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Serial reaction time task

Linde Boekhoudt, Elisa S Voets, Jacques P Flores-Dourojeanni, Mieneke Cm Luijendijk, Louk Jmj Vanderschuren, Roger Ah Adan
Attentional impairments and exaggerated impulsivity are key features of psychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and addiction. These deficits in attentional performance and impulsive behaviours have been associated with aberrant dopamine (DA) signalling, but it remains unknown whether these deficits result from enhanced DA neuronal activity in the midbrain. Here, we took a novel approach by testing the impact of chemogenetically activating DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) on attention and impulsivity in the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) in rats...
October 17, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Renee E Shimizu, Allan D Wu, Barbara J Knowlton
Effective learning results not only in improved performance on a practiced task, but also in the ability to transfer the acquired knowledge to novel, similar tasks. Using a modified serial reaction time (RT) task, the authors examined the ability to transfer to novel sequences after practicing sequences in a repetitive order versus a nonrepeating interleaved order. Interleaved practice resulted in better performance on new sequences than repetitive practice. In a second study, participants practiced interleaved sequences in a functional MRI (fMRI) scanner and received a transfer test of novel sequences...
October 17, 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
Katharina Zinke, Ines Wilhelm, Müge Bayramoglu, Susanne Klein, Jan Born
Sleep is considered to support the formation of skill memory. In juvenile but not adult song birds learning a tutor's song, a stronger initial deterioration of song performance over night-sleep predicts better song performance in the long run. This and similar observations have stimulated the view of sleep supporting skill formation during development in an unsupervised off-line learning process that, in the absence of external feedback, can initially also enhance inaccuracies in skill performance. Here we explored whether in children learning a motor sequence task, as in song-learning juvenile birds, changes across sleep after initial practice predict performance levels achieved in the long run...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
Abigail Benn, Emma S J Robinson
RATIONALE: Atomoxetine is a noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor licensed for the treatment of adult and childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although atomoxetine has established efficacy, the mechanisms which mediate its effects are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the role of cortical versus sub-cortical noradrenaline by using focal dopamine beta hydroxylase-saporin-induced lesions, to the prefrontal cortex (n = 16) or nucleus accumbens shell (n = 18)...
October 15, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Christina B Reimer, Tilo Strobach, Torsten Schubert
Both visual attention and response selection are limited in capacity. In the present study, we investigated whether visual attention requires the same bottleneck mechanism as response selection in a dual-task of the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) paradigm. The dual-task consisted of an auditory two-choice discrimination Task 1 and a conjunction search Task 2, which were presented at variable temporal intervals (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA). In the conjunction search task, visual attention is required to select the items and to bind the item features resulting in a serial search process...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Ferenc Kemény, Kornél Németh
A central issue in sequence learning is whether learning operates on stimulus independent abstract elements, or whether participants integrate surface features of ordered stimuli, resulting in stimulus dependent learning. Using the Serial Reaction-Time Task (SRT), the current study tests whether a previously presented sequence is transferrable from one source domain to another. Contrary to previous studies with Artificial Grammar Learning, there is a mapping between pre- and post-transfer stimuli, but contrary to previous studies using SRT the mapping is not obvious...
October 13, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Emma Yhnell, Stephen B Dunnett, Simon P Brooks
Huntington's disease (HD) is characterised by motor symptoms which are often preceded by cognitive and behavioural changes, that can significantly contribute to disease burden for people living with HD. Numerous knock-in mouse models of HD are currently available for scientific research. However, before their use, they must be behaviourally characterised to determine their suitability in recapitulating the symptoms of the human condition. Thus, we sought to longitudinally characterise the nature, severity and time course of cognitive and behavioural changes observed in HdhQ111 heterozygous knock-in mice...
