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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919251/inhibition-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-growth-by-simultaneous-uptake-of-glucose-and-maltose
#1
Haruyo Hatanaka, Hitoshi Mitsunaga, Eiichiro Fukusaki
Saccharomyces cerevisiae expresses α-glucoside transporters, such as MalX1p (X=1(Agt1p), 2, 3, 4, and 6), which are proton symporters. These transporters are regulated at transcriptional and posttranslational levels in the presence of glucose. Malt wort contains glucose, maltose, and maltotriose, and the assimilation of maltose is delayed as a function of glucose concentration. With the objective of increasing beer fermentation rates, we characterized α-glucoside transporters and bred laboratory yeasts that expressed various α-glucoside transporters for the simultaneous uptake of different sugars...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914421/acid-base-safety-during-the-course-of-a-very-low-calorie-ketogenic-diet
#2
Diego Gomez-Arbelaez, Ana B Crujeiras, Ana I Castro, Albert Goday, Antonio Mas-Lorenzo, Ana Bellon, Cristina Tejera, Diego Bellido, Cristobal Galban, Ignacio Sajoux, Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, Felipe F Casanueva
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diets have been consistently shown to be an effective obesity treatment, but the current evidence for its acid-base safety is limited. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the acid-base status of obese patients during the course of a VLCK diet. METHOD: Twenty obese participants undertook a VLCK diet for 4 months. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, and venous blood gases were obtained on four subsequent visits: visit C-1 (baseline); visit C-2, (1-2 months); maximum ketosis; visit C-3 (2-3 months), ketosis declining; and visit C-4 at 4 months, no ketosis...
September 15, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890616/clinical-and-practical-implications-of-storage-media-used-for-tooth-avulsion
#3
REVIEW
Vineet Is Khinda, Gurpreet Kaur, Gurlal S Brar, Shiminder Kallar, Heena Khurana
Replantation is being widely accepted as an effective treatment option for an avulsed tooth. However, the long-term fate of replanted teeth is unpredictable; it is dependent on various factors, such as the time interval between avulsion and replantation, extra-alveolar storage period (dry storage or storage media), the vitality status of pulp or periodontal tissues and the type and period of splinting. The appropriate use of storage media is an important clinical factor affecting the postoperative prognosis of avulsed teeth following replantation...
April 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888166/sub-lethal-effects-of-waterborne-exposure-to-copper-nanoparticles-compared-to-copper-sulphate-on-the-shore-crab-carcinus-maenas
#4
Lisa M Rossbach, Benjamin J Shaw, Dawid Piegza, William F Vevers, Andrew J Atfield, Richard D Handy
The toxicity of soluble copper (Cu) to marine organisms is reasonably well described. However, the hazard of Cu engineered nanomaterial (ENMs) is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare the toxicity of Cu ENMs to Cu as CuSO4 in the shore crab, Carcinus maenas. The crabs were exposed via the water using a semi-static approach to 0.2 or 1mgL(-1) of Cu ENMs or 1mgL(-1) of Cu as CuSO4. Gills, hepatopancreas, chela muscle and haemolymph were collected at days 0, 4 and 7 for the body burden of Cu, histology and biochemical analysis [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total glutathione (GSH)]...
