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Serial reaction time task

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493740/independent-learning-of-spatial-and-nonspatial-sequences
#1
Gilbert Remillard
A small number of studies have examined whether learning the structures of two uncorrelated sequences can proceed independently of one another. Limitations in those studies have left their results open to alternative explanations. The present study addressed the limitations. The visuospatial serial reaction time task, initially introduced by Mayr (1996), was used to examine whether learning the structure of a sequence of visuospatial target locations (spatial sequence) and learning the structure of a sequence of target identities and responses (nonspatial sequence) can proceed independently of one another...
May 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487067/selective-and-interactive-effects-of-d2-receptor-antagonism-and-positive-allosteric-mglur4-modulation-on-waiting-impulsivity
#2
Sarah N Isherwood, Trevor W Robbins, Janet R Nicholson, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
BACKGROUND: Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) and dopamine D2 receptors are specifically expressed within the indirect pathway neurons of the striato-pallidal-subthalamic pathway. This unique expression profile suggests that mGluR4 and D2 receptors may play a cooperative role in the regulation and inhibitory control of behaviour. We investigated this possibility by testing the effects of a functionally-characterised positive allosteric mGluR4 modulator, 4-((E)-styryl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamine (Cpd11), both alone and in combination with the D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride, on two distinct forms of impulsivity...
May 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469479/audiovisual-distraction-increases-prefrontal-cortical-neuronal-activity-and-impairs-attentional-performance-in-the-rat
#3
Douglas G Ririe, M Danilo Boada, Benjamin S Schmidt, Salem J Martin, Susy A Kim, Thomas J Martin
Involvement of attentional processes is generally evidenced by disruption of behavior in the presence of distracting stimuli. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) seems to play a role in fine-tuning activity during attentional tasks. A novel titration variant of the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-choice serial reaction time titration variant [5CTV]) that adjusts task difficulty based on subject performance was used to evaluate the effects of audiovisual distraction (DSTR) on performance and mPFC single spike activity and local field potential (LFP)...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451710/thalamic-inputs-to-dorsomedial-striatum-are-involved-in-inhibitory-control-evidence-from-the-five-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-in-rats
#4
Jasjot Saund, Daniel Dautan, Claire Rostron, Gonzalo P Urcelay, Todor V Gerdjikov
RATIONALE: Corticostriatal circuits are widely implicated in the top-down control of attention including inhibitory control and behavioural flexibility. However, recent neurophysiological evidence also suggests a role for thalamic inputs to striatum in behaviours related to salient, reward-paired cues. OBJECTIVES: Here, we used designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to investigate the role of parafascicular (Pf) thalamic inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) in rats...
April 28, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448681/autism-too-eager-to-learn-event-related-potential-findings-of-increased-dependency-on-intentional-learning-in-a-serial-reaction-time-task
#5
Fenny S Zwart, Constance Th W M Vissers, Roemer van der Meij, Roy P C Kessels, Joseph H R Maes
It has been suggested that people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an increased tendency to use explicit (or intentional) learning strategies. This altered learning may play a role in the development of the social communication difficulties characterizing ASD. In the current study, we investigated incidental and intentional sequence learning using a Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task in an adult ASD population. Response times and event related potentials (ERP) components (N2b and P3) were assessed as indicators of learning and knowledge...
April 27, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421018/the-emergence-of-explicit-knowledge-in-a-serial-reaction-time-task-the-role-of-experienced-fluency-and-strength-of-representation
#6
Sarah Esser, Hilde Haider
The Serial Reaction Time Task (SRTT) is an important paradigm to study the properties of unconscious learning processes. One specifically interesting and still controversially discussed topic are the conditions under which unconsciously acquired knowledge becomes conscious knowledge. The different assumptions about the underlying mechanisms can contrastively be separated into two accounts: single system views in which the strengthening of associative weights throughout training gradually turns implicit knowledge into explicit knowledge, and dual system views in which implicit knowledge itself does not become conscious...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418405/adenosine-a2a-receptor-and-erk-driven-impulsivity-potentiates-hippocampal-neuroblast-proliferation
#7
A Oliveros, C H Cho, A Cui, S Choi, D Lindberg, D Hinton, M-H Jang, D-S Choi
Dampened adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) function has been implicated in addiction through enhancement of goal-directed behaviors. However, the contribution of the A2AR to the control of impulsive reward seeking remains unknown. Using mice that were exposed to differential reward of low rate (DRL) schedules during Pavlovian-conditioning, second-order schedule discrimination, and the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), we demonstrate that deficits of A2AR function promote impulsive responses. Antagonism of the A2AR lowered ERK1 and ERK2 phosphorylation in the dorsal hippocampus (dHip) and potentiated impulsivity during Pavlovian-conditioning and the 5-CSRTT...