2016: PloS One
C Duchesne, F Gheysen, A Bore, G Albouy, A Nadeau, M E Robillard, F Bobeuf, A L Lafontaine, O Lungu, L Bherer, J Doyon
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise training (AET) has been shown to provide general health benefits, and to improve motor behaviours in particular, in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the influence of AET on their motor learning capacities, as well as the change in neural substrates mediating this effect remains to be explored. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we employed functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to assess the effect of a 3-month AET program on the neural correlates of implicit motor sequence learning (MSL)...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
M Beigi, L Wilkinson, F Gobet, A Parton, M Jahanshahi
Empirical evidence suggests that levodopa medication used to treat the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) may either improve, impair or not affect specific cognitive processes. This evidence led to the 'dopamine overdose' hypothesis that levodopa medication impairs performance on cognitive tasks if they recruit fronto-striatal circuits which are not yet dopamine-depleted in early PD and as a result the medication leads to an excess of dopamine. This hypothesis has been supported for various learning tasks including conditional associative learning, reversal learning, classification learning and intentional deterministic sequence learning, on all of which PD patients demonstrated significantly worse performance when tested on relative to off dopamine medication...
September 26, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Gillian M Clark, Jarrad A G Lum
Objective: A core claim of the procedural deficit hypothesis of specific language impairment (SLI) is that the disorder is associated with poor implicit sequence learning. This study investigated whether implicit sequence learning problems in SLI are present for first-order conditional (FOC) and higher order conditional (HOC) sequences. Method: Twenty-five children with SLI and 27 age-matched, nonlanguage-impaired children completed 2 serial reaction time tasks. On 1 version, the sequence to be implicitly learnt comprised a FOC sequence and on the other a HOC sequence...
September 19, 2016: Neuropsychology
Rong-Jian Liu, Catharine Duman, Taro Kato, Brendan Hare, Dora Lopresto, Eunyoung Bang, Jeffery Burgdorf, Joseph Moskal, Jane Taylor, George Aghajanian, Ronald S Duman
GLYX-13 is a putative NMDA receptor modulator with glycine-site partial agonist properties that produces rapid antidepressant effects, but without the psychotomimetic side effects of ketamine. Studies were conducted to examine the molecular, cellular, and behavioral actions of GLYX-13 to further characterize the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant actions of this agent. The results demonstrate that a single dose of GLYX-13 rapidly activates the mTORC1 pathway in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and that infusion of the selective mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin into the medial PFC (mPFC) blocks the antidepressant behavioral actions of GLYX-13, indicating a requirement for mTORC1 similar to ketamine...
September 16, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Brian Greeley, Rachael D Seidler
The neurobiological theory of positive affect proposes that positive mood states may benefit cognitive performance due to an increase of dopamine throughout the brain. However, the results of many positive affect studies are inconsistent; this may be due to individual differences. The relationship between dopamine and performance is not linear, but instead follows an inverted "U" shape. Given this, we hypothesized that individuals with high working memory capacity, a proxy measure for dopaminergic transmission, would not benefit from positive mood induction and in fact performance in dopamine-mediated tasks would decline...
September 12, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Lise Desmottes, Christelle Maillart, Thierry Meulemans
In this study, the time course of the procedural learning of a visuomotor sequence skill was followed over a 24-hour and a 1-week time period in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Two aspects of memory consolidation in implicit sequence learning were examined: the evolution of post-training gains in sequence knowledge (Experiment 1) and the susceptibility to interference (Experiment 2). In the first experiment, 18 children with SLI and 17 control children matched for sex, age, and nonverbal intelligence completed a serial reaction-time (SRT) task and were tested 24 hours and 1 week after practicing...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Rita Obeid, Patricia J Brooks, Kasey L Powers, Kristen Gillespie-Lynch, Jarrad A G Lum
Impairments in statistical learning might be a common deficit among individuals with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Using meta-analysis, we examined statistical learning in SLI (14 studies, 15 comparisons) and ASD (13 studies, 20 comparisons) to evaluate this hypothesis. Effect sizes were examined as a function of diagnosis across multiple statistical learning tasks (Serial Reaction Time, Contextual Cueing, Artificial Grammar Learning, Speech Stream, Observational Learning, and Probabilistic Classification)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Jonas Fizet, Jean-Christophe Cassel, Christian Kelche, Hélène Meunier
Within cognitive and behavioural research, the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time task is widely recognized as a valuable test of attention in rats. However, technical and methodological developments required for extending its usefulness are still at an early stage. In view of advances in knowledge about cognition and other areas of biology, issues surrounding attention are increasingly important, and appear to require new methodological approaches. These changes may concern (i) the evolution of the protocol itself, (ii) adaptations in how tasks are implemented (e...