August 10, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887070/decreased-serum-sodium-levels-predict-symptomatic-vasospasm-in-patients-with-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#5
Yoichi Uozumi, Takashi Mizobe, Hirohito Miyamoto, Noriaki Ashida, Tsuyoshi Katsube, Shotaro Tatsumi, Mitsugu Nakamura, Eiji Kohmura
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic vasospasm is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Hyponatremia and dehydration due to natriuresis after subarachnoid hemorrhage are related to symptomatic vasospasm. Therefore, most institutions are currently targeting euvolemia and eunatremia in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients to avoid complications. We retrospectively investigated the predictors of symptomatic vasospasm with respect to water and sodium homeostasis, while maintaining euvolemia and eunatremia after subarachnoid hemorrhage...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886085/meibomian-gland-features-in-a-norwegian-cohort-of-patients-with-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren%C3%A2-s-syndrome
#6
Xiangjun Chen, Øygunn Aass Utheim, Jiaxin Xiao, Muhammed Yasin Adil, Aleksandar Stojanovic, Behzod Tashbayev, Janicke Liaaen Jensen, Tor Paaske Utheim
PURPOSE: To assess the tear film and meibomian gland (MG) features in a Norwegian cohort of patients with primary Sjögren´s syndrome (pSS) and in age- and gender-matched control subjects. METHODS: Thirty-four female patients with pSS (age 52.9±11.9 years) and 32 female control subjects (age 49.0±11.5 years) were recruited. After completion of Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire and McMonnies Dry Eye Questionaire, participants underwent measurements of tear osmolarity, tear break-up time (TBUT), ocular surface and corneal staining, Schirmer I test, corneal sensitivity, MG expressibility evaluations, and lid margin morphology examination using slitlamp microscopy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884335/association-between-objective-signs-and-subjective-symptoms-of-dry-eye-disease-in-patients-with-systemic-sclerosis
#7
Aniko Rentka, Annamaria Nagy, Jolan Harsfalvi, Gabriella Szucs, Zoltan Szekanecz, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Peter Szodoray, Adam Kemeny-Beke
The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between clinical signs and symptoms of dry eye disease (DED) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). This cross-sectional observational study included 19 SSc patients and 19 normal subjects with no ocular symptoms or ocular surface disorders. Clinical parameters included tear film break-up time (tBUT), Schirmer I, lissamine green (LG) dye, and tear film osmolarity tests, tear production, and tear secretion flow. For assessment of the dry eye symptoms, the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire was administered to all patients...
September 7, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883442/interdisciplinary-comprehensive-oral-and-ocular-evaluation-of-patients-with-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#8
Behzod Tashbayev, Shermin Rusthen, Alix Young, Bente Brokstad Herlofson, Lene Hystad Hove, Preet Bano Singh, Morten Rykke, Lara Adnan Aqrawi, Xiangjun Chen, Øygunn Aass Utheim, Tor Paaske Utheim, Øyvind Palm, Janicke Liaaen Jensen
A comprehensive evaluation of oral and ocular symptoms and findings in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) patients may provide valuable information for management. Medical history was obtained from female pSS patients, and sex- and age-matched non-SS patients with sicca symptoms (non-SS sicca controls) as well as healthy subjects without sicca complaints (healthy controls). Oral (Summated Xerostomia Inventory, SXI) and ocular (McMonnies Dry Eye questionnaire, MDEIS, and Ocular Surface Disease Index, OSDI) subjective complaints were recorded...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880427/stigmatic-exudate-in-the-annonaceae-pollinator-reward-pollen-germination-medium-or-extragynoecial-compitum
#9
Jenny Y Y Lau, Chun-Chiu Pang, Lawrence Ramsden, Richard M K Saunders
Although 'dry-type' stigmas are widely regarded as ancestral in angiosperms, the early-divergent family Annonaceae has copious stigmatic exudate. We evaluate three putative functions for this exudate: as a nutritive reward for pollinators; as a pollen germination medium; and as an extragynoecial compitum that enables pollen tube growth between carpels. Stigmatic exudate is fructose dominated (72.2%), but with high levels of glucose and sucrose; the dominance of hexose sugars and the diversity of amino acids observed, including many that are essential for insects, supports a nutritive role for pollinators...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879483/molecular-characterization-of-acanthamoeba-strains-isolated-from-the-oral-cavity-of-hemodialysis-patients-in-iran
#10
Maryam Niyyati, Zahra Arab-Mazar, Zohreh Lasjerdi, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Adel Espotin, Davood Yadegarynia, Latif Gachkar, Sara Rahmati Roodsari
Free-living amoebae (FLA) of the genus Acanthamoeba are opportunistic pathogenic agents able to cause life-threatening infections in immunosuppressed patients. Chronic kidney disease impairs adaptive and innate immunity. Thus, patients with chronic kidney disease are prone to opportunistic infections by potentially pathogenic FLA. Therefore, in the present study, the investigation of Acanthamoeba genotypes isolated from the oral cavity of hemodialysis patients of reference hospitals in Iran was aimed, using both morphology and molecular (sequence-based analysis) tools...
