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Antioxidant enzymes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778019/phoenix-dactylifera-protects-against-oxidative-stress-and-hepatic-injury-induced-by-paracetamol-intoxication-in-rats
#1
Gamal A Salem, Ahmed Shaban, Hussain A Diab, Wesam A Elsaghayer, Manal D Mjedib, Aomassad M Hnesh, Ravi P Sahu
The current studies were sought to determine effects of antioxidant potential of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Phoenix dactylifera leaves (PLAE and PLME) against the widely-used analgesic paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity. Groups of rats were treated with or without PCM (1500 mg/kg), PLAE and PLME (300 mg/kg) and n-acetylcysteine (NAC, 50 mg/kg) followed by assessments of liver function tests, oxidative stress, antioxidant defenses, and hepatotoxicity. We observed that PCM significantly elevated serum liver markers, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and bilirubin compared to control (untreated) group...
May 16, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777765/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-an-oral-sustained-release-hepatoprotective-caffeine-loaded-w-o-pickering-emulsion-formula-containing-wheat-germ-oil-and-stabilized-by-magnesium-oxide-nanoparticles
#2
Heba Elmotasem, Hala K Farag, Abeer A A Salama
The objective of this study was to innovate an effective oral sustained release hepatoprotective formula for - the water soluble drug - caffeine. Caffeine is rapidly absorbed and eliminated which dictates frequent administration to achieve adequate therapeutic effect. A w/o Pickering emulsion incorporating caffeine in the internal phase was primed. It contained wheat germ oil and was stabilized by synthesized magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs). Components selection was based on their antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anticarcinogenic effects...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777699/cart-peptide-activates-the-nrf2-ho-1-antioxidant-pathway-and-protects-hippocampal-neurons-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Wenyu Jiao, Yongchen Wang, Linghong Kong, Tao Ou-Yang, Qing Meng, Qiang Fu, Zhenzhen Hu
The accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and oxidative stress damage in the brain are recognized as early features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide may possibly play an antioxidative role in neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antioxidant mechanism of CART peptide in a rat model of AD. We microinjected of Aβ1-42 (2μl/4μg/hemisphere) into rat hippocampus to set a rat model of AD. A pre-microinjection of CART peptide (1μl/0...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777610/phenolic-rich-extracts-of-eurycoma-longifolia-and-cylicodiscus-gabunensis-inhibit-enzymes-responsible-for-the-development-of-erectile-dysfunction-and-are-antioxidants
#4
Ganiyu Oboh, Adeniyi A Adebayo, Ayokunle O Ademosun
BACKGROUND: Herbs have been used from ages to manage male sexual dysfunction. Hence, this study sought to investigate the effects of Eurycoma longifolia (EL) and Cylicodiscus gabunensis (CG) stem bark extracts on some enzymes implicated in erectile dysfunction in vitro. METHODS: The extracts were prepared, and their effects on phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5), arginase, and angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) as well as pro-oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation were assessed...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776838/hot-aqueous-leaf-extract-of-lasianthera-africana-icacinaceae-attenuates-rifampicin-isoniazid-induced-hepatotoxicity
#5
Lucky Legbosi Nwidu, Raphael Ellis Teme
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Lasianthera africana (Icacinaceae) against isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF)-induced liver damage in rats. METHODS: The hepatoprotective effects of hot aqueous L. africana (HALA) leaf extract (0.1-1 g/kg) and silymarin (50 mg/kg) were assessed in a model of oxidative liver damage induced by RIF and INH (100 mg/kg each) in Wistar rats for 28 days. Biochemical markers of hepatic damage such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were assessed...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776421/evidence-for-a-hyper-reductive-redox-in-a-sub-set-of-heart-failure-patients
#6
Thiagarajan Sairam, Amit N Patel, Meenu Subrahmanian, Rajendiran Gopalan, Steven M Pogwizd, Sudha Ramalingam, Ramalingam Sankaran, Namakkal Soorapan Rajasekaran
