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Traumatic dissociation

Habib Niyaraq Nobakht, Karl Yngvar Dale
This study aims to investigate the prevalence of Deliberate self-harm and its relationship to childhood and recent trauma and different patterns of dissociative features. 100 men and 100 women among college students were administered a 58-item questionnaire designed to detect the extent of dissociation, Deliberate self-harm and trauma history, respectively. Participants with Deliberate self-harm behaviors reported more traumatic experiences and dissociative features than participants without such behaviors...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Adam D LaMotte, Christopher M Murphy
Objective: Research with partner-violent men has found that a subset of this population reports dissociative experiences during their violence (e.g., inability to remember violence [despite admission that it had occurred]; flashbacks during violence). However, the literature examining this phenomenon has been primarily limited to clinical observations and case studies, and there is a need for more thorough empirical investigation regarding the prevalence and correlates of dissociative violence among individuals in intimate partner violence (IPV) intervention programs...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Yael Lahav, Ask Elklit
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is an extreme traumatic event associated with numerous long lasting difficulties and symptoms (e.g., Herman, 1992). These include, among other things, the impediment of basic interpersonal structures of attachment (Rumstein-McKean & Hunsley, 2001), as well as impairment of mental integration manifested in dissociation (Van Den Bosch et al., 2003). Theoretically, attachment insecurities and dissociation are closely linked, since dissociation is generated as a way to resolve the conflicted attachment demands faced by the abused child (e...
October 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
Lyndsey E Collins-Praino, Frances Corrigan
A history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is linked to an increased risk for the later development of dementia. This encompasses a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), with AD linked to history of moderate-severe TBI and CTE to a history of repeated concussion. Of note, both AD and CTE are characterized by the abnormal accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates, which are thought to play an important role in the development of neurodegeneration...
September 28, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Camilla Gesi, Claudia Carmassi, Katherine M Shear, Theresa Schwartz, Angela Ghesquiere, Julie Khaler, Liliana Dell'Osso
INTRODUCTION: Complicated grief (CG) has been the subject of increasing attention in the past decades but its relationship with separation anxiety disorder (SEPAD) is still controversial. The aim of the current study was to explore the prevalence and clinical significance of adult SEPAD in a sample of help-seeking individuals with CG. METHODS: 151 adults with CG, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of (CG) treatment to that of interpersonal therapy, were assessed by means of the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), the Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire (ASA-27), the Grief Related Avoidance Questionnaire (GRAQ), the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ), and the Impact of Events Scale (IES)...
September 10, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Andrea Scalabrini, Marco Cavicchioli, Andrea Fossati, Cesare Maffei
Several authors studied dissociation within the Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) population and postulated three dissociative subgroups. Conversely, other authors suggest how dissociation may play a central role in the development of trauma related disorders and specifically in BPD. Nevertheless, the role of dissociation in BPD seems to be controversial. Our aim is to propose a meta-analytic review of literature to evaluate the extent of dissociation in BPD compared to other psychopathological disorders to clarify its role in this specific condition...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Petr Bob, Matthew Laker
According to recent findings stressful experiences may influence various physiological disturbances and also neuroanatomical changes and some studies also show that psychotherapy and meditation may influence brain functions. Traumatic stress is frequently related to a dissociative response that disintegrates conscious experience. In this context, self-reflection is an essential principle in the process of posttraumatic growth related to spiritual experiences and meditation states that enable mental integration and create the novel integrated self...
September 24, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Martin J Dorahy, Roberto Lewis-Fernández, Christa Krüger, Bethany L Brand, Vedat Şar, Jan Ewing, Alfonso Martínez-Taboas, Pam Stavropoulos, Warwick Middleton
Controversy exists regarding the merits of exposure-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) versus a phased approach when prominent dissociative symptoms are present. The first aim of this study was to examine the degree to which diagnosing dissociation in two traumatized patients' vignettes influenced clinicians' preference for phase-oriented treatment and whether clinicians' treatment experience contributed to their treatment preference. The second aim was to assess the extent to which participants had observed traumatized patients worsen when treated with exposure therapy or phase-oriented therapy and whether the theoretical orientation and treatment experience of the clinician were related to the observed deterioration...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Jillian J Weeks, Lauren J Carlson, Hannah L Radabaugh, Patricia B de la Tremblaye, Corina O Bondi, Anthony E Kline
Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced agitation and aggression pose major obstacles to clinicians in the acute hospital and rehabilitation settings. Thus, management of these symptoms is crucial. Antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are a common treatment approach for alleviating these symptoms. However, previous preclinical TBI studies have indicated that daily and chronic administration of these drugs (e.g., haloperidol; HAL) can exacerbate cognitive and motor deficits. Quetiapine (QUE) is an atypical APD that differs from many typical APDs, such as HAL, in its relatively rapid dissociation from the D2 receptor...
September 21, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Laszlo A Erdodi, Chantalle L Pelletier, Robert M Roth
Elevations on certain Conners' CPT-II scales are known to be associated with invalid responding. However, scales and cutoffs vary across studies. In addition, the methodology behind developing performance validity tests (PVTs) has been challenged for mistaking true impairment for noncredible presentation. Using ability-based tests as a PVT makes clinicians especially vulnerable to this criticism. The present study examined the ability of CPT-II to dissociate effort from impairment in 47 adults clinically referred for neuropsychological assessment...
