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Antioxidant enzymes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145191/antioxidants-maintain-cellular-redox-homeostasis-by-elimination-of-reactive-oxygen-species
#1
Long He, Ting He, Shabnam Farrar, Linbao Ji, Tianyi Liu, Xi Ma
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by living cells as normal cellular metabolic byproduct. Under excessive stress conditions, cells will produce numerous ROS, and the living organisms eventually evolve series of response mechanisms to adapt to the ROS exposure as well as utilize it as the signaling molecules. ROS molecules would trigger oxidative stress in a feedback mechanism involving many biological processes, such as apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. Growing evidences have suggested that ROS play a critical role as the signaling molecules throughout the entire cell death pathway...
November 17, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145152/possible-role-of-arthrospira-platensis-in-reversing-oxidative-stress-mediated-liver-damage-in-rats-exposed-to-lead
#2
Samah R Khalil, Walaa M Elhady, Yaser H A Elewa, Noura E Abd El-Hameed, Sozan A Ali
Environmental pollutants, particularly metallic elements, mobilized and released into the environment, eventually accumulate in the food chain and thus pose a serious threat to human and animal health. In the present study, the role of Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis; SP) as a protector against oxidative stress-mediated liver damage induced by an exposure to lead acetate (LA; as a metallic pollutant) was assessed. To achieve this aim, rats were orally administered with 300 mg/kg bw SP for 15 days, before and concurrently with an intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg bw LA (6 injections throughout 15 days)...
November 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144788/panchakola-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-mcf-7-breast-cancer-and-hek293-cells
#3
Tooba Naz Shamsi, Romana Parveen, Sadaf Fatima
A large number of studies have proven the efficacy of ayurveda in the field of health and wellness. Panchakola, an ayurvedic formulation, is a general health tonic primarily used to cure fever, inflammation, pain, indigestion, and so on. We investigated effects of panchakola on oxidative stress in MCF-7 breast cancer and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. This work was performed to assess the antineoplastic and free radical-scavenging potential of aqueous extract of panchakola, a polyherbal formulation, in normal and breast cancer cell lines (i...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144397/sulforaphane-alters-%C3%AE-naphthoflavone-induced-changes-in-activity-and-expression-of-drug-metabolizing-enzymes-in-rat-hepatocytes
#4
Kateřina Lněničková, Andrea Dymáková, Barbora Szotáková, Iva Boušová
Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, exerts many beneficial effects on human health such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. The effect of SFN alone on drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) has been investigated in numerous in vitro and in vivo models, but little is known about the effect of SFN in combination with cytochrome P450 (CYP) inducer. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of SFN on the activity and gene expression of selected DMEs in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes treated or non-treated with β-naphthoflavone (BNF), the model CYP1A inducer...
November 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144009/immobilization-of-superoxide-dismutase-on-polyelectrolyte-functionalized-titania-nanosheets
#5
Paul Rouster, Marko Pavlovic, Istvan Szilagyi
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme was successfully immobilized on titania nanosheets (TNS) functionalized with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) polyelectrolyte. The TNS-PDADMAC solid support was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis followed by self-assembled polyelectrolyte layer formation. It was found that the SOD strongly adsorbed on the oppositely charged TNS-PDADMAC through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The TNS-PDADMAC-SOD material was characterized by light scattering and microscopy techniques...
November 16, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143931/antioxidant-enzyme-activities-of-folsomia-candida-and-avoidance-of-soil-metal-contamination
#6
Wencai Dai, Xin Ke, Zhu Li, Ming Gao, Longhua Wu, Peter Chiristie, Yongming Luo
Induction of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the avoidance of potentially toxic metals in soil by Folsomia candida were investigated. Both laboratory-spiked and field-polluted agricultural soils were used. Cadmium (Cd) concentrations in body tissues, animal avoidance behaviour and physico-chemical properties of the field soils were also determined. In laboratory Cd-spiked soils, the CAT and SOD activities in the Cd treatments were 71.1-94.7 and 1.31-4...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143438/protective-effects-of-coenzyme-q10-nanoparticles-on-dichlorvos-induced-hepatotoxicity-and-mitochondrial-lysosomal-injury
#7
Aziz Eftekhari, Elham Ahmadian, Aida Azami, Mohammad Johari-Ahar, Mohammad Ali Eghbal
Development of biocompatible antioxidant nanoparticles for xenobiotic-induced liver disease treatment by oral or parenteral administration is of great interest in medicine. In the current study, we demonstrate the protective effects of coenzyme Q10 nanoparticles (CoQ10-NPs) on hepatotoxicity induced by dichlorvos (DDVP) as an organophosphate. Although CoQ10 is an efficient antioxidant, its poor bioavailability has limited the applications of this useful agent. First, CoQ10-NPs were prepared then characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143122/vitamin-d-supplementation-attenuates-oxidative-stress-in-paraspinal-skeletal-muscles-in-patients-with-low-back-pain
#8
Katarzyna Dzik, Wojciech Skrobot, Damian Jozef Flis, Mateusz Karnia, Witold Libionka, Wojciech Kloc, Jan Jacek Kaczor
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to evaluate markers of oxidative stress and vitamin D receptor in paraspinal muscles in low back pain patients with vitamin D deficiency, with normal level of vitamin D, and after 5 weeks of vitamin D supplementation. METHODS: Patients were divided into three groups: supplemented (SUP) with vitamin D, placebo with normal concentration of vitamin D (SUF), and the placebo group with vitamin D deficiency (DEF). The concentration of serum vitamin D was measured before and after the supplementation with vitamin D (3200 IU/ day for 5 weeks)...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142482/s-adenosyl-l-methionine-towards-hepatitis-c-virus-expression-need-to-consider-s-adenosyl-l-methionine-s-chemistry-physiology-and-pharmacokinetics
#9
Dimitrios Tsikas, Erik Hanff, Alexander Bollenbach
S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) is a cofactor serving as a methyl donor in numerous enzymatic reactions. It has been reported that SAM has the potential to modify antioxidant-enzymes, glutathione-biosynthesis and methionine adenosyltransferases-1/2 in hepatitis C virus -expressing cells at millimolar concentrations. The efficacy of SAM at micromolar concentrations and the underlying mechanisms remain to be demonstrated.
