caffery
PURPOSE: To compare the in vivo precision of two commercially available point-of-care osmometers among normal subjects with no dry eye disease. METHODS: Twenty healthy adults with healthy ocular surfaces were evaluated by licensed eye care practitioners. All subjects had low Ocular Surface Disease Index score (<5), normal tear breakup time (>10 seconds), and no evidence of corneal fluorescein staining. Five consecutive measurements of tear osmolarity were measured on each eye using each of the two osmometers: the TearLab Osmolarity System (TearLab) and the I-Med i-Pen (i-Pen), for a total of 200 measurements per device...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578820/formulas-for-calculated-osmolarity-and-osmolal-gap-a-study-of-diagnostic-accuracy
#12
Fanny Lepeytre, Marc Ghannoum, Hélène Ammann, François Madore, Stéphan Troyanov, Rémi Goupil, Josée Bouchard
BACKGROUND: The osmolal gap has been used for decades to screen for exposure to toxic alcohols. However, several issues may affect its reliability. We aimed to develop equations to calculate osmolarity with improved performance when used to screen for intoxication to toxic alcohols. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 7,525 patients undergoing simultaneous measurements of osmolality, sodium, potassium, urea, glucose, and ethanol or undergoing similar measurements performed within 30 minutes of a measurement of toxic alcohol levels at a single tertiary-care center from April 2001 to June 2016...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566501/prevention-of-contrast-induced-nephropathy-by-limb-ischemic-preconditioning-underlying-mechanisms-and-clinical-effects
#13
George Dugbartey, Andrew N Redington
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an important complication following diagnostic radiographic imaging and interventional therapy. It results from administration of intravascular iodinated contrast media (CM) and is currently the third most common cause of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury. CIN is associated with increased morbidity, prolonged hospitalization and higher mortality. Although the importance of CIN is widely appreciated, and its occurrence can be mitigated by the use of pre- and post-hydration protocols and low osmolar instead of high osmolar iodine-containing CM, specific prophylactic therapy is lacking...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559879/agrobacterium-tumefaciens-mediated-transformation-of-pseudocercospora-fijiensis-to-determine-the-role-of-pfhog1-in-osmotic-stress-regulation-and-virulence-modulation
#14
Francis Onyilo, Geoffrey Tusiime, Li-Hung Chen, Bryce Falk, Ioannis Stergiopoulos, Jaindra N Tripathi, Wilberforce Tushemereirwe, Jerome Kubiriba, Charles Changa, Leena Tripathi
Black Sigatoka disease, caused by Pseudocercospora fijiensis is a serious constraint to banana production worldwide. The disease continues to spread in new ecological niches and there is an urgent need to develop strategies for its control. The high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well known to respond to changes in external osmolarity. HOG pathway activation leads to phosphorylation, activation and nuclear transduction of the HOG1 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The activated HOG1 triggers several responses to osmotic stress, including up or down regulation of different genes, regulation of protein translation, adjustments to cell cycle progression and synthesis of osmolyte glycerol...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553560/optical-coherence-tomography-reveals-changes-to-corneal-reflectivity-and-thickness-in-individuals-with-tear-hyperosmolarity
#15
Laura Adelaide Deinema, Algis Jonas Vingrys, Holly Rose Chinnery, Laura Elizabeth Downie
PURPOSE: To investigate whether tear hyperosmolarity, a feature of dry eye disease (DED), affects central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal light reflectivity, and/or tear film reflectivity. METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional study involved 48 participants (38 with hyperosmolar tears and 10 controls with normo-osmolar tears). Symptoms and signs of DED (tear osmolarity, sodium fluorescein tear break-up time, ocular surface staining, Schirmer test) were assessed...
May 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551933/-recommendations-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-pediatric-acute-gastroenteritis-in-israel-update-2017
#16
Firas Rinawi, Shai Ashkenazi, Michael Wilschanski, Eli Somekh, Raanan Shamir
AIMS: The aim of these guidelines is to update and extend evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in Israel, based on new data and the recently published European update. METHODS: The recommendations, which are based on a systematic review of the literature, were graded by the level of evidence. The guidelines were endorsed by the Israeli societies for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the Israeli Association of Pediatrics...
March 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547534/a-cross-sectional-comparative-study-on-chronic-ocular-manifestations-of-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-in-chinese-eyes-a-15-year-case-series
#17
Loraine L W Chow, Alex L K Ng, Sharon S W Chow, Bonnie N K Choy, Kendrick C Shih, Ian Y H Wong, Johnny C Y Chan, Jimmy S M Lai
PURPOSE: To compare the chronic ocular manifestations in Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis patients from a 15-year cohort. METHODS: All SJS and TEN patients admitted to our burn intensive care unit between 1999 and 2014 were invited for assessment. Slit-lamp examination was performed, and ocular condition was graded according to the Sotozono scoring System, which depended on the extent of cornea, conjunctiva and lid involvement. Tear osmolarity was also measured...
May 25, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547320/real-time-noninvasive-monitoring-of-intracranial-fluid-shifts-during-dialysis-using-volumetric-integral-phase-shift-spectroscopy-vips-a-proof-of-concept-study
#18
Chethan P Venkatasubba Rao, Eric M Bershad, Eusebia Calvillo, Nelson Maldonado, Rahul Damani, Sreedhar Mandayam, Jose I Suarez
BACKGROUND: Cerebral edema, which is associated with increased intracranial fluid, is often a complication of many acute neurological conditions. There is currently no accepted method for real-time monitoring of intracranial fluid volume at the bedside. We evaluated a novel noninvasive technique called "Volumetric Integral Phase-shift Spectroscopy (VIPS)" for detecting intracranial fluid shifts during hemodialysis. METHODS: Subjects receiving scheduled hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease and without a history of major neurological conditions were enrolled...
May 25, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544917/effective-and-safe-mannitol-administration-in-patients-undergoing-supratentorial-tumor-surgery-a-prospective-randomized-and-double-blind-study
#19
Eren Fatma Akcil, Ozlem Korkmaz Dilmen, Esra Sultan Karabulut, Serdar Selcuk Koksal, Fatis Altindas, Yusuf Tunali
OBJECTIVES: Although osmotic diuresis with mannitol is commonly used to provide brain relaxation, there is no consensus regarding its optimal dose and combination with loop diuretics. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of mannitol and combination of furosemide with different doses of mannitol on brain relaxation and on blood electrolytes, lactate level, urine output, fluid balance and blood osmolarity in patients undergoing supratentorial tumor surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study included 51 patients (ASA I-III) scheduled for elective supratentorial craniotomy...
May 15, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533678/effect-of-thermal-pulsation-treatment-on-tear-film-parameters-in-dry-eye-disease-patients
#20
Michelle J Kim, Sandra S Stinnett, Preeya K Gupta
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermal pulsation treatment on tear film parameters, specifically osmolarity and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and dry eye disease (DED). METHODS: A single-center review of 189 eyes that underwent thermal pulsation treatment was performed. Data were collected on pre and posttreatment osmolarity, MMP-9, tear break-up time (TBUT), and ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
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