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Serial reaction time task

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087221/varenicline-provokes-impulsive-action-by-stimulating-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-the-infralimbic-cortex-in-a-nicotine-exposure-status-dependent-manner
#1
Yu Ohmura, Hitomi Sasamori, Iku Tsutsui-Kimura, Takeshi Izumi, Takayuki Yoshida, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka
Higher impulsivity is a risk factor for criminal involvement and drug addiction. Because nicotine administration enhances impulsivity, the effects of stop-smoking aids stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on impulsivity must be determined in different conditions. Our goals were 1) to confirm the relationship between varenicline, a stop-smoking aid and α4β2 nAChR partial agonist, and impulsivity, 2) to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of varenicline, 3) to examine whether a low dose of varenicline that does not evoke impulsive action could block the stimulating effects of nicotine on impulsive action, 4) to determine whether the route of administration could modulate the effects of varenicline on impulsive action, and 5) to determine whether the effects of varenicline on impulsivity could be altered by smoking status...
January 10, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070619/theory-of-visual-attention-tva-applied-to-mice-in-the-5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task
#2
C M Fitzpatrick, M Caballero-Puntiverio, U Gether, T Habekost, C Bundesen, S Vangkilde, D P D Woldbye, J T Andreasen, A Petersen
RATIONALE: The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is widely used to measure rodent attentional functions. In humans, many attention studies in healthy and clinical populations have used testing based on Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) to estimate visual processing speeds and other parameters of attentional capacity. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to bridge these research fields by modifying the 5-CSRTT's design and by mathematically modelling data to derive attentional parameters analogous to human TVA-based measures...
January 9, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005989/action-video-game-playing-is-reflected-in-enhanced-visuomotor-performance-and-increased-corticospinal-excitability
#3
Olivier Morin-Moncet, Jean-Marc Therrien-Blanchet, Marie C Ferland, Hugo Théoret, Greg L West
Action video game playing is associated with improved visuomotor performance; however, the underlying neural mechanisms associated with this increased performance are not well understood. Using the Serial Reaction Time Task in conjunction with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, we investigated if improved visuomotor performance displayed in action video game players (actionVGPs) was associated with increased corticospinal plasticity in primary motor cortex (M1) compared to non-video game players (nonVGPs). Further, we assessed if actionVGPs and nonVGPs displayed differences in procedural motor learning as measured by the SRTT...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992442/is-implicit-motor-learning-preserved-after-stroke-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#4
E Kal, M Winters, J van der Kamp, H Houdijk, E Groet, C van Bennekom, E Scherder
Many stroke patients experience difficulty with performing dual-tasks. A promising intervention to target this issue is implicit motor learning, as it should enhance patients' automaticity of movement. Yet, although it is often thought that implicit motor learning is preserved post-stroke, evidence for this claim has not been systematically analysed yet. Therefore, we systematically reviewed whether implicit motor learning is preserved post-stroke, and whether patients benefit more from implicit than from explicit motor learning...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899713/when-do-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-show-superiority-in-visual-search
#5
Aya Shirama, Nobumasa Kato, Makio Kashino
Although superior visual search skills have been repeatedly reported for individuals with autism spectrum disorder, the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. To specify the locus where individuals with autism spectrum disorder excel in visual search, we compared the performance of autism spectrum disorder adults and healthy controls in briefly presented search tasks, where the search display was replaced by a noise mask at a stimulus-mask asynchrony of 160 ms to interfere with a serial search process while bottom-up visual processing remains intact...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872374/what-s-statistical-about-learning-insights-from-modelling-statistical-learning-as-a-set-of-memory-processes
#6
REVIEW
Erik D Thiessen
Statistical learning has been studied in a variety of different tasks, including word segmentation, object identification, category learning, artificial grammar learning and serial reaction time tasks (e.g. Saffran et al. 1996 Science 274: , 1926-1928; Orban et al. 2008 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: , 2745-2750; Thiessen & Yee 2010 Child Development 81: , 1287-1303; Saffran 2002 Journal of Memory and Language 47: , 172-196; Misyak & Christiansen 2012 Language Learning 62: , 302-331). The difference among these tasks raises questions about whether they all depend on the same kinds of underlying processes and computations, or whether they are tapping into different underlying mechanisms...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846219/pharmacological-fingerprints-of-contextual-uncertainty
#7
Louise Marshall, Christoph Mathys, Diane Ruge, Archy O de Berker, Peter Dayan, Klaas E Stephan, Sven Bestmann
