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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155092/effects-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-5-ht7-receptor-knockdown-on-cognitive-control-after-acute-heroin-administration
#1
Huijun Zhong, Jie Dang, Zhenghao Huo, Zhanbing Ma, Jing Chen, Yong Huang, Yongsheng Zhu, Min Li
Heroin abuse is linked to a deleterious effect on cognitive functioning in the individual. Recent evidences suggest that the serotonin7 receptor (5-HT7R) is engaged in the regulation of cognitive control and the drug use-associated behaviors. However, the role of 5-HT7R in the cognitive control after acute heroin administration has not been studied. The present study aims to investigate whether the knockdown of the 5-HT7R by virus-mediated gene silencing in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) could ameliorate the acute heroin-induced cognitive impairments...
November 16, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142098/the-acquisition-of-skilled-finger-movements-is-accompanied-by-the-reorganization-of-the-corticospinal-system
#2
Masato Hirano, Shinji Kubota, Shinichi Furuya, Yoshiki Koizume, Shinya Tanaka, Kozo Funase
Dexterous finger movements are often characterized by highly coordinated movements. Such coordination might be derived from reorganization of the corticospinal system. In this study, we investigated 1) the manner in which finger movement covariation patterns are acquired by examining the effects of the implicit and explicit learning of a serial reaction time task (SRTT), and 2) how such changes in finger coordination are represented in the corticospinal system. The subjects learned a button press sequence in both implicit and explicit learning conditions...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128978/on-the-influence-of-informational-content-and-key-response-effect-mapping-on-implicit-learning-and-error-monitoring-in-the-serial-reaction-time-srt-task
#3
Jascha Rüsseler, Thomas F Münte, Daniel Wiswede
The present experiment was designed to enhance our understanding of how response effects with varying amounts of useful information influence implicit sequence learning. We recorded event-related brain potentials, while participants performed a modified version of the serial reaction time task (SRTT). In this task, participants have to press one of four keys corresponding to four letters on a computer screen. Unknown to participants, in some parts of the experimental blocks, the stimuli appear in a repetitive (structured) deterministic sequence, whereas in other parts, stimuli were determined randomly...
November 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128872/prenatal-kynurenine-treatment-in-rats-causes-schizophrenia-like-broad-monitoring-deficits-in-adulthood
#4
Britta Hahn, Carolyn H Reneski, Ana Pocivavsek, Robert Schwarcz
RATIONALE: Elevated brain kynurenic acid (KYNA) levels are implicated in the pathology and neurodevelopmental pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In rats, embryonic treatment with kynurenine (EKyn) causes elevated brain KYNA levels in adulthood and cognitive deficits reminiscent of schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES: Growing evidence suggests that people with schizophrenia have a narrowed attentional focus, and we aimed at establishing whether these abnormalities may be related to KYNA dysregulation...
November 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128305/methamphetamine-induced-impulsivity-during-chronic-methamphetamine-treatment-in-rats-effects-of-the-taar-1-agonist-ro5263397
#5
Zhaoxia Xue, Justin N Siemian, Bernard N Johnson, Yanan Zhang, Jun-Xu Li
Impulsivity is an important personality trait associated with several clinical syndromes including drug abuse. While repeated drug exposure is known to increase certain behavioral responses, such as locomotion, to subsequent drug exposure, few studies have examined whether such sensitization develops for impulsive behavior. In the current study we tested the effects of methamphetamine acutely, during the course of, and upon discontinuation of chronic methamphetamine treatment on impulsive behavior in two models, the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and the delay-discounting task which measure impulsive action and impulsive choice, respectively...
November 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121259/exercise-ameliorates-neurocognitive-impairments-in-a-translational-model-of-pediatric-radiotherapy
#6
Iman Sahnoune, Taeko Inoue, Shelli R Kesler, Shaefali P Rodgers, Omaima M Sabek, Steen E Pedersen, Janice A Zawaski, Katharine H Nelson, M Douglas Ris, J Leigh Leasure, M Waleed Gaber
Background: While CRT is an effective treatment, healthy areas surrounding irradiation sites are negatively affected. Frontal lobe functions involving attention, processing speed and inhibition control are impaired. These deficits appear months to years after CRT and impair quality-of-life. Exercise has been shown to rejuvenate the brain and aid in recovery post-injury through its effects on neurogenesis and cognition. Methods: We developed a juvenile rodent CRT model that reproduces neurocognitive deficits...
