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Lionel Sebbag, Shin Ae Park, Philip H Kass, David J Maggs, Mayssa Attar, Christopher J Murphy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate repeatability and reproducibility of tear osmolarity measured using the TearLab(™) osmometer in normal dogs and to assess its diagnostic potential in dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). ANIMALS STUDIED: Beagle dogs; six normal and five with KCS. PROCEDURES: Tear osmolarity and Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) values were obtained at various times. Normal dogs were assessed for diurnal variation and repeatability and reproducibility of measurements...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Can-Zhao Liu, Xiang-Yu Li, Ren-Hong Du, Min Gao, Ming-Ming Ma, Fei-Ya Li, Er-Wen Huang, Hong-Shuo Sun, Guan-Lei Wang, Yong-Yuan Guan
BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated that ClC-3 is responsible for volume-regulated Cl(-)current (ICl.vol) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, it is still not clear whether and how ClC-3 is transported to cell membranes, resulting in alteration ofICl.vol.Methods and Results:Volume-regulated chloride current (ICl.vol) was recorded by whole-cell patch clamp recording, and Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation were performed to examine protein expression and protein-protein interaction...
October 19, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Katie Pollock, Guanglin Yu, Ralph Moller-Trane, Marissa Koran, Peter Dosa, David McKenna, Allison Hubel
There is demand for non-DMSO cryoprotective agents that maintain cell viability without causing poor post thaw function or systemic toxicity. The focus of this investigation involves expanding our understanding of multicomponent osmolyte solutions and their ability to preserve cell viability during freezing. Controlled cooling rate freezing, Raman microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were utilized to evaluate the differences in recovery and ice crystal formation behavior for solutions containing multiple cryoprotectants including sugars, sugar alcohols, and small molecule additives...
October 19, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
James R Costello, Bobby Kalb, Diego R Martin
Since their clinical introduction in 1988, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have demonstrated an excellent safety profile with a reported acute adverse reaction rate ranging from 0.01% to 2%. By comparison, the acute adverse reaction rate of low osmolar nonionic computed tomography contrast agents (CTCs) ranges from 0.7% to 3.1%. Many of the risk factors associated with CTC reactions (drug allergies, asthma, atopy, prior contrast reaction) also point toward an increased incidence of acute adverse events to GBCAs...
June 29, 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Mohsen Yousefnezhad, Morteza Fotouhi, Kaveh Vejdani, Padideh Kamali-Zare
We present a universal model of brain tissue microstructure that dynamically links osmosis and diffusion with geometrical parameters of brain extracellular space (ECS). Our model robustly describes and predicts the nonlinear time dependency of tortuosity (λ=sqrt[D/D^{*}]) changes with very high precision in various media with uniform and nonuniform osmolarity distribution, as demonstrated by previously published experimental data (D = free diffusion coefficient, D^{*} = effective diffusion coefficient). To construct this model, we first developed a multiscale technique for computationally effective modeling of osmolarity in the brain tissue...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
T Ravindran, Paneerselvam, Radha, T Allwyn Yabesh
Osmotic demyelination syndrome is an acute shift in serum osmolality causing demyelination, which may be due to rapid correction of hyponatremia, hyperglycaemia, hypokalemia and ketoacidosis. We present a case of 55yr old female and a known diabetic presented with the choreic movements involving left upper and lower limb for 2 days without any weakness.Her blood sugar was 428mg/dl at the time of admission with wide fluctuations.Her CT Brain showed hyperdensity in the right basal ganglia and the MRI brain showed hyperintense lesion in T2 weighted images showing features suggestive of osmotic demyelination...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Ramon Gonzalez, Pilar Morales, Jordi Tronchoni, Gustavo Cordero-Bueso, Enrico Vaudano, Manuel Quirós, Maite Novo, Rafael Torres-Pérez, Eva Valero
Adaptation to changes in osmolarity is fundamental for the survival of living cells, and has implications in food and industrial biotechnology. It has been extensively studied in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the Hog1 stress activated protein kinase was discovered about 20 years ago. Hog1 is the core of the intracellular signaling pathway that governs the adaptive response to osmotic stress in this species. The main endpoint of this program is synthesis and intracellular retention of glycerol, as a compatible osmolyte...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yeji Lee, Olviyani Nasution, Young Mi Lee, Eunjung Kim, Wonja Choi, Wankee Kim
PMA1 encodes a transmembrane polypeptide that functions to pump protons out of the cell. Ectopic PMA1 overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae enhances tolerance to weak acids, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ethanol, and changes the following physiological properties: better proton efflux, lower membrane permeability, and lessened internal hydrogen peroxide production. The enhanced stress tolerance was dependent on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Hog1 of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, but not the MAPK Slt2 of the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway; however, a PMA1 overexpression constitutively activated both Hog1 and Slt2...