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142432/inhibition-of-glycation-induced-cytotoxicity-protein-glycation-and-activity-of-proteolytic-enzymes-by-extract-from-perovskia-atriplicifolia-roots
#10
Mehran Miroliaei, Akram Aminjafari, Sylwester Ślusarczyk, Izabela Nawrot-Hadzik, Mehdi Rahimmalek, Adam Matkowski
Background: Protein glycation and glycotoxicity belong to the main oxidative-stress related complications in diabetes. Perovskia species are used in Asian folk medicine as antidiabetic herbs. Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the ability of the methanolic extract from Perovskia atriplicifolia Benth. roots to diminish glycation of albumin and to prevent cell damage in vitro. Furthermore, we tested the extract for in vitro antioxidant activity and inhibition of elastase and collagenase...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142429/antioxidant-and-hepatoprotective-potential-of-swaras-and-hima-extracts-of-tinospora-cordifolia-and-boerhavia-diffusa-in-swiss-albino-mice
#11
Amit Kaushik, Athar Husain, Harshika Awasthi, Dewasya Pratap Singh, Raziuddin Khan, Dayanandan Mani
Background: In Ayurveda, five basic extraction procedures are mentioned in order of their decreasing potency. Swaras is considered as the most potent followed by, kalka, kwatha, fanta and hima. Objective: Present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of swaras and hima extracts of T.cordifolia and B. diffusa. Materials and Methods: Swaras and hima extracts of T. cordifolia and B. diffusa were prepared...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142409/reversible-testicular-toxicity-of-piperine-on-male-albino-rats
#12
Gopichand Chinta, Mohane Selvaraj Coumar, Latha Periyasamy
Background: Piperine was widely used in traditional medicine for inducing sterility and abortion. Objective: To evaluate the effect of the piperine on testis of male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male rats were divided into four groups (n = 12). Group I (control): Rats were given vehicle p.o. i.e. 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose in normal saline daily for 60 days, Group II (ED): Rats received piperine at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (b...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142396/antioxidant-and-cholinesterase-inhibitory-activities-of-ethyl-acetate-extract-of-terminalia-chebula-cell-free-in-vitro-and-in-silico-studies
#13
Mohamed Asik Rajmohamed, Suganthy Natarajan, Premkumar Palanisamy, Akbarsha Mohammad Abdulkader, Archunan Govindaraju
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by memory loss and impaired cognitive function. Cholinergic enzyme deficiency and oxidative stress are the two major factors implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. The symptomatic treatment, as of now, is the use of cholinesterase inhibitors toward cholinergic "downturn." Therefore, there is a search for compounds that will be useful in focused therapies. There has been suggestion that Terminalia chebula fruit would be a potential source...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142277/genetic-metabolomic-and-transcriptomic-analyses-of-the-de-novo-l-cysteine-biosynthetic-pathway-in-the-enteric-protozoan-parasite-entamoeba-histolytica
#14
Ghulam Jeelani, Dan Sato, Tomoyoshi Soga, Tomoyoshi Nozaki
The de novo L-cysteine biosynthetic pathway is critical for the growth, antioxidative stress defenses, and pathogenesis of bacterial and protozoan pathogens, such as Salmonella typhimurium and Entamoeba histolytica. This pathway involves two key enzymes, serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and cysteine synthase (CS), which are absent in mammals and therefore represent rational drug targets. The human parasite E. histolytica possesses three SAT and CS isozymes; however, the specific roles of individual isoforms and significance of such apparent redundancy remains unclear...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142221/biogenic-selenium-and-its-hepatoprotective-activity
#15
Baozhen Li, Dan Li, Weixin Jing, Jinhua Fan, Hans-Uwe Dahms, Shao-Chin Lee, Lan Wang
Elemental selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have multiple biological activities. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of biogenic SeNPs (BioSeNPs) on CCl4-induced liver damage in mice. The results showed that: (i) when compared to sodium selenite (SS), BioSeNPs has a similar tissue distribution after intragastrical administration to mice; (ii) BioSeNPs and SS showed comparable efficacy in increasing the activities of glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase in liver cell lines, mice blood and liver; (iii) pretreatment with BioSeNPs inhibiting the elevation of activities of various enzymes significantly which included aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and liver lipid peroxide (p < 0...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142172/change-in-redox-state-and-heat-shock-protein-expression-in-an-indian-major-carp-cirrhinus-cirrhosus-exposed-to-zinc-and-lead
#16