November 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116158/optical-mapping-of-the-dominant-frequency-of-brain-signal-oscillations-in-motor-systems
#7
Feng-Mei Lu, Yi-Feng Wang, Juan Zhang, Hua-Fu Chen, Zhen Yuan
Recent neuroimaging studies revealed that the dominant frequency of neural oscillations is brain-region-specific and can vary with frequency-specific reorganization of brain networks during cognition. In this study, we examined the dominant frequency in low-frequency neural oscillations represented by oxygenated hemoglobin measurements after the hemodynamic response function (HRF) deconvolution. Twenty-nine healthy college subjects were recruited to perform a serial finger tapping task at the frequency of 0...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103067/humans-show-a-higher-preference-for-stimuli-that-are-predictive-relative-to-those-that-are-predictable
#8
Senne Braem, Sabrina Trapp
Recent studies suggest that humans prefer information that is linked to the process of prediction. Yet it remains to be specified whether preference judgments are biased to information that can be predicted, or information that enables to predict. We here use a serial reaction time task to disentangle these two options. In a first learning phase, participants were exposed to a continuous stream of arbitrary shapes while performing a go/no-go task. Embedded in this stream were hidden pairs of go-stimuli (e.g...
November 4, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102805/from-altered-synaptic-plasticity-to-atypical-learning-a-computational-model-of-down-syndrome
#9
Ángel Eugenio Tovar, Gert Westermann, Alvaro Torres
Learning and memory rely on the adaptation of synaptic connections. Research on the neurophysiology of Down syndrome has characterized an atypical pattern of synaptic plasticity with limited long-term potentiation (LTP) and increased long-term depression (LTD). Here we present a neurocomputational model that instantiates this LTP/LTD imbalance to explore its impact on tasks of associative learning. In Study 1, we ran a series of computational simulations to analyze the learning of simple and overlapping stimulus associations in a model of Down syndrome compared with a model of typical development...
November 2, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102783/influence-of-intertrial-interval-on-basal-and-drug-induced-impulsive-action-in-the-5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-effects-of-d-amphetamine-and-%C3%A2-2-5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine-doi
#10
Ciaràn M Fitzpatrick, Vojislav S Maric, Simon T Bate, Jesper T Andreasen
Impulsivity is a characteristic of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is a rodent paradigm extensively used to assess attention and impulsivity. Notably, 5-CSRTT studies do not typically account for the reduction in premature responding, the measure of impulsive action, occurring upon repeated exposure to test sessions with long or variable intertrial intervals (ITIs). This present 5-CSRTT study investigated the use of variable ITIs (5, 10 or 15s) across 15 test days (4 training days followed by 1 drug test day per week for three weeks) as previous experience had shown that 4 training days would be sufficient to induce consistent premature response levels in male C57BL/6J mice...
November 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096181/improvement-in-children-s-fine-motor-skills-following-a-computerized-typing-intervention
#11
Hannah L McGlashan, Caroline C V Blanchard, Nicole J Sycamore, Rachel Lee, Blandine French, Nicholas P Holmes
Children spend a large proportion of their school day engaged in tasks that require manual dexterity. If children experience difficulties with their manual dexterity skills it can have a consequential effect on their academic achievement. The first aim of this paper was to explore whether an online interactive typing intervention could improve children's scores on a standardised measure of manual dexterity. The second aim was to implement a serial reaction time tapping task as an index of children's finger movement learning, and to see whether performance on this task would improve after the intervention...
October 31, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020291/reward-sensitivity-and-waiting-impulsivity-shift-towards-reward-valuation-away-from-action-control
#12
Daisy J Mechelmans, Daniela Strelchuk, Nuria Donamayor-Alonso, Paula Banca, Trevor W Robbins, Kwangyeol Baek, Valerie Voon
Background: Impulsivity and reward expectancy are commonly inter-related. Waiting impulsivity, measured using the rodent 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time (5-CSRT) task, predicts compulsive cocaine seeking and sign (or cue) tracking. Here we assess human waiting impulsivity using a novel translational task, the 4-CSRT, and the relationship with reward cues. Methods: Healthy volunteers (n=29) performed the monetary incentive delay task as a functional MRI study where subjects observe a cue predicting reward (cue) and wait to respond for high (£5), low (£1) or no reward...