September 6, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876961/vitamin-d-replacement-improves-tear-osmolarity-in-patients-with-vitamin-d-deficiency
#11
Muhammed Kizilgul, Seyfullah Kan, Ozgur Ozcelik, Selvihan Beysel, Mahmut Apaydin, Bekir Ucan, Erman Cakal
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem worldwide. Many parts of the human eye, including the epithelium of the cornea, lens, ciliary body, and retinal pigment epithelium, as well as the corneal endothelium, ganglion cell layer, and retinal photoreceptors, contain vitamin D receptor (VDR). Dry eye is also a common health problem. An adequate tear film is required for maintaining health and function of the eye. Tear hyperosmolarity is considered to be the cause of ocular surface inflammation, symptoms, and tissue damage...
September 6, 2017: Seminars in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874571/osmotaxis-in-escherichia-coli-through-changes-in-motor-speed
#12
Jerko Rosko, Vincent A Martinez, Wilson C K Poon, Teuta Pilizota
Bacterial motility, and in particular repulsion or attraction toward specific chemicals, has been a subject of investigation for over 100 years, resulting in detailed understanding of bacterial chemotaxis and the corresponding sensory network in many bacterial species. For Escherichia coli most of the current understanding comes from the experiments with low levels of chemotactically active ligands. However, chemotactically inactive chemical species at concentrations found in the human gastrointestinal tract produce significant changes in E...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872518/tear-osmolarity-and-correlation-with-ocular-surface-parameters-in-patients-with-dry-eye
#13
Priya M Mathews, Sezen Karakus, Devika Agrawal, Holly B Hindman, Pradeep Y Ramulu, Esen K Akpek
PURPOSE: To analyze the distribution of tear film osmolarity in patients with dry eye and its association with other ocular surface parameters. METHODS: Tear osmolarity and other quantitative dry eye parameters were obtained from patients with 1) clinically significant dry eye (significant symptoms and ocular surface staining, n = 131), 2) symptoms-only dry eye (significant symptoms but no significant ocular surface staining, n = 52), and 3) controls (no significant symptoms or staining, n = 42)...
August 31, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866977/intensity-of-early-correction-of-hyperglycaemia-and-outcome-of-critically-ill-patients-with-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#14
Johan Mårtensson, Michael Bailey, Balasubramanian Venkatesh, David Pilcher, Adam Deane, Yasmine Ali Abdelhamid, Marco Crisman, Brij Verma, Christopher MacIsaac, Geoffrey Wigmore, Yahya Shehabi, Takafumi Suzuki, Craig French, Neil Orford, Nima Kakho, Johannes Prins, Elif I Ekinci, Rinaldo Bellomo
OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of the intensity of early correction of hyperglycaemia on outcomes in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) admitted to the intensive care unit. METHODS: We studied adult patients with DKA admitted to 171 ICUs in Australia and New Zealand from 2000 to 2013. We used their blood glucose levels (BGLs) in the first 24 hours after ICU admission to determine whether intensive early correction of hyperglycemia to ≤ 180 mg/dL was independently associated with hypoglycaemia, hypokalaemia, hypo-osmolarity or mortality, compared with partial early correction to > 180 mg/dL as recommended by DKA-specific guidelines...
September 2017: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866013/contrasting-cellular-damage-after-blue-iris-and-femto-lasik-in-cat-cornea
#15
Kaitlin T Wozniak, Noah Elkins, Daniel R Brooks, Daniel E Savage, Scott MacRae, Jonathan D Ellis, Wayne H Knox, Krystel R Huxlin
Blue-intra-tissue refractive index shaping (Blue-IRIS) is a new approach to laser refractive correction of optical aberrations in the eye, which alters the refractive index of the cornea rather than changing its shape. Before it can be implemented in humans, it is critical to establish whether and to what extent, Blue-IRIS damages the cornea. Here, we contrasted the impact of -1.5 D cylinder refractive corrections inscribed using either Blue-IRIS or femtosecond laser in-situ keratomileusis (femto-LASIK) on corneal cell viability...