Mahammed Moniruzzaman, Puja Midday, Anindita Dhara, Debjit Das, Indranath Ghosal, Debosree Mukherjee, Suman Bhusan Chakraborty
Fish are exposed to different heavy metals that may induce numerous physiological changes. In the present study, we examined the redox state in response to a severe stress resulting from two heavy metals (Zinc and Lead) contamination in carp Cirrhinus cirrhosus. Fish were exposed to 1/10th of LC50 of the respective metals [zinc chloride (2.72 mg/L) and lead acetate (2.53 mg/L)] for 30 days and allowed to recover for another 30 days without any metal exposure. Concentration of metals, different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant agents and expression levels of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and 90 were measured in the liver and the kidney of fish...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141883/thermal-history-and-gape-of-individual-mytilus-californianus-correlate-with-oxidative-damage-and-thermoprotective-osmolytes
#17
Lani U Gleason, Luke P Miller, Jacob R Winnikoff, George N Somero, Paul H Yancey, Dylan Bratz, W Wesley Dowd
The ability of animals to cope with environmental stress depends - in part - on past experience, yet knowledge of the factors influencing an individual's physiology in nature remains underdeveloped. We used an individual monitoring system to record body temperature and valve gaping behavior of rocky intertidal zone mussels (Mytilus californianus). Thirty individuals were selected from two mussel beds (wave-exposed and wave-protected) that differ in thermal regime. Instrumented mussels were deployed at two intertidal heights (near the lower and upper edges of the mussel zone) and in a continuously submerged tidepool...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140578/alleviation-of-cadmium-induced-oxidative-stress-by-trehalose-via-inhibiting-the-nrf2-keap1-signaling-pathway-in-primary-rat-proximal-tubular-cells
#18
Xin-Yu Wang, Zhen-Yong Wang, Yi-Song Zhu, Si-Ming Zhu, Rui-Feng Fan, Lin Wang
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates a cluster of oxidative stress-inducible genes in cells. Here, we aimed to investigate whether trehalose (Tre) protects primary rat proximal tubular (rPT) cells against cadmium (Cd)-induced oxidative stress via Nrf2 antioxidant pathway. Data showed that Tre treatment inhibited Nrf2 nuclear translocation and restored the decline in Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) protein level in Cd-exposed rPT cells. Moreover, Cd-activated Nrf2 target genes, including phase II detoxifying enzymes, that is, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 and heme oxygenase-1, direct antioxidant proteins, that is, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione biosynthesis-related proteins, that is, glutamatecysteine ligase catalytic subunit, glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit, and glutathione reductase, were all downregulated by co-treatment with Tre...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140290/ameliorative-effects-of-grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-extract-on-growth-performance-immune-function-antioxidant-capacity-biochemical-constituents-liver-histopathology-and-aflatoxin-residues-in-broilers-exposed-to-aflatoxin-b%C3%A2
#19
Shahid Ali Rajput, Lvhui Sun, Niya Zhang, Mahmoud Mohamed Khalil, Xin Gao, Zhao Ling, Luoyi Zhu, Farhan Anwar Khan, Jiacai Zhang, Desheng Qi
Aflatoxicosis is a grave threat to the poultry industry. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants showed a great potential in enhancing the immune system; hence, protecting animals against aflatoxin B₁-induced toxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) one of the most well-known and powerful antioxidants. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of GSPE in the detoxification of AFB₁ in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated into five treatments of six replicates (10 birds per replicate), fed ad libitum for four weeks with the following dietary treatments: 1...
November 15, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138814/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-extract-attenuates-varicocele%C3%A2-induced-testicular-oxidative-injury-in-rats-by-activating-the-nrf2%C3%A2-antioxidant-system
#20
Yong Wang, Fan Chen, Ming Liang, Shouzhen Chen, Yaofeng Zhu, Zhichuan Zou, Benkang Shi
The present study investigated whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) can attenuate varicocele‑induced testicular oxidative injury through the nuclear factor (erythroid‑derived 2)‑like 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant pathway. A varicocele model in rats was established by partial ligation of the left renal vein. Following 4 weeks of GSPE administration, the decreased sperm count and motility and other pathological changes caused by varicocele were significantly alleviated, as indicated by the results of computer‑assisted sperm analysis and hematoxylin and eosin staining...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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