Successful interaction with the environment requires flexible updating of our beliefs about the world. By estimating the likelihood of future events, it is possible to prepare appropriate actions in advance and execute fast, accurate motor responses. According to theoretical proposals, agents track the variability arising from changing environments by computing various forms of uncertainty. Several neuromodulators have been linked to uncertainty signalling, but comprehensive empirical characterisation of their relative contributions to perceptual belief updating, and to the selection of motor responses, is lacking...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844059/developmental-ethanol-exposure-leads-to-long-term-deficits-in-attention-and-its-underlying-prefrontal-circuitry
#8
Emma L Louth, Warren Bignell, Christine L Taylor, Craig D C Bailey
Chronic prenatal exposure to ethanol can lead to a spectrum of teratogenic outcomes that are classified in humans as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). One of the most prevalent and persistent neurocognitive components of FASD is attention deficits, and it is now thought that these attention deficits differ from traditional attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in their quality and response to medication. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying attention deficits in FASD are not well understood...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832611/individual-differences-in-implicit-motor-learning-task-specificity-in-sensorimotor-adaptation-and-sequence-learning
#9
Alit Stark-Inbar, Meher Raza, Jordan A Taylor, Richard B Ivry
In standard taxonomies, motor skills are typically treated as representative of implicit or procedural memory. We examined two emblematic tasks of implicit motor learning, sensorimotor adaptation and sequence learning, asking whether individual differences in learning are correlated between these tasks, as well as how individual differences within each task are related to different performance variables. As a prerequisite, it was essential to establish the reliability of learning measures for each task. Participants were tested twice on a visuomotor adaptation task and on one of two sequence learning tasks, the serial reaction time task or the alternating reaction time task...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824354/serotonergic-modulation-of-waiting-impulsivity-is-mediated-by-the-impulsivity-phenotype-in-humans
#10
S Neufang, A Akhrif, C G Herrmann, C Drepper, G A Homola, J Nowak, J Waider, A G Schmitt, K-P Lesch, M Romanos
In rodents, the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) has been established as a reliable measure of waiting impulsivity being defined as the ability to regulate a response in anticipation of reinforcement. Key brain structures are the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and prefrontal regions (for example, pre- and infralimbic cortex), which are, together with other transmitters, modulated by serotonin. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined 103 healthy males while performing the 5-CSRTT measuring brain activation in humans by means of a paradigm that has been widely applied in rodents...
November 8, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815417/dopamine-d1-and-d3-receptors-modulate-heroin-induced-cognitive-impairment-through-opponent-actions-in-mice
#11
Yongsheng Zhu, Yunpeng Wang, Jianghua Lai, Shuguang Wei, Hongbo Zhang, Peng Yan, Yunxiao Li, Xiaomeng Qiao, Fangyuan Yin
BACKGROUND: Chronic abuse of heroin leads to long-lasting and complicated cognitive impairment. Dopamine receptors are critically involved in the impulsive drug-driven behavior and the altered attention, processing speed, and mental flexibility that are associated with higher relapse rates. However, the effects of the different dopamine receptors and their possible involvement in heroin-induced cognitive impairment remain unclear. METHODS: The 5-choice serial reaction time task was used to investigate the profiles of heroin-induced cognitive impairment in mice...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812961/new-insights-into-statistical-learning-and-chunk-learning-in-implicit-sequence-acquisition
#12
Yue Du, Jane E Clark
Implicit sequence learning is ubiquitous in our daily life. However, it is unclear whether the initial acquisition of sequences results from learning to chunk items (i.e., chunk learning) or learning the underlying statistical regularities (i.e., statistical learning). By grouping responses with or without a distinct chunk or statistical structure into segments and comparing these responses, previous studies have demonstrated both chunk and statistical learning. However, few studies have considered the response sequence as a whole and examined the temporal dependency of the entire sequence, where the temporal dependencies could disclose the internal representations of chunk and statistical learning...
November 3, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794195/influence-of-cognitive-rehabilitation-on-pelvic-floor-muscle-contraction-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Anne Villot, Xavier Deffieux, Sylvie Billecocq, Laurent Auclair, Gérard Amarenco, Thibault Thubert
AIM: Distraction task (DT), which led to a modification of voluntary and involuntary reflex pelvic floor muscle (PFM) activation, might potentiate urinary incontinence, through an alteration of the temporal course between intra-abdominal pressure and PFM contraction. We evaluated whether cognitive rehabilitation (dual-task method) could prevent the effect of a mental distraction task on the reaction time of PFM contraction. METHODS: Thirty-nine healthy volunteers underwent two sessions of electromyographic (EMG) PFM recordings separated by a 2-week interval...
