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Reid F Thompson, Gilmer Valdes, Clifton D Fuller, Colin M Carpenter, Olivier Morin, Sanjay Aneja, William D Lindsay, Hugo J W L Aerts, Barbara Agrimson, Curtiland Deville, Seth A Rosenthal, James B Yu, Charles R Thomas
Artificial intelligence (AI) is emerging as a technology with the power to transform established industries, and with applications from automated manufacturing to advertising and facial recognition to fully autonomous transportation. Advances in each of these domains have led some to call AI the "fourth" industrial revolution [1]. In healthcare, AI is emerging as both a productive and disruptive force across many disciplines. This is perhaps most evident in Diagnostic Radiology and Pathology, specialties largely built around the processing and complex interpretation of medical images, where the role of AI is increasingly seen as both a boon and a threat...
June 12, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Sean Walsh, Liat Levita, Markus Reuber
OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aims to contrast levels, manifestations and associations of depression in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) and those with epilepsy. METHODS: ScienceDirect and Web of Science were searched for primary research reports describing quantitative studies involving separate epilepsy and PNES samples (age 16+) and using a validated measure of depression. RESULTS: While 34 studies were identified, most were of low quality and had small sample sizes...
May 24, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Katie Todd, Gretchen Haupt, Elizabeth Kunz Kollmann, Sarah Pfeifle
Public engagement with science (PES) is an emerging outreach method that builds trust between scientists and public audiences by encouraging two-way conversations and mutual learning about science content and societal values. Building with Biology, a PES initiative focused on synthetic biology, distributed 182 kits with two types of products to informal science education institutions across the United States: 1) hands-on activities for public events, and 2) materials to run public dialogue programs, called forums...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Judith Osok, Pius Kigamwa, Keng-Yen Huang, Nancy Grote, Manasi Kumar
BACKGROUND: Adolescent pregnancies present a great public health burden in Kenya and Sub-Saharan Africa (UNFPA, Motherhood in Childhood: Facing the challenge of Adolescent Pregnancy, 2013). The disenfranchisement from public institutions and services is further compounded by cultural stigma and gender inequality creating emotional, psychosocial, health, and educational problems in the lives of vulnerable pregnant adolescents (Int J Adolesc Med Health 15(4):321-9, 2003; BMC Public Health 8:83, 2008)...
June 15, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Véronique Palardy, Ghassan El-Baalbaki, Catherine Fredette, Elias Rizkallah, Stéphane Guay
Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are characterized by major behavioral dysruptions that may affect patients' social and marital functioning. The disorders' impact on interpersonal relationships may also affect the quality of support patients receive from their social network. The main goal of this systematic review is to determine the association between social or marital support and symptom severity among adults with PD/A or OCD. A systematic search of databases was executed and provided 35 eligible articles...
March 2018: Europe's journal of psychology
P Rocca, S Galderisi, A Rossi, A Bertolino, P Rucci, D Gibertoni, C Montemagni, S Bellino, E Aguglia, M Amore, A Bellomo, M Biondi, B Carpiniello, A Cuomo, E D'Ambrosio, L dell'Osso, P Girardi, C Marchesi, P Monteleone, C Montemitro, L Oldani, F Pacitti, R Roncone, A Siracusano, E Tenconi, A Vita, P Zeppegno, L Steardo, A Vignapiano, M Maj
BACKGROUND: A general consensus has not yet been reached regarding the role of disorganization symptoms in real-world functioning in schizophrenia. METHODS: We used structural equations modeling (SEM) to analyze the direct and indirect associations between disorganization and real-world functioning assessed through the Specific Levels of Functioning Scale (SLOF) in 880 subjects with schizophrenia. RESULTS: We found that: 1) conceptual disorganization was directly and strongly connected with SLOF daily activities; difficulty in abstract thinking was associated with moderate strength to all SLOF domains, and poor attention was connected with SLOF work skills; 2) grandiosity was only related with poor work skills, and delusions were associated with poor functioning in all SLOF domains; interpersonal relationships were weakly indirectly influenced by hallucinatory behavior, delusions and unusual thought contents through the mediation of social cognition (SC); 3) among the negative symptoms, avolition had only direct links with SLOF work skills and SLOF activities; anhedonia had direct links with SLOF work skills and SLOF interpersonal and indirect link with SLOF work skills through functional capacity (FC); asociality with SLOF interpersonal; blunted affect had direct links with SLOF activities and indirect links with SLOF interpersonal relationships mediated by SC...