August 31, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863814/multiple-mechanisms-of-regulation-of-transient-receptor-potential-ion-channels-by-cholesterol
#16
Sara L Morales-Lázaro, Tamara Rosenbaum
The transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels is constituted by several nonselective cation channels that are activated by diverse stimuli and that function as polymodal receptors. TRP ion channels are expressed in neural and nonneural tissues where they play important roles in cell physiology. The activation of these ion channels is achieved through changes in temperature, osmolarity, voltage, pH, pressure, and by some natural or synthetic chemical compounds that directly bind to these proteins to regulate their activity...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853743/evaluation-and-review-of-body-fluids-saliva-sweat-and-tear-compared-to-biochemical-hydration-assessment-markers-within-blood-and-urine
#17
REVIEW
M Villiger, R Stoop, T Vetsch, E Hohenauer, M Pini, P Clarys, F Pereira, R Clijsen
Evaluating and testing hydration status is increasingly requested by rehabilitation, sport, military and performance-related activities. Besides commonly used biochemical hydration assessment markers within blood and urine, which have their advantages and limitations in collection and evaluating hydration status, there are other potential markers present within saliva, sweat or tear. This literature review focuses on body fluids saliva, sweat and tear compared to blood and urine regarding practicality and hydration status influenced by fluid restriction and/or physical activity...
August 30, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853179/hyperosmolarity-induces-notochordal-cell-differentiation-with-aquaporin3-upregulation-and-reduced-n-cadherin-expression
#18
Paolo E Palacio-Mancheno, Thomas W Evashwick-Rogler, Damien M Laudier, Devina Purmessur, James C Iatridis
The nucleus pulposus (NP) of intervertebral discs (IVD) undergoes dramatic changes with aging including loss of its gelatinous structure and large, vacuolated notochordal cells (NCs) in favor of a matrix-rich structure populated by small NP cells (sNPCs). NP maturation also involves a loading-pattern shift from pressurization to matrix deformations, and these events are thought to predispose to degeneration. Little is known of the triggering events and cellular alterations involved with NP maturation, which remains a fundamental open spinal mechanobiology question...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851933/intravenous-fluid-challenge-decreases-intracellular-volume-a-bioimpedance-spectroscopy-based-crossover-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#19
Matthäus Ernstbrunner, Barbara Kabon, Oliver Zotti, Markus Zeitlinger, Carolin Berner, Georg Hinterholzer, Marcus Säemann, Florian Frommlet, Edith Fleischmann, Manfred Hecking
The effects of intravenous fluid therapy on fluid compartments and hemodynamics of the human body remain enigmatic. We therefore tested the efficacy of bioimpedance spectroscopy in a crossover study, where 15 males received 0.5 ml/kg/min ELO-MEL-isoton (osmolarity = 302 mosmol/l) during 60 minutes, or nothing at all. In group "Fluid", fluid load increased from -0.2 ± 1.0 l extracellular volume at baseline to its maximum of 1.0 ± 0.9 l in minute 70, and remained continuously elevated throughout minute 300...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842881/tethered-particle-motion-analysis-of-the-dna-binding-properties-of-architectural-proteins
#20
Ramon A van der Valk, Niels Laurens, Remus T Dame
Architectural DNA binding proteins are key to the organization and compaction of genomic DNA inside cells. Tethered Particle Motion (TPM) permits analysis of DNA conformation and detection of changes in conformation induced by such proteins at the single molecule level in vitro. As many individual protein-DNA complexes can be investigated in parallel, these experiments have high throughput. TPM is therefore well suited for characterization of the effects of protein-DNA stoichiometry and changes in physicochemical conditions (pH, osmolarity, and temperature)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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