April 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386221/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-core-affects-trait-impulsivity-in-a-baseline-dependent-manner
#8
Maria C Schippers, Bastiaan Bruinsma, Mathijs Gaastra, Tanja I Mesman, Damiaan Denys, Taco J De Vries, Tommy Pattij
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NA) is explored as a treatment for refractory psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), depressive disorder (MDD), and substance use disorder (SUD). A common feature of some of these disorders is pathological impulsivity. Here, the effects of NAcore DBS on impulsive choice and impulsive action, two distinct forms of impulsive behavior, were investigated in translational animal tasks, the delayed reward task (DRT) and five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383991/measuring-and-filtering-reactive-inhibition-is-essential-for-assessing-serial-decision-making-and-learning
#9
Balázs Török, Karolina Janacsek, Dávid G Nagy, Gergő Orbán, Dezso Nemeth
Learning complex structures from stimuli requires extended exposure and often repeated observation of the same stimuli. Learning induces stimulus-dependent changes in specific performance measures. The same performance measures, however, can also be affected by processes that arise because of extended training (e.g., fatigue) but are otherwise independent from learning. Thus, a thorough assessment of the properties of learning can only be achieved by identifying and accounting for the effects of such processes...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383952/a-learning-perspective-on-individual-differences-in-skilled-reading-exploring-and-exploiting-orthographic-and-semantic-discrimination-cues
#10
Petar Milin, Dagmar Divjak, R Harald Baayen
The goal of the present study is to understand the role orthographic and semantic information play in the behavior of skilled readers. Reading latencies from a self-paced sentence reading experiment in which Russian near-synonymous verbs were manipulated appear well-predicted by a combination of bottom-up sublexical letter triplets (trigraphs) and top-down semantic generalizations, modeled using the Naive Discrimination Learner. The results reveal a complex interplay of bottom-up and top-down support from orthography and semantics to the target verbs, whereby activations from orthography only are modulated by individual differences...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381930/interference-effect-of-prior-explicit-information-on-motor-sequence-learning-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#11
Nahid Zahiri, Iraj Abollahi, Seyed Massood Nabavi, Fatemeh Ehsani, Amir Masoud Arab, Ina Shaw, Ardalan Shariat, Brandon S Shaw, Maryam Dastoorpoor, Mahmoud Danaee, Bahram Sangelaji
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most widespread disabling neurological condition in young adults around the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of explicit information (EI) on motor-sequence learning in MS patients. METHODS: Thirty patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), age: 29.5 (SD = 5.6) years and 30 healthy gender-, age-, and education-matched control group participants, age: 28.8 (SD = 6.0) years, were recruited for this study...
March 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378204/a-schizophrenia-relevant-5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-for-mice-assessing-broad-monitoring-distractibility-and-impulsivity
#12
Huiping Huang, Simone Guadagna, Maddalena Mereu, Mariasole Ciampoli, Giacomo Pruzzo, Theresa Ballard, Francesco Papaleo
The 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT) is an automated test for rodents allowing the assessment of multiple cognitive measures. Originally designed to assess cognitive deficits relevant to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, it has been widely used in the investigation of neural systems of attention. In the current study, we have set up a modified version, which reduced the training phase to only 8-9 days with minimal food deprivation and without single-housing. Furthermore, based on evidence that patients with schizophrenia are more impaired in broad monitoring abilities than in sustained attention, we successfully developed a protocol replicating the Spatial Attentional Resource Allocation Task (SARAT), used in humans to assess broad monitoring...
April 5, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363668/methylphenidate-alleviates-manganese-induced-impulsivity-but-not-distractibility
#13
Stephane A Beaudin, Barbara J Strupp, Walter Uribe, Lauren Ysais, Myla Strawderman, Donald R Smith
Recent studies from our lab have demonstrated that postnatal manganese (Mn) exposure in a rodent model can cause lasting impairments in fine motor control and attention, and that oral methylphenidate (MPH) treatment can effectively treat the dysfunction in fine motor control. However, it is unknown whether MPH treatment can alleviate the impairments in attention produced by Mn exposure. Here we used a rodent model of postnatal Mn exposure to determine whether (1) oral MPH alleviates attention and impulse control deficits caused by postnatal Mn exposure, using attention tasks that are variants of the 5-choice serial reaction time task, and (2) whether these treatments affected neuronal dendritic spine density in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dorsal striatum...