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has been linked to heart failure (HF) in humans. Antioxidant-based treatments are often ineffective. Therefore, we hypothesize that some of the HF patients might have a reductive stress (RS) condition. Investigating RS-related mechanisms will aid in personalized optimization of redox homeostasis for better outcomes among HF patients. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from HF patients (n = 54) and healthy controls (n = 42) and serum was immediately preserved in - 80 °C for redox analysis...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775961/antioxidant-response-elements-discovery-classes-regulation-and-potential-applications
#7
REVIEW
Azhwar Raghunath, Kiruthika Sundarraj, Raju Nagarajan, Frank Arfuso, Jinsong Bian, Alan P Kumar, Gautam Sethi, Ekambaram Perumal
Exposure to antioxidants and xenobiotics triggers the expression of a myriad of genes encoding antioxidant proteins, detoxifying enzymes, and xenobiotic transporters to offer protection against oxidative stress. This articulated universal mechanism is regulated through the cis-acting elements in an array of Nrf2 target genes called antioxidant response elements (AREs), which play a critical role in redox homeostasis. Though the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE system involves many players, AREs hold the key in transcriptional regulation of cytoprotective genes...
May 7, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775900/hordenine-protects-against-hyperglycemia-associated-renal-complications-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#8
Shuhao Su, Meng Cao, Guangyuan Wu, Zi Long, Xiaodong Cheng, Junshu Fan, Zhongrui Xu, Hongfei Su, Yiming Hao, Ge Li, Jie Peng, Shuang Li, Xin Wang
The worldwide prevalence of diabetes and associated metabolic diseases has dramatically increased. Pharmacological treatment of diabetes is still limited. Hordenine (HOR), a phenethylamine alkaloid, is a natural constituent in many plants. The present study was designed to explore the possible anti-diabetic effect of HOR in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Combined treatment of HOR and insulin significantly reduced fasting and postprandial blood glucose level in diabetic mice. HOR and insulin did not show evident protective effect against structural and functional injuries of pancreas...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775890/triterpenic-acids-enriched-fraction-from-cyclocarya-paliurus-attenuates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-via-improving-oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#9
Meng-Ge Zhao, Xue-Ping Sheng, Ya-Ping Huang, Yi-Ting Wang, Cui-Hua Jiang, Jian Zhang, Zhi-Qi Yin
The effects of triterpenic acids-enriched fraction from Cyclocarya paliurus (CPT) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were investigated using in vivo and in vitro models. In high fat diet-induced Wister rats, CPT significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO) levels. Moreover, CPT restored mitochondrial membrane potential dysfunction, decreased cytochrome P450 enzyme 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity, improved nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase1 (HO-1) expression...
May 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775745/analysis-of-neurotrophic-and-antioxidant-factors-related-to-midbrain-dopamine-neuronal-loss-and-brain-inflammation-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-the-elderly
#10
Angel Martin-de-Pablos, Antonio Córdoba-Fernández, Emilio Fernández-Espejo
Midbrain dopamine neuronal loss and neuroinflammation are two phenomena that are associated with brain senescence. Neurotrophic factor changes and oxidative stress could subserve these phenomena. Aging-related brain changes can be well monitored through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The objective was to analyze neurotrophic and oxidative parameters that could be related to midbrain dopamine neuronal loss or brain inflammation in the CSF of elderly subjects: 1) levels of the dopaminotrophic factors BDNF, GDNF, persephin, and neurturin, 2) levels of the proinflammatory factors TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 ; 3) activity of main antioxidant enzymes (catalases, glutathione-peroxidase, glutathione-reductase, glutathione-S-transferases, peroxirredoxins, and superoxide-dismutases), 4) ferritin content, antioxidant protein which reduces reactive free iron, and 5) antioxidant potential of the cerebrospinal fluid...