June 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Austin J Gallyer, Sean P Dougherty, Anna R Gai, Ian H Stanley, Melanie A Hom, Megan L Rogers, Mary E Duffy, Jennifer M Buchman-Schmitt, Sally Spencer-Thomas, Thomas E Joiner
BACKGROUND: Firefighters are at increased risk for both problematic alcohol use and suicidality. Research has found that problematic alcohol use is related to suicidality among this population; however, limited data exist regarding what might account for this association. The present two-study investigation (1) examined the association between suicidality and problematic alcohol use among two large samples of firefighters and (2) tested whether interpersonal theory of suicide constructs-perceived burdensomeness (PB) and thwarted belongingness (TB)-serve as indirect indicators of this relationship...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Lina Ximena Jaramillo Santiago, Sandra Patricia Osorio Galeano, Diego Alejandro Salazar Blandón
OBJECTIVES: This work sought to describe the quality of nursing care from the perceptions of parents of children hospitalized in a neonatal unit. METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in an institution with tier III level of care in the city of Medellín (Colombia). Information was gathered by using the CARE-Q instrument, which was answered by the parents of newborns hospitalized in neonatal unit. The sampling was intentional. RESULTS: The study had the participation of 121 individuals; 67...
February 2018: Investigación y Educación en Enfermería
Hong Eng Goh, Ida Marais, Michael Ireland
Establishing the internal validity of psychometric instruments is an important research priority, and is especially vital for instruments that are used to collect data to guide public policy decisions. The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS) is a well-established and widely-used instrument for assessing individual differences in well-being. The current analyses were motivated by concerns that metal wellbeing items that refer to interpersonal relationships (Items 9 and 12) may operate differently for those in a relationship compared to those not in a relationship...
2018: Journal of Applied Measurement
Maya Massing-Schaffer, Sarah W Helms, Karen D Rudolph, George M Slavich, Paul D Hastings, Matteo Giletta, Matthew K Nock, Mitchell J Prinstein
This study examined associations between multiple types of interpersonal and noninterpersonal stressors and the subsequent occurrence of suicide ideation and attempts among female adolescents. Adolescents ages 12 to 18 years old (n = 160) at elevated risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors were followed for 18 months, divided into two 9-month epochs for data analysis (Periods 1 and 2). Exposure to acute relational victimization, targeted rejection, nonspecified interpersonal, and noninterpersonal life stressors over the first 9-month epoch (Period 1) was assessed using semistructured interviews and an independent life stress rating team...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Shun-Chiao Chang, Jennifer Prescott, Immaculata De Vivo, Peter Kraft, Olivia I Okereke
Prior studies have reported significant cross-sectional associations between depression or anxiety and shorter telomere lengths, but the temporality of associations is uncertain. Little is known regarding whether shorter telomere length is related to increased risk of developing depression or anxiety. In this study, using the genetic tool of polygenic risk score (PRS), we evaluated the association between genetic predisposition to shorter telomere length and the risks of lifetime clinically significant depression (defined by self-reported clinician/physician diagnosis, antidepressant use, and/or presence of severe depressive symptoms) and of clinically meaningful anxiety symptoms among 17,693 female participants of European ancestry...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Angelo Barbato, Barbara D'Avanzo, Alberto Parabiaghi
BACKGROUND: Couple therapy for depression has the twofold aim of modifying negative interaction patterns and increasing mutually supportive aspects of intimate relationships, changing the interpersonal context of depression. Couple therapy is included in several guidelines among the suggested treatments for depression. OBJECTIVES: 1. The main objective was to examine the effects of couple therapy compared to individual psychotherapy for depression.2. Secondary objectives were to examine the effects of couple therapy compared to drug therapy and no/minimal treatment for depression...
