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Osmolarity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140948/hypertonic-saline-resuscitation-following-emergent-laparotomy-and-temporary-abdominal-closure
#1
Tyler J Loftus, Philip A Efron, Trina M Bala, Martin D Rosenthal, Chasen A Croft, R Stephen Smith, Frederick A Moore, Alicia M Mohr, Scott C Brakenridge
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to establish the safety of 3% hypertonic saline (HTS) resuscitation for trauma and acute care surgery patients undergoing emergent laparotomy and temporary abdominal closure (TAC) with the hypothesis that HTS administration would be associated with hyperosmolar hypercholoremic acidosis, lower resuscitation volumes, and higher fascial closure rates, without adversely affecting renal function. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of 189 trauma and acute care surgery patients who underwent emergent laparotomy and TAC, comparing patients with normal baseline renal function who received 3% HTS at 30 mL/h (n=36) to patients with standard resuscitation (n=153) by baseline characteristics, resuscitation parameters, and outcomes including primary fascial closure and KDIGO stages of acute kidney injury...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126968/jnk-signaling-pathway-regulates-sorbitol-induced-tau-proteolysis-and-apoptosis-in-sh-sy5y-cells-by-targeting-caspase-3
#2
Marta Olivera Santa-Catalina, Montaña Caballero Bermejo, Ricardo Argent, Juan C Alonso, Francisco Centeno, María J Lorenzo
Growing evidence suggests that Diabetes Mellitus increases the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. It is well known that hyperglycemia, a key feature of Diabetes Mellitus, may induce plasma osmolarity disturbances. Both hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity promote the altered post-translational regulation of microtubule-associated protein Tau. Interestingly, abnormal hyperphosphorylation and cleavage of Tau have been proven to lead to the genesis of filamentous structures referred to as neurofibrillary tangles, the main pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease...
November 7, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125939/regulation-of-microbial-growth-by-turgor-pressure
#3
REVIEW
Enrique R Rojas, Kerwyn Casey Huang
Rapid changes in environmental osmolarity are a natural aspect of microbial lifestyles. The change in turgor pressure resulting from an osmotic shock alters the mechanical forces within the cell envelope, and can impact cell growth across a range of timescales, through a variety of mechanical mechanisms. Here, we first summarize measurements of turgor pressure in various organisms. We then review how the combination of microfluidic flow cells and quantitative image analysis has driven discovery of the diverse ways in which turgor pressure mechanically regulates bacterial growth, independent of the effect of cytoplasmic crowding...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124876/trehalose-a-temperature-and-salt-induced-solute-with-implications-in-pathobiology-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#4
Sabine Zeidler, Josephine Hubloher, Kim Schabacker, Pedro Lamosa, Helena Santos, Volker Müller
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic human pathogen that has become a global threat to healthcare institutions worldwide. A major factor contributing to success of this bacterium is its outstanding ability to survive on dry surfaces. The molecular basis for desiccation resistance is not completely understood. This study focused on growth under osmotic stress and aimed to identify the pool of compatible solutes synthesized in response to these low water activity conditions. A. baumannii produced mannitol as compatible solute, but in contrast to Acinetobacter baylyi, also trehalose was accumulated in response to increasing NaCl concentrations...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122172/the-c2h2-transcription-factor-vdmsn2-controls-hyphal-growth-microsclerotia-formation-and-virulence-of-verticillium-dahliae
#5
Longyan Tian, Jun Yu, Yonglin Wang, Chengming Tian
Verticillium dahliae is a notorious pathogen that causes vascular wilt disease in numerous plant species worldwide. The fungus produces melanized microsclerotia, which helps it survive adverse environmental conditions that it may encounter within its hosts and in the soil. Previously, we determined that the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway is involved in the environmental stress response of V. dahliae. In this study, we investigated the function of VdMsn2, a homologue of the yeast C2H2 transcription factor Msn2, which is predicted to function as a downstream player in the HOG pathway...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117715/iso-osmolar-contrast-media-and-adverse-renal-and-cardiac-events-after-percutaneous-cardiovascular-intervention
#6
Peter A McCullough, Guy David, Thomas M Todoran, Emmanouil S Brilakis, Michael P Ryan, Candace Gunnarsson
AIM: To assess the relationship between type of contrast media (CM), iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM) or low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM), and major adverse renal and cardiovascular events (MARCE). MATERIALS & METHODS: Coronary or peripheral angioplasty visits were stratified into CM cohorts: IOCM or LOCM. Multivariable regression analysis used hospital fixed effects to assess the relationship between MARCE events and type of CM. RESULTS: Among 333,533 visits (357 hospitals), the incidence of MARCE was 7...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115539/two%C3%A2-component-histidine-kinase-drk1-is-required-for-pathogenesis-in-sporothrix%C3%A2-schenckii
#7
Zhenying Zhang, Binbin Hou, Yong Zhuo Wu, Ying Wang, Xiaoming Liu, Shixin Han
Sporothrix schenckii is a pathogenic dimorphic fungus with a global distribution. It grows in a multicellular hyphal form at 25˚C and a unicellular yeast form at 37˚C. The morphological switch from mold to yeast form is obligatory for establishing pathogenicity in S. schenckii. Two‑component signaling systems are utilized by eukaryotes to sense and respond to external environmental changes. DRK1is a hybrid histidine kinase, which functions as a global regulator of dimorphism and virulence in Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111837/conjunctival-tear-layer-temperature-evaporation-hyperosmolarity-inflammation-hyperemia-tissue-damage-and-symptoms-a-review-of-an-amplifying-cascade
#8
Charles W McMonnies
PURPOSE: This review examines the evidence for and significance of pre-conjunctival tear temperature being higher than central pre-corneal temperature with associated more rapid evaporation of warmer pre-conjunctival tears in normal eyes but especially in hyperemic dry eye disease. METHODS: PubMed searches using the terms "evaporative dry eye," "conjunctival tear evaporation," "tear evaporation," and "dry eye conjunctival hyperemia" indicated 157, 49, 309, and 96 potentially relevant papers, respectively...