May 15, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775722/inflammatory-and-oxidative-mechanisms-potentiate-bifenthrin-induced-neurological-alterations-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adult-rats
#11
Brahim Gargouri, Harsharan S Bhatia, Michèle Bouchard, Bernd L Fiebich, Hamadi Fetoui
Bifenthrin (BF) is a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide widely used in several countries to manage insect pests on diverse agricultural crops. Growing evidence indicates that BF exposure is associated with an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders. However, the mechanisms by which BF induces neurological and anxiety alterations in the frontal cortex and striatum are not well known. The present in vivo study was carried out to determine whether reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress (OS) and neuroinflammation are involved in such alterations...
May 15, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775204/effects-of-%C3%AE-tocotrienol-on-ochratoxin-a-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-rats
#12
Sara Damiano, Luigi Navas, Patrizia Lombari, Serena Montagnaro, Iris M Forte, Antonio Giordano, Salvatore Florio, Roberto Ciarcia
Ochratoxin A (OTA), is a natural contaminant of the food chain worldwide involved in the development of different type of cancers in animals and humans. Several studies suggested that oxidative damage might contribute to increase the cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity capabilities of OTA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effect of δ-tocotrienol (Delta), a natural form of vitamin E, against OTA-induced nephrotoxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with OTA and/or Delta by gavage for 14 days...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775111/tamoxifen-prevents-d-galactosamine-lipopolysaccharide-induced-murine-acute-hepatic-failure-through-inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-and-mmd-2-upregulation
#13
Xiaoxue Gong, Peng Cao, Liping Liu, Yan Lin, Qing Yang, Linyu Zhou, Tianen Wu, Mansheng Luo
Oxidative stress is considered one of the major mechanisms underlying lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver failure (ALF). Tamoxifen has been reported to ameliorate LPS-induced ALF via the induction of monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated 2 (Mmd-2). Whether antioxidant effects are involved remains unknown. Mice were given tamoxifen (TAM) once a day for 3 days. Twelve hours later, d-galactosamine (GaIN) and LPS were injected intraperitoneally to induce ALF. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) was administered immediately after ALF induction as a positive control...
May 18, 2018: Immunological Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774828/bilberry-pomace-in-rabbit-nutrition-effects-on-growth-performance-apparent-digestibility-caecal-traits-bacterial-community-and-antioxidant-status
#14
S Dabbou, I Ferrocino, A Kovitvadhi, S Bergagna, D Dezzuto, A Schiavone, L Cocolin, F Gai, V Santoro, L Gasco
Agricultural by-products could be used as alternative raw materials in rabbit nutrition as they have been found to be highly nutritious and low cost feeding sources. The aim of this study was to estimate the nutritive value and potential use of bilberry pomace (BP) for growing rabbits. A total of 144 Grimaud rabbits (35 days old) were allotted to four groups and fed with a diet containing increasing level of BP: BP0 (basal diet), BP5, BP10 and BP15 containing 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg respectively. Growth trial lasted 48 days; apparent digestibility was evaluated, starting at 46 days of age, over 4 consecutive days...