August 8, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990357/procedural-learning-across-the-lifespan-a-systematic-review-with-implications-for-atypical-development
#13
REVIEW
Fenny S Zwart, Constance Th W M Vissers, Roy P C Kessels, Joseph H R Maes
This systematic review aimed to investigate procedural learning across the lifespan in typical and atypical development. Procedural learning is essential for the development of everyday skills, including language and communication skills. Although procedural learning efficiency has been extensively studied, there is no consensus yet on potential procedural learning changes during development and ageing. Currently, three conflicting models regarding this trajectory exist: (1) a model of age invariance; (2a) a model with a peak in young adulthood; and (2b) a model with a plateau in childhood followed by a decline...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964912/functional-coding-variation-in-the-presynaptic-dopamine-transporter-associated-with-neuropsychiatric-disorders-drives-enhanced-motivation-and-context-dependent-impulsivity-in-mice
#14
Gwynne L Davis, Adele Stewart, Gregg D Stanwood, Raajaram Gowrishankar, Maureen K Hahn, Randy D Blakely
Recent genetic analyses have provided evidence that clinical commonalities associated with different psychiatric diagnoses often have shared mechanistic underpinnings. The development of animal models expressing functional genetic variation attributed to multiple disorders offers a salient opportunity to capture molecular, circuit and behavioral alterations underlying this hypothesis. In keeping with studies suggesting dopaminergic contributions to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BPD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), subjects with these diagnoses have been found to express a rare, functional coding substitution in the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT), Ala559Val...
January 30, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963057/timing-independent-spatial-motor-sequence-learning-is-preserved-in-left-hemisphere-stroke
#15
Anna Dovern, Eva Niessen, Jana M Ant, Jochen Saliger, Hans Karbe, Gereon R Fink, Iring Koch, Peter H Weiss
During neurorehabilitation, the re-learning of motor sequences is crucial for patients with motor deficits, enabling them to master again complex movements. A recent study showed that patients with left hemisphere (LH) stroke exhibited preserved motor sequence learning (as assessed by the serial reaction time (SRT) task) when the timing of the stimuli was comparable in the training and later test phase. However, patients showed significantly smaller learning scores as compared to healthy controls when the temporal delay between the patient's motor response and the following stimulus was randomized in the test phase...
September 28, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958916/how-can-the-depressed-mind-extract-and-remember-predictive-relationships-of-the-environment-evidence-from-implicit-probabilistic-sequence-learning
#16
Karolina Janacsek, Emőke Borbély-Ipkovich, Dezso Nemeth, Xénia Gonda
A growing body of evidence suggests that emotion and cognition are fundamentally intertwined; impairments in explicit, more effortful and attention-dependent cognitive functions have widely been observed in negative mood. Here we aimed to test how negative mood affects implicit cognition that is less susceptible to motivational and attentional factors associated with negative mood. Therefore, we examined implicit learning and retention of predictive relationships in patients with major depressive episode (MDE)...
September 25, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951973/implicit-sequence-learning-despite-multitasking-the-role-of-across-task-predictability
#17
Eva Röttger, Hilde Haider, Fang Zhao, Robert Gaschler
One often replicated finding is that implicit sequence learning is hampered in dual-task situations. Thus, one crucial question has been whether implicit learning processes require attentional resources. Meanwhile, focusing exclusively on limited attentional resources might be considered as too unspecific. Overall, the focus lies now rather on the possibility that the impairment is due to interference coming along with (a) task integration (e.g., Schmidtke and Heuer in Psychol Res 60(1-2):53-71, 1997)-or with (b) parallel response selection (Schumacher and Schwarb in J Exp Psychol Gen 138(2):270-290, 2009)...
September 26, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921756/temporal-alignment-of-anticipatory-motor-cortical-beta-lateralisation-in-hidden-visual-motor-sequences
#18
Simone G Heideman, Freek van Ede, Anna C Nobre
Performance improves when participants respond to events that are structured in repeating sequences, suggesting that learning can lead to proactive anticipatory preparation. Whereas most sequence-learning studies have emphasized spatial structure, most sequences also contain a prominent temporal structure. We used MEG to investigate spatial and temporal anticipatory neural dynamics in a modified serial reaction-time (SRT) task. Performance and brain activity were compared between blocks with learned spatial-temporal sequences and blocks with new sequences...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892143/rodent-test-of-attention-and-impulsivity-the-5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task
#19
Guy A Higgins, Leo B Silenieks
The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is employed extensively to measure attention in rodents. The assay involves animals trained to respond to a brief, unpredictable visual stimulus presented in one of five locations. The effects of experimental manipulations on response speed and choice accuracy are measured, and each related to attentional performance. The 5-CSRTT is also used to measure motor impulsivity. Adapted from a human task, the 5-CSRTT can be employed with rodents or primates, highlighting its translational value...
September 11, 2017: Current Protocols in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856961/effects-of-model-types-in-observational-learning-on-implicit-sequential-learning
#20
Kanji Tanaka, Katsumi Watanabe
This study investigated whether implicit learning of sequence by observation occurred in a serial reaction time task and if the learning effects were modulated by model behavioral type. In Experiment 1, we let 20 participants perform a sequence for 12 blocks and chose the best and worst performance models based on reaction time and errors. In Experiment 2, new observers viewed a movie clip chosen from the following three: the best model performing the sequential task in the first (the first six blocks) or second session (the last six blocks), or the worst model performing the task in the first session...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
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