September 23, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Tali Samson, Esther Iecovich, Pesach Shvartzman
CONTEXT: Exposure to human suffering may have ramifications for the professional quality of life (ProQol) of palliative care teams. The ProQol scale was designed to assess both negative and positive work-related outcomes, and has been used recently for the evaluation of work-related outcomes among palliative care workers. However, the assessment of ProQol among Israeli hospice workers is scant. OBJECTIVES: Assessment of the psychometric properties and the factor structure of the Hebrew version of the 30-item ProQol questionnaire...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Hayuta Gurevich
Early developmental trauma is imprinted in the psyche by survival fragmentation and dissociation. Traumatized patients need the analyst to be actively involved and allow for regression to dependence in order to strengthen, create and construct their psychic functioning and structure so that environmental failures will be contained and not rupture continuity of being. I suggest that Ferenczi's and Winnicott's ideas about regression to dependence in analysis are fundamental contributions to these quests, and that Ferenczi set the foundation, which Winnicott further explored and developed...
September 16, 2016: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Hussein Gazalah, Sarah Mantash, Naify Ramadan, Sawsan Al Lafi, Sally El Sitt, Hala Darwish, Hassan Azari, Lama Fawaz, Noël Ghanem, Kazem Zibara, Rose-Mary Boustany, Firas Kobeissy, Jihane Soueid
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disabilities worldwide. It affects approximately 1.5 million people each year and is associated with severe post-TBI symptoms such as sensory and motor deficits. Several neuro-therapeutic approaches ranging from cell therapy interventions such as the use of neural stem cells (NSCs) to drug-based therapies have been proposed for TBI management. Successful cell-based therapies are tightly dependent on reproducible preclinical animal models to ensure safety and optimal therapeutic benefits...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hasan Belli, Mahir Akbudak, Cenk Ural, Mustafa Solmaz, Zuhal Dogan, Ramazan Konkan
BACKGROUND: A possible relationship has been suggested between social anxiety and dissociation. Traumatic experiences, especially childhood abuse, play an important role in the aetiology of dissociation. AIM: This study assesses childhood trauma history, dissociative symptoms, and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). METHOD: The 94 psychotropic drug-naive patients participating in the study had to meet DSM-IV criteria for SAD...
August 26, 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Nader S Dahdaleh, Ryan Khanna, Arnold H Menezes, Zachary A Smith, Stephanus V Viljoen, Tyler R Koski, Patrick W Hitchon, Brian J Dlouhy
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: Traumatic atlanto-occipital dissociation (AOD) remains a diagnostic challenge, and delay in diagnosis is associated with catastrophic outcomes. Recently, a revised version of the condyl-C1 interval (CCI) utilizing parasagittal computed tomography (CT) reconstruction was used successfully with unilateral dislocation of 2.5 mm at the level of that joint diagnostic of AOD. We report the utility of this simple technique in the diagnosis of six patients with AOD...
September 2016: Global Spine Journal
Ashley K Losing, Justin M Jones, Adis Keric, Steven E Briggs, David D Leedahl
Ketamine is a promising alternative agent for pain control that offers benefit to traditional strategies, particularly in the setting of rib fracture. Current pharmacologic therapies have clear adverse effects, and other options may be invasive, cost prohibitive, or marginally effective. We describe three consecutive patients with traumatic injuries including rib fracture for which a ketamine infusion was utilized as part of their pain control strategy.  For each patient, use of a ketamine infusion trended toward reduced opioid requirements with stable pain scores...
July 2016: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
Albert Leung, Shivshil Shukla, Eric Yang, Bryan Canlas, Mawj Kadokana, Jason Heald, Ariea Davani, David Song, Lisa Lin, Greg Polston, Alice Tsai, Roland Lee
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain conditions are highly prevalent in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Supraspinal diffuse axonal injury is known to dissociate brain functional connectivity in these patients. The effect of this dissociated state on supraspinal pain network is largely unknown. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study was conducted to compare the supraspinal pain network in patients with mild traumatic brain injury to the gender and age-matched healthy controls with the hypothesis that the functional connectivities of the medial prefrontal cortices, a supraspinal pain modulatory region to other pain-related sensory discriminatory and affective regions in the mild traumatic brain injury subjects are significantly reduced in comparison to healthy controls...
2016: Molecular Pain
Philip R Baldwin, Kenia Velasquez, Harold G Koenig, Ramiro Salas, Peter A Boelens
Depression is a global health concern and when rooted in childhood adversity is particularly difficult to treat. In a previous study, we found that healing prayer was effective in reducing depressive symptoms. Subjects suffering with depression according to HAM-D scores underwent task-based brain functional MRI (fMRI) prior to and after a 6-week prayer intervention, and depression symptoms were assessed at both time points and at a 12-month follow-up. Average HAM-D scores decreased from 21.6±3.0 prior to the intervention to 4...
August 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Chen-Cheng Lin, Che-Se Tung, Pin-Hsuan Lin, Chuen-Lin Huang, Yia-Ping Liu
Central catecholamines regulate fear memory across the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala (AMYG), and hippocampus (HPC). However, inadequate evidence exists to address the relationships among these fear circuit areas in terms of the fear symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). By examining the behavioral profile in a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm together with tissue/efflux levels of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) and their reuptake abilities across the fear circuit areas in rats that experienced single prolonged stress (SPS, a rodent model of PTSD), we demonstrated that SPS-impaired extinction retrieval was concomitant with the changes of central DA/NE in a dissociable manner...
September 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
A van Minnen, B M van der Vleugel, D P G van den Berg, P A J M de Bont, C de Roos, M van der Gaag, A de Jongh
This study presents secondary analyses of a recently published trial in which post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients with psychosis (n = 108) underwent 8 sessions of trauma-focused treatment, either prolonged exposure (PE) or eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. 24.1% fulfilled the criteria for the dissociative subtype, a newly introduced PTSD subtype in DSM-5. Treatment outcome was compared for patients with and without the dissociative subtype of PTSD. Patients with the dissociative subtype of PTSD showed large reductions in clinician-administered PTSD scale (CAPS) score, comparable with patients without the dissociative subtype of PTSD...
October 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
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