November 7, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107044/rapid-room-temperature-nanoparticle-drying-and-low-energy-reconstitution-via-electrospinning
#9
Shani L Levit, Ratib M Stwodah, Christina Tang
Nanoparticle formulations offer advantages over free drug; however, stability of the nanoparticle dispersions is a significant obstacle and drying is often required for long-term size stability. The main limitation of current drying methods is particle aggregation upon reconstitution which can be overcome with sonication (impractical in a clinical setting) or large amounts of cryoprotectants (result in hypertonic dispersions). Therefore, new approaches to nanoparticle drying are necessary. We demonstrate conversion of nanoparticle dispersions to a dry, thermostable form via electrospinning...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106544/effects-of-adult-female-rat-androgenization-on-brain-morphology-and-metabolomic-profile
#10
Carmen Perez-Laso, Sebastián Cerdan, Carme Junque, Ángel Gómez, Esperanza Ortega, Mireia Mora, Carlos Avendaño, Esther Gómez-Gil, María Cruz Rodríguez Del Cerro, Antonio Guillamon
Androgenization in adult natal women, as in transsexual men (TM), affects brain cortical thickness and the volume of subcortical structures. In order to understand the mechanism underlying these changes we have developed an adult female rat model of androgenization. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy were used to monitor brain volume changes, white matter microstructure and ex vivo metabolic profiles over 32 days in androgenized and control subjects. Supraphysiological doses of testosterone prevents aging decrease of fractional anisotropy values, decreased general cortical volume and the relative concentrations of glutamine (Gln) and myo-Inositol (mI)...
July 6, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101191/tinkering-with-osmotically-controlled-transcription-allows-enhanced-production-and-excretion-of-ectoine-and-hydroxyectoine-from-a-microbial-cell-factory
#11
Laura Czech, Sebastian Poehl, Philipp Hub, Nadine Stoeveken, Erhard Bremer
Ectoine and hydroxyectoine are widely synthesized by members of the Bacteria and a few Archaea as potent osmostress protectants. We have studied the salient features of the osmostress-responsive promoter directing the transcription of the ectoine/hydroxyectoine biosynthetic gene cluster from the plant-roots-associated bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri by transferring it into Escherichia coli, an enterobacterium that does not produce ectoines naturally. Using ect-lacZ reporter fusions, we found that the heterologous ect promoter reacted with exquisite sensitivity in its transcriptional profile to graded increases in sustained high salinity, responded to a true osmotic signal, and required the build-up of an osmotically effective gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane for its induction...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099800/the-tyrosyl-dna-phosphodiesterase-1%C3%AE-tdp1%C3%AE-gene-discloses-an-early-response-to-abiotic-stresses
#12
Maria Elisa Sabatini, Andrea Pagano, Susana Araùjo, Alma Balestrazzi, Anca Macovei
Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1) is involved in DNA repair pathways as it mends the topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes. In plants, a small Tdp1 gene family, composed by Tdp1α and Tdp1β genes, was identified, but the roles of these genes in abiotic stress responses are not fully understood. To investigate their specific stress response patterns, the present study made use of bioinformatic and molecular tools to look into the Tdp1β gene function, so far described only in the plant kingdom, and compare it with Tdp1α gene coding for the canonical, highly conserved α isoform...