August 30, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Jana Drgonova, Donna Walther, G Luke Hartstein, Mohammad O Bukhari, Michael H Baumann, Jonathan Katz, Frank Scott Hall, Elizabeth R Arnold, Shaun Flax, Anthony Riley, Olga Rivero-Martin, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Juan Troncoso, Barbara Ranscht, George R Uhl
The cadherin 13 (CDH13) gene encodes a cell adhesion molecule likely to influence development and connections of brain circuits that modulate addiction, locomotion and cognition, including those that involve midbrain dopamine neurons. Human CDH13 mRNA expression differs by more than 80% in postmortem cerebral cortical samples from individuals with different CDH13 genotypes, supporting examination of mice with altered Cdh13 expression as models for common human variation at this locus. Constitutive cdh13 knockout mice display evidence for changed cocaine reward: shifted dose response relationship in tests of cocaine-conditioned place preference using doses that do not alter cocaine conditioned taste aversion...
August 18, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Jan Focke, Sylvia Kemmet, Vanessa Krause, Ariane Keitel, Bettina Pollok
While the primary motor cortex (M1) is involved in the acquisition the premotor cortex (PMC) has been related to over-night consolidation of a newly learned motor skill. The present study aims at investigating the possible contribution of the left PMC for the stabilization of a motor sequence immediately after acquisition as determined by susceptibility to interference. Thirty six healthy volunteers received anodal, cathodal and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the left PMC either immediately prior to or during training on a serial reaction time task (SRTT) with the right hand...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Zackary A Cope, Adam L Halberstadt, Jordy van Enkhuizen, Aaron D Flynn, Michelle Breier, Neal R Swerdlow, Mark A Geyer, Jared W Young
RATIONALE: The five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is regularly used to study attention and impulsivity. In the 5-CSRTT, rodents initiate a trial, then after an inter-trial interval (ITI), a light appears in one of five holes. Responding in the lit vs. unlit hole reflects attention (accuracy), while responding prematurely before a light appears is suggested to reflect impulsivity/response disinhibition. Comparison of rat and mouse 5-CSRTT performance has raised questions on the validity of premature responses as measuring impulsivity/response inhibition...
October 2016: Psychopharmacology
Cole Vonder Haar, Frederick C W Lam, Wendy A Adams, Lara-Kirstie Riparip, Sukhbir Kaur, Michael Muthukrishna, Susanna Rosi, Catharine A Winstanley
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects millions yearly, and is increasingly associated with chronic neuropsychiatric symptoms. We assessed the long-term effects of different bilateral frontal controlled cortical impact injury severities (mild, moderate, severe) on the five-choice serial reaction time task, a paradigm with relatively independent measurements of attention, motor impulsivity and motivation. Moderately- and severely-injured animals exhibited impairments across all cognitive domains that were still evident 14 weeks post-injury, while mild-injured animals only demonstrated persistent deficits in impulse control...
August 15, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Jessica C Lee, Tom Beesley, Evan J Livesey
The recent history of events can influence responding despite there being no contingent relationship between those events. These 'sequential effects' are ubiquitous in cognitive psychology, yet their study has been dominated by two-choice reaction time tasks in which sequences necessarily comprise simple response repetitions and alternations. The current study explored sequential effects in a three-choice reaction time task where the target was constrained to either move clockwise or anticlockwise on each trial, allowing for assessment of sequential effects involving the direction of target transitions rather than target location...
October 2016: Acta Psychologica
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