October 11, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Annegret Wiedemann, Anja Spadinger, Axel Löwe, Allison Seeger, Frank Ebel
Treatment of invasive fungal infections often fails due to the limited number of therapeutic options. In this study, we have analyzed the impact of agents activating the High Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) pathway on molds that cause infections in humans and livestock. We found that agents like fludioxonil and iprodione, have a clear anti-fungal activity against pathogenic Aspergillus, Lichtheimia, Rhizopus and Scedosporium species. Only A. terreus turned out to be resistant to fludioxonil, even though it is sensitive to iprodione and able to adapt to hyperosmotic conditions...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Lilian Pereira Silva, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Thaila Fernanda Dos Reis, Mario Henrique Paziani, Márcia Regina Von Zeska Kress, Diego M Riaño-Pachón, Daisuke Hagiwara, Laure N A Ries, Neil Andrew Brown, Gustavo H Goldman
Invasive aspergillosis is predominantly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and adaptations to stresses experienced within the human host are a prerequisite for the survival and virulence strategies of the pathogen. The central signal transduction pathway operating during hyperosmotic stress is the High Osmolarity Glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. A. fumigatus MpkC and SakA, orthologues of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hog1p, constitute the primary regulator of the hyperosmotic stress response...
October 5, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Urška Potočar, Samo Hudoklin, Mateja Erdani Kreft, Janja Završnik, Krešimir Božikov, Mirjam Fröhlich
Cell therapies present a feasible option for the treatment of degenerated cartilaginous and intervertebral disc (IVD) tissues. Microenvironments of these tissues are specific and often differ from the microenvironment of cells that, could be potentially used for therapy, e.g. human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC). To ensure safe and efficient implantation of hASC, it is important to evaluate how microenvironmental conditions at the site of implantation affect the implanted cells. This study has demonstrated that cartilaginous tissue-specific osmolarities ranging from 400-600 mOsm/L affected hASC in a dose- and time-dependent fashion in comparison to 300 mOsm/L...
2016: PloS One
Markela Ibo, Vasudha Srivastava, Douglas N Robinson, Zachary R Gagnon
Migrating cells can extend their leading edge by forming myosin-driven blebs and F-actin-driven pseudopods. When coerced to migrate in resistive environments, Dictyostelium cells switch from using predominately pseudopods to blebs. Bleb formation has been shown to be chemotactic and can be influenced by the direction of the chemotactic gradient. In this study, we determine the blebbing responses of developed cells of Dictyostelium discoideum to cAMP gradients of varying steepness produced in microfluidic channels with different confining heights, ranging between 1...
2016: PloS One
Kevin Felipe Cruz Martho, Amanda Teixeira de Melo, Juliana Possato Fernandes Takahashi, Juliana Mariotti Guerra, Dayane Cristina da Silva Santos, Sônia Ueda Purisco, Márcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Raquel Dos Anjos Fazioli, Clerlune Phanord, Patrícia Sartorelli, Marcelo A Vallim, Renata C Pascon
Fungal opportunistic pathogens colonize various environments, from plants and wood to human and animal tissue. Regarding human pathogens, one great challenge during contrasting niche occupation is the adaptation to different conditions, such as temperature, osmolarity, salinity, pressure, oxidative stress and nutritional availability, which may constitute sources of stress that need to be tolerated and overcome. As an opportunistic pathogen, C. neoformans faces exactly these situations during the transition from the environment to the human host, encountering nutritional constraints...