November 3, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090271/oral-rehydration-of-malnourished-children-with-diarrhoea-and-dehydration-a-systematic-review
#13
Kirsty A Houston, Jack G Gibb, Kathryn Maitland
Background: Diarrhoea complicates over half of admissions to hospital with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the management of dehydration recommend the use of oral rehydration with ReSoMal (an oral rehydration solution (ORS) for SAM), which has lower sodium (45mmols/l) and higher potassium (40mmols/l) content than old WHO ORS. The composition of ReSoMal was designed specifically to address theoretical risks of sodium overload and potential under-treatment of severe hypokalaemia with rehydration using standard ORS...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079824/wrky43-regulates-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-content-and-seed-germination-under-unfavourable-growth-conditions
#14
Katja Geilen, Mareike Heilmann, Stefan Hillmer, Maik Böhmer
Seed germination and postgerminative growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and various other plant species are arrested in response to unfavourable environmental conditions by signalling events involving the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). In this study, we showed that loss of the seed-specific WRKY DNA-BINDING PROTEIN 43 (WRKY43) conferred increased tolerance towards high salt, high osmolarity and low temperature during seed germination in Arabidopsis. The wrky43 loss of function lines displayed increased inhibition of seed germination in response to exogenous ABA; whereas lines overexpressing WRKY43 were more tolerant towards exogenous ABA...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078721/the-role-of-osmolarity-adjusting-agents-in-the-regulation-of-encapsulated-cell-behavior-to-provide-a-safer-and-more-predictable-delivery-of-therapeutics
#15
Ainhoa Gonzalez-Pujana, Aitor Rementeria, Francisco Javier Blanco, Manoli Igartua, Jose Luis Pedraz, Edorta Santos-Vizcaino, Rosa Maria Hernandez
Transplantation of cells within alginate microspheres has been extensively studied for sustained drug delivery. However, the lack of control over cell behavior represents a major concern regarding the efficacy and the safety of the therapy. Here, we demonstrated that when formulating the biosystem, an adequate selection of osmolarity adjusting agents significantly contributes to the regulation of cell responses. Our data showed that these agents interact in the capsule formation process, influencing the alginate crosslinking degree...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058189/studying-mechanosensitivity-of-two-pore-domain-k-channels-in-cellular-and-reconstituted-proteoliposome-membranes
#16
Josefina Del Mármol, Robert A Rietmeijer, Stephen G Brohawn
Mechanical force sensation is fundamental to a wide breadth of biology from the classic senses of touch, pain, hearing, and balance to less conspicuous sensations of proprioception, blood pressure, and osmolarity and basic aspects of cell growth, differentiation, and development. These diverse and essential systems use force-gated (or mechanosensitive) ion channels that convert mechanical stimuli into cellular electrical signals. TRAAK, TREK1, and TREK2 are K(+)-selective ion channels of the two-pore domain K(+) (K2P) family that are mechanosensitive: they are gated open by increasing membrane tension...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055359/update-in-current-diagnostics-and-therapeutics-of-dry-eye-disease
#17
REVIEW
Praneetha Thulasi, Ali Reza Djalilian
Dry eye disease (DED) represents a heterogeneous group of conditions with tear film insufficiency and signs and/or symptoms of ocular surface irritation. The clinical manifestations of DED can be highly variable; hence the diagnosis is often based on a combination of symptoms, signs, and clinical tests, given that any one of these alone would miss a significant number of patients. Similarly, the treatment must often be tailored to each patient by targeting the specific mechanisms involved in his or her disease...
November 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042649/lipid-polymorphism-in-chloroplast-thylakoid-membranes-as-revealed-by-31-p-nmr-and-time-resolved-merocyanine-fluorescence-spectroscopy
#18
Győző Garab, Bettina Ughy, Pieter de Waard, Parveen Akhtar, Uroš Javornik, Christos Kotakis, Primož Šket, Václav Karlický, Zuzana Materová, Vladimír Špunda, Janez Plavec, Herbert van Amerongen, László Vígh, Henk Van As, Petar H Lambrev
Chloroplast thylakoid membranes contain virtually all components of the energy-converting photosynthetic machinery. Their energized state, driving ATP synthesis, is enabled by the bilayer organization of the membrane. However, their most abundant lipid species is a non-bilayer-forming lipid, monogalactosyl-diacylglycerol; the role of lipid polymorphism in these membranes is poorly understood. Earlier (31)P-NMR experiments revealed the coexistence of a bilayer and a non-bilayer, isotropic lipid phase in spinach thylakoids...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037410/heat-adaptation-from-regular-hot-water-immersion-decreases-proinflammatory-responses-hsp70-expression-and-physical-heat-stress
#19
Fwu-Lin Yang, Chia-Chi Lee, Yi-Maun Subeq, Chung-Jen Lee, Chun-Yen Ke, Ru-Ping Lee
Hot-water immersion (HWI) is a type of thermal therapy for treating various diseases. In our study, the physiological responses to occasional and regular HWI have been explored. The rats were divided into a control group, occasional group (1D), and regular group (7D). The 1D and 7D groups received 42°C during 15mins HWI for 1 and 7 days, respectively. The blood samples were collected for proinflammatory cytokines examinations, the heart, liver and kidney were excised for subsequent IHC analysis to measure the level of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70)...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036609/computed-flow-and-fluorescence-over-the-ocular-surface
#20
Longfei Li, R J Braun, W D Henshaw, P E King-Smith
Fluorescein is perhaps the most commonly used substance to visualize tear film thickness and dynamics; better understanding of this process aids understanding of dry eye syndrome which afflicts millions of people. We study a mathematical model for tear film flow, evaporation, solutal transport and fluorescence over the exposed ocular surface during the interblink. Transport of the fluorescein ion by fluid flow in the tear film affects the intensity of fluorescence via changes in concentration and tear film thickness...
September 27, 2017: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
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