May 18, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773198/serum-concentrations-of-trace-elements-and-their-relationships-with-paraoxonase-1-in-morbidly-obese-women
#15
Fedra Luciano-Mateo, Noemí Cabré, Martí Nadal, Anabel García-Heredia, Gerard Baiges-Gaya, Anna Hernández-Aguilera, Jordi Camps, Jorge Joven, José Luis Domingo
The metabolic alterations associated with obesity include mineral dysregulation. Essential trace elements are nutrients with a relevant function in a large number of cellular processes and multiple roles in the correct functioning of metabolic enzymes. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory enzyme that is compromised in obesity. In the present study, the potential alterations in trace elements in morbidly obese women were assessed in relation to serum PON1 activity and concentration, as well as to other obesity-related comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and fatty liver...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773188/the-toxic-effect-of-gallic-acid-on-biochemical-factors-viability-and-proliferation-of-rat-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-was-compensated-by-boric-acid
#16
Mohammad Hussein Abnosi, Somayeh Yari
OBJECTIVE: Gallic acid (GA) and boron are found in many plants. Our previous studies showed 6 ng/ml boric acid (BA) had positive effect on biochemistry of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their osteogenic differentiation. Therefore, we investigate the effect of different doses of GA alone and in the presence of BA on MSCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the viability of MSCs was assayed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and trypan blue at 12, 24 and 36 h in presence of different concentration of GA...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773184/oral-administration-of-cadmium-depletes-intratesticular-and-epididymal-iron-levels-and-inhibits-lipid-peroxidation-in-the-testis-and-epididymis-of-adult-rats
#17
Sunny O Abarikwu, Sarah Oruitemeka, Ifeyinwa A Uwadileke, Stephen I Omeodu, Ngozi F Okoye, Chidimma J Mgbudom-Okah, Robinson Ohanador
Cadmium (Cd)-induced tissue injury depends on the accumulated Cd which differentially affects endogenous iron (Fe). To investigate this, adult rats were treated by oral gavage with Cd (50 mg/kg body wt.) once a week for 15, 30 and 60 days and sacrificed a day after last administration. After the 15th and 30th day of treatment, Cd had no effect on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and endogenous Fe levels but exhibited anti-androgenic effects (p < 0.05) and caused histological damages...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773003/antioxidant-action-of-an-aqueous-extract-of-royal-sun-medicinal-mushroom-agaricus-brasiliensis-agaricomycetes-in-rats-with-adjuvant-induced-arthritis
#18
Aline Cristine da Silva de Souza, Geferson de Almeida Gonсalves, Andréia Assunсão Soares, Anacharis B de Sá-Nakanishi, Ana Paula de Santi-Rampazzo, Maria Raquel Marсal Natali, Rosane Marina Peralta, Adelar Bracht
The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible effects of the administration of an aqueous Agaricus brasiliensis extract on the oxidative state of the liver, brain, and plasma in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, a model for human rheumatoid arthritis. Daily doses of 400 mg · kg-1 were administered by gavage for 23 days. This treatment produced significant diminutions in protein carbonylation and lipid damage in the liver, brain, and plasma. It also diminished the tissue reactive oxygen species and increased the antioxidant capacity of the plasma...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772655/antioxidant-activity-and-hepatoprotective-potential-of-quercetin-7-rhamnoside-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
Zhi-Qiang Huang, Pan Chen, Wei-Wei Su, Yong-Gang Wang, Hao Wu, Wei Peng, Pei-Bo Li
Hypericum japonicum is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat cholestasis and hepatitis. Quercetin 7-rhamnoside (Q7R) is one of the main flavonoid components of Hypericum japonicum and has been rarely studied. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective potential of Q7R. In the in vitro experiments, DPPH, ABTS and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were first performed to assess the antioxidant properties of Q7R, and then a H₂O₂-induced oxidative damage cellular model was used to determine the cytoprotective and antioxidant properties of Q7R in human liver L-02 cells...
May 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772516/acidic-amino-acids-a-new-type-of-enzyme-mimics-with-application-to-biosensing-and-evaluating-of-antioxidant-behaviour
#20
Ying Shi, Li Liu, Yuanyuan Yu, Yijuan Long, Huzhi Zheng
Nanomaterials have triggered tremendous interest to mimick peroxidase but rarely attention has been paid to small molecules. Herein we first found that acidic amino acids including l-glutamic acid (L-Glu) and l-aspartic acid (L-Asp) exhibited an intrinsic peroxidase-like activity, endowing acidic amino acids with the capability of catalysing the oxidation of the peroxidase substrates 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to produce color reaction in the presence of H2 O2 . Reaction mechanism was further investigated by means of electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR), enzyme kinetics assay and quantum theoretical calculations, to verify and provide a good deal of insight into the catalytic process...
May 8, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
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