2016: PloS One
Osama W Amro, Jessica K Paulus, Farzad Noubary, Ronald D Perrone
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) affects millions of people worldwide. Vasopressin promotes disease progression. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial with equal (1:1) allocation. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: This trial examined the effect of combining a low-osmolar (low-sodium [1,500mg/d], low-protein [0.8g per kilogram of body weight]) diet and adjusted water intake on vasopressin secretion in 34 patients with ADPKD...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Goktug Demirci, Sevil Karaman Erdur, Mustafa Ozsutcu, Mustafa Eliacik, Oktay Olmuscelik, Rukiye Aydin, Mehmet Selim Kocabora
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate tear film function in patients with vitamin D deficiency. METHODS: In a single center, 60 eyes of 30 patients with vitamin D deficiency (group 1), and 60 eyes of 30 healthy individuals (group 2) were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear break-up time (TBUT), scoring of ocular surface fluorescein staining using a modified Oxford scale, and tear osmolarity. RESULTS: Tear osmolarity values, OSDI, and Oxford scale scores were significantly higher in group 1 (309±9 mOsm/L, 35...
September 22, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Hendrik Schmidt, Sandra Reitmaier, Friedmar Graichen, Aboulfazl Shirazi-Adl
By maintaining a balance between external mechanical loads and internal osmotic pressure, fluid content of intervertebral discs constantly alters causing fluctuations in disc hydration, height, diameter and pressure that govern disc temporal response. This paper reviews and discusses the relevant findings of earlier studies on the disc fluid flow with the aim to understand and remedy discrepancies between in vivo and in vitro observations. New results of finite element model studies are also exploited in order to help identify the likely causes for such differences and underlying mechanisms observed in vitro...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
S R Kim, J H Lee, K H Park, H J Park, J W Park
BACKGROUND: Low-osmolar non-ionic radiocontrast media (RCMs) are commonly used throughout hospitals. However, the incidence of immediate adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to various low-osmolar non-ionic RCMs is not well studied. We compared the incidence of immediate ADRs among different low-osmolar non-ionic RCMs used in computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Severance Hospital has collected data for adverse reactions occurring in-hospital using an internally developed system...
September 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Renata Buda, Yunxiao Liu, Jin Yang, Smitha Hegde, Keiran Stevenson, Fan Bai, Teuta Pilizota
For most cells, a sudden decrease in external osmolarity results in fast water influx that can burst the cell. To survive, cells rely on the passive response of mechanosensitive channels, which open under increased membrane tension and allow the release of cytoplasmic solutes and water. Although the gating and the molecular structure of mechanosensitive channels found in Escherichia coli have been extensively studied, the overall dynamics of the whole cellular response remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize E...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hyunkyu Sang, James T Popko, Taehyun Chang, Geunhwa Jung
The dicarboximide fungicide class is commonly used to control Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, the causal agent of dollar spot on turfgrass. Despite frequent occurrences of S. homoeocarpa field resistance to iprodione (dicarboximide active ingredient), the genetic mechanisms of iprodione resistance have not been elucidated. In this study, 15 field isolates (seven suspected dicarboximide-resistant, three multi-drug resistance (MDR)-like, and five dicarboximide-sensitive) were used for sequence comparison of a histidine kinase gene Shos1 of S...
September 19, 2016: Phytopathology
Muhittin Taskapili, Kubra Serefoglu Cabuk, Rukiye Aydin, Kursat Atalay, Ahmet Kirgiz, Dede Sit, Hasan Kayabasi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
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