October 29, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786302/the-impact-of-reward-and-punishment-on-skill-learning-depends-on-task-demands
#14
Adam Steel, Edward H Silson, Charlotte J Stagg, Chris I Baker
Reward and punishment motivate behavior, but it is unclear exactly how they impact skill performance and whether the effect varies across skills. The present study investigated the effect of reward and punishment in both a sequencing skill and a motor skill context. Participants trained on either a sequencing skill (serial reaction time task) or a motor skill (force-tracking task). Skill knowledge was tested immediately after training, and again 1 hour, 24-48 hours, and 30 days after training. We found a dissociation of the effects of reward and punishment on the tasks, primarily reflecting the impact of punishment...
October 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774567/mice-haploinsufficient-for-map2k7-a-gene-involved-in-neurodevelopment-and-risk-for-schizophrenia-show-impaired-attention-a-vigilance-decrement-deficit-and-unstable-cognitive-processing-in-an-attentional-task-impact-of-minocycline
#15
R L Openshaw, D M Thomson, J M Penninger, J A Pratt, B J Morris
RATIONALE: Members of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) family of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, and the upstream kinase MKK7, have all been strongly linked with synaptic plasticity and with the development of the neocortex. However, the impact of disruption of this pathway on cognitive function is unclear. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we test the hypothesis that reduced MKK7 expression is sufficient to cause cognitive impairment. METHODS: Attentional function in mice haploinsufficient for Map2k7 (Map2k7 (+/-) mice) was investigated using the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT)...
January 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773595/changes-in-corticospinal-excitability-during-consolidation-predict-acute-exercise-induced-off-line-gains-in-procedural-memory
#16
Fatemeh Ostadan, Carla Centeno, Jean-Felix Daloze, Mira Frenn, Jesper Lundbye-Jensen, Marc Roig
A single bout of cardiovascular exercise performed immediately after practicing a motor task improves the long-term retention of the skill through an optimization of memory consolidation. However, the specific brain mechanisms underlying the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on procedural memory are poorly understood. We sought to determine if a single bout of exercise modifies corticospinal excitability (CSE) during the early stages of memory consolidation. In addition, we investigated if changes in CSE are associated with exercise-induced off-line gains in procedural memory...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748741/chemogenetic-activation-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-affects-attention-but-not-impulsivity-in-the-five-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-in-rats
#17
Linde Boekhoudt, Elisa S Voets, Jacques P Flores-Dourojeanni, Mieneke Cm Luijendijk, Louk Jmj Vanderschuren, Roger Ah Adan
Attentional impairments and exaggerated impulsivity are key features of psychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and addiction. These deficits in attentional performance and impulsive behaviors have been associated with aberrant dopamine (DA) signaling, but it remains unknown whether these deficits result from enhanced DA neuronal activity in the midbrain. Here, we took a novel approach by testing the impact of chemogenetically activating DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) on attention and impulsivity in the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) in rats...
November 16, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748617/cerebellar-activation-during-motor-sequence-learning-is-associated-with-subsequent-transfer-to-new-sequences
#18
Renee E Shimizu, Allan D Wu, Barbara J Knowlton
Effective learning results not only in improved performance on a practiced task, but also in the ability to transfer the acquired knowledge to novel, similar tasks. Using a modified serial reaction time (RT) task, the authors examined the ability to transfer to novel sequences after practicing sequences in a repetitive order versus a nonrepeating interleaved order. Interleaved practice resulted in better performance on new sequences than repetitive practice. In a second study, participants practiced interleaved sequences in a functional MRI (fMRI) scanner and received a transfer test of novel sequences...
December 2016: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747974/children-s-initial-sleep-associated-changes-in-motor-skill-are-unrelated-to-long-term-skill-levels
#19
Katharina Zinke, Ines Wilhelm, Müge Bayramoglu, Susanne Klein, Jan Born
Sleep is considered to support the formation of skill memory. In juvenile but not adult song birds learning a tutor's song, a stronger initial deterioration of song performance over night-sleep predicts better song performance in the long run. This and similar observations have stimulated the view of sleep supporting skill formation during development in an unsupervised off-line learning process that, in the absence of external feedback, can initially also enhance inaccuracies in skill performance. Here we explored whether in children learning a motor sequence task, as in song-learning juvenile birds, changes across sleep after initial practice predict performance levels achieved in the long run...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744551/differential-roles-for-cortical-versus-sub-cortical-noradrenaline-and-modulation-of-impulsivity-in-the-rat
#20
Abigail Benn, Emma S J Robinson
RATIONALE: Atomoxetine is a noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor licensed for the treatment of adult and childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although atomoxetine has established efficacy, the mechanisms which mediate its effects are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the role of cortical versus sub-cortical noradrenaline by using focal dopamine beta hydroxylase-saporin-induced lesions, to the prefrontal cortex (n = 16) or nucleus accumbens shell (n = 18)...
January 2017: Psychopharmacology
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