March 28, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344096/dissociable-effects-of-systemic-and-orbitofrontal-administration-of-adrenoceptor-antagonists-on-yohimbine-induced-motor-impulsivity
#14
Wendy K Adams, Michael M Barrus, Fiona D Zeeb, Paul J Cocker, James Benoit, Catharine A Winstanley
The α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine, is commonly used as a pharmacological stressor. Its behavioural effects are typically attributed to elevated noradrenaline release via blockade of central, inhibitory autoreceptors. We have previously reported that yohimbine increases motor impulsivity in rats on the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT), a cognitive behavioural assessment which measures motor impulsivity and visuospatial attention. Furthermore, this effect depended on cyclic adenomonophosphate (cAMP) signalling via cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)...
March 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337467/the-data-set-describing-cognitive-performance-after-varenicline-administration-in-a-3-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-in-rats
#15
Yu Ohmura, Hitomi Sasamori, Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Takeshi Izumi, Takayuki Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka
The data shows attentional function, impulsivity, motivation, motor function, and motor activity in rats treated with varenicline, a stop-smoking aid. The data also shows these parameters in rats treated with varenicline after acute/chronic nicotine administration. Our interpretation and discussion of these data were described in the article "Varenicline Provokes Impulsive Action by Stimulating α4β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in the Infralimbic Cortex in a Nicotine Exposure Status-Dependent Manner" (Ohmura et al...
April 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323028/early-behavioural-facilitation-by-temporal-expectations-in-complex-visual-motor-sequences
#16
Simone G Heideman, Freek van Ede, Anna C Nobre
In daily life, temporal expectations may derive from incidental learning of recurring patterns of intervals. We investigated the incidental acquisition and utilisation of combined temporal-ordinal (spatial/effector) structure in complex visual-motor sequences using a modified version of a serial reaction time (SRT) task. In this task, not only the series of targets/responses, but also the series of intervals between subsequent targets was repeated across multiple presentations of the same sequence. Each participant completed three sessions...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314950/-waiting-impulsivity-in-isolation-reared-and-socially-reared-rats-effects-of-amphetamine
#17
Yia-Ping Liu, Lawrence S Wilkinson, Trevor W Robbins
BACKGROUND: Rats reared in social isolation exhibit various cognitive and behavioural abnormalities in adulthood. However, impulsivity following this treatment still remains unclear, especially in response to medications used in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, such as amphetamine. METHODS: Using an isolation-rearing (IR) manipulation, the present study examined the effects of IR on impulsive action and impulsive choice when also treated with doses of D-amphetamine, by employing the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and a temporal discounting of reward task (TDRT), respectively...
May 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293899/effects-of-atomoxetine-on-attention-in-wistar-rats-treated-with-the-neurotoxin-n-2-chloroethyl-n-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine-dsp4
#18
Joachim Hauser, Andreas Reissmann, Thomas-A Sontag, Oliver Tucha, Klaus W Lange
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4), which allows a depletion of noradrenergic terminals in a dose-dependent manner, on attention in rats as measured using the five-choice serial-reaction time task (5CSRTT). In addition, we investigated whether the effects of DSP4 treatment can be reversed by atomoxetine. Atomoxetine is a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor and has been shown to be effective in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
March 14, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287760/abstract-feature-codes-the-building-blocks-of-the-implicit-learning-system
#19
Katharina Eberhardt, Sarah Esser, Hilde Haider
According to the Theory of Event Coding (TEC; Hommel, Müsseler, Aschersleben, & Prinz, 2001), action and perception are represented in a shared format in the cognitive system by means of feature codes. In implicit sequence learning research, it is still common to make a conceptual difference between independent motor and perceptual sequences. This supposedly independent learning takes place in encapsulated modules (Keele, Ivry, Mayr, Hazeltine, & Heuer 2003) that process information along single dimensions...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242793/coupled-decision-processes-update-and-maintain-saccadic-priors-in-a-dynamic-environment
#20
Timothy Doyeon Kim, Mohammad Kabir, Joshua I Gold
Much of what we know about how the brain forms decisions comes from studies of saccadic eye movements. However, saccadic decisions are often studied in isolation, which limits the insights that they can provide about real-world decisions with complex interdependencies. Here, we used a serial reaction time (RT) task to show that prior expectations affect RTs via interdependent, normative decision processes that operate within and across saccades. We found that human subjects performing the task generated saccades that were governed by a rise-to-threshold decision process with a starting point that reflected expected state-dependent transition probabilities...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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