June 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Michael Kimmel, Dayana Hristova, Kerstin Kussmaul
Drawing on a micro-phenomenological paradigm, we discuss Contact Improvisation (CI), where dancers explore potentials of intercorporeal weight sharing, kinesthesia, touch, and momentum. Our aim is to typologically discuss creativity related skills and the rich spectrum of creative resources CI dancers use. This spectrum begins with relatively idea-driven creation and ends with interactivity-centered, fully emergent creation: (1) Ideation internal to the mind, the focus of traditional creativity research, is either restricted to semi-independent dancing or remains schematic and thus open to dynamic specification under the partner’s influence...
May 23, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Tabor E Flickinger, Claire DeBolt, Alice Xie, Alison Kosmacki, Marika Grabowski, Ava Lena Waldman, George Reynolds, Mark Conaway, Wendy F Cohn, Karen Ingersoll, Rebecca Dillingham
Stigma has negative consequences for quality of life and HIV care outcomes. PositiveLinks is a mobile health intervention that includes a secure anonymous community message board (CMB). We investigated discussion of stigma and changes in stigma scores. Of 77 participants in our pilot, 63% were male, 49% Black, and 72% had incomes below the federal poverty level. Twenty-one percent of CMB posts (394/1834) contained stigma-related content including negative (experiencing stigma) and positive (overcoming stigma) posts addressing intrapersonal and interpersonal stigma...
June 7, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Anthony M Evans, David G Rand
We review two fundamentally different ways that decision time is related to cooperation. First, studies have experimentally manipulated decision time to understand how cooperation is related to the use of intuition versus deliberation. Current evidence supports the claim that time pressure (and, more generally, intuition) favors cooperation. Second, correlational studies reveal that self-paced decision times are primarily related to decision conflict, not the use of intuition or deliberation. As a result, extreme cooperation decisions occur more quickly than intermediate decisions, and the relative speed of highly cooperative versus non-cooperative decisions depends on details of the design and participant pool...
May 23, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Jacob Y Stein, Yafit Levin, Orit Uziel, Heba Abumock, Zahava Solomon
BACKGROUND: Telomere length (TL) serves as a biomarker of cellular senescence and is a robust predictor of mortality. The association between traumatic stress and TL erosion is rapidly realized, as are the complexities of this relation that include links to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and psychosocial factors. Nevertheless, the relation between specific stressors in early adulthood and TL in later life, specifically among populations that have undergone extreme stress in early adulthood are largely uninvestigated...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Fiona Patterson, Paul A Tiffin, Safiatu Lopes, Lara Zibarras
CONTEXT: Differential performance in postgraduate examinations between home medical graduates and those who qualified outside their country of practice is well recognised. This difference is especially marked in the practical component of the UK Membership of the Royal College of General Practitioners (MRCGP) examination. The potential causes of such disparities are not well understood. METHODS: Data were available for 1874 international medical graduates who applied for general practice (GP) specialty training in the UK in 2008-2012...
July 2018: Medical Education
Jae-A Lim, Soo-Hee Choi, Won Joon Lee, Joon Hwan Jang, Jee Youn Moon, Yong Chul Kim, Do-Hyung Kang
Chronic pain is defined as persistent or recurrent pain lasting longer than 3 months; the severity of pain can be rated in terms of intensity, pain-related distress, and functional impairment. Researches have shown an association between psychosocial factors, such as empathic ability, and the severity of pain. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most common psychologic intervention for individuals with chronic pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CBT on empathy in chronic pain patients, examining especially gender differences...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Elise Whitley, Michaela Benzeval, Frank Popham
Objectives: Aging populations have led to increasing interest in "successful aging" but there is no consensus as to what this entails. We aimed to understand the relative importance to the general population of six commonly-used successful aging dimensions (disease, disability, physical functioning, cognitive functioning, interpersonal engagement, and productive engagement). Method: Two thousand and ten British men and women were shown vignettes describing an older person with randomly determined favorable/unfavorable outcomes for each dimension and asked to score (0-10) how successfully the person was aging...
June 6, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Rüdiger J Seitz, Raymond F Paloutzian, Hans-Ferdinand Angel
Cognitive neuroscience research has begun to explore the mental processes underlying what a belief and what believing is. Recent evidence suggests that believing involves fundamental brain functions that result in meaningful probabilistic representations, called beliefs. When relatively stable, these beliefs allow for guidance of behavior in individuals and social groups. However, they are also fluid and can be modified by new relevant information, interpersonal contact, social pressure, and situational demands...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
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