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hyperglycemia critical

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813108/consequences-of-gestational-diabetes-to-the-brain-and-behavior-of-the-offspring
#1
Ricardo A L DE Sousa, Yasmin S Torres, Claudia P Figueiredo, Giselle F Passos, Julia R Clarke
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GD) is a form of insulin resistance triggered during the second/third trimesters of pregnancy in previously normoglycemic women. It is currently estimated that 10% of all pregnancies in the United States show this condition. For many years, the transient nature of GD has led researchers and physicians to assume that long-term consequences were absent. However, GD diagnosis leads to a six-fold increase in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) in women and incidence of obesity and T2D is also higher among their infants...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801532/activation-of-nkx2-5-calr-p53-signaling-pathway-by-hyperglycemia-induces-cardiac-remodeling-and-dysfunction-in-adult-zebrafish
#2
Sun Yanyi, Wang Qiuyun, Fang Yuehua, Wu Chunfang, Lu Guoping, Chen Zhenyue
Hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for diabetic cardiomyopathy in humans; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been thoroughly elucidated. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) was used in this study as a novel vertebrate model to explore the signaling pathways of human adult cardiomyopathy. Hyperglycemia was induced by alternately immersing adult zebrafish in a glucose solution or water. The hyperglycemic fish gradually exhibited some hallmarks of cardiomyopathy such as myocardial hypertrophy and apoptosis, myofibril loss, fetal gene reactivation, and severe arrhythmia...
August 11, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798665/maternal-diabetes-alters-expression-of-micrornas-that-regulate-genes-critical-for-neural-tube-development
#3
Seshadri Ramya, Sukanya Shyamasundar, Boon Huat Bay, S Thameem Dheen
Maternal diabetes is known to cause neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos and neuropsychological deficits in infants. Several metabolic pathways and a plethora of genes have been identified to be deregulated in developing brain of embryos by maternal diabetes, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Recently, miRNAs have been shown to regulate genes involved in brain development and maturation. Therefore, we hypothesized that maternal diabetes alters the expression of miRNAs that regulate genes involved in biological pathways critical for neural tube development and closure during embryogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793909/-6-gingerol-from-zingiber-officinale-potentiates-glp-1-mediated-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion-pathway-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-and-increases-rab8-rab10-regulated-membrane-presentation-of-glut4-transporters-in-skeletal-muscle-to-improve-hyperglycemia-in
#4
Mehdi Bin Samad, Md Nurul Absar Bin Mohsin, Bodiul Alam Razu, Mohammad Tashnim Hossain, Sinayat Mahzabeen, Naziat Unnoor, Ishrat Aklima Muna, Farjana Akhter, Ashraf Ul Kabir, J M A Hannan
BACKGROUND: [6]-Gingerol, a major component of Zingiber officinale, was previously reported to ameliorate hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic mice. Endocrine signaling is involved in insulin secretion and is perturbed in db/db Type-2 diabetic mice. [6]-Gingerol was reported to restore the disrupted endocrine signaling in rodents. In this current study on Lepr(db/db) diabetic mice, we investigated the involvement of endocrine pathway in the insulin secretagogue activity of [6]-Gingerol and the mechanism(s) through which [6]-Gingerol ameliorates hyperglycemia...
August 9, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765602/arc-is-essential-for-maintaining-pancreatic-islet-structure-and-%C3%AE-cell-viability-during-type-2-diabetes
#5
Wendy M McKimpson, Min Zheng, Streamson C Chua, Jeffrey E Pessin, Richard N Kitsis
Pancreatic β-cell loss through apoptosis is an important disease mechanism in type 2 diabetes. Apoptosis Repressor with CARD (ARC) is a cell death inhibitor that antagonizes multiple death programs. We previously reported that ARC is abundant in pancreatic β-cells and modulates survival of these cells in vitro. Herein we assessed the importance of endogenous ARC in maintaining islet structure and function in vivo. While generalized loss of ARC did not result in detectable abnormalities, its absence in ob/ob mice, a model of type 2 diabetes, induced a striking pancreatic phenotype: marked β-cell death, loss of β-cell mass, derangements of islet architecture, and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vivo...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762874/reactivation-of-hyperglycemia-induced-hypocretin-hcrt-gene-silencing-by-n-acetyl-d-mannosamine-in-the-orexin-neurons-derived-from-human-ips-cells
#6
Koji Hayakawa, Yasuharu Sakamoto, Osamu Kanie, Atsuko Ohtake, Shusaku Daikoku, Yukishige Ito, Kunio Shiota
Orexin neurons regulate critical brain activities for controlling sleep, eating, emotions, and metabolism, and impaired orexin neuron function results in several neurological disorders. Therefore, restoring normal orexin function and understanding the mechanisms of loss or impairment of orexin neurons represent important goals. As a step toward that end, we generated human orexin neurons from induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) by treatment with N-acetyl-d-mannosamine (ManNAc) and its derivatives. The generation of orexin neurons was associated with DNA hypomethylation, histone H3/H4 hyperacetylation, and hypo-O-GlcNAcylation on the HCRT gene locus, and, thereby, the treatment of inhibitors of SIRT1 and OGT were effective at inducing orexin neurons from hiPSCs...
August 1, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756769/continuous-glucose-monitoring-in-the-icu-clinical-considerations-and-consensus
#7
REVIEW
James S Krinsley, J Geoffrey Chase, Jan Gunst, Johan Martensson, Marcus J Schultz, Fabio S Taccone, Jan Wernerman, Julien Bohe, Christophe De Block, Thomas Desaive, Pierre Kalfon, Jean-Charles Preiser
Glucose management in intensive care unit (ICU) patients has been a matter of debate for almost two decades. Compared to intermittent monitoring systems, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) can offer benefit in the prevention of severe hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia by enabling insulin infusions to be adjusted more rapidly and potentially more accurately because trends in glucose concentrations can be more readily identified. Increasingly, it is apparent that a single glucose target/range may not be optimal for all patients at all times and, as with many other aspects of critical care patient management, a personalized approach to glucose control may be more appropriate...
July 31, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751454/cysteamine-prevents-vascular-leakage-through-inhibiting-transglutaminase-in-diabetic-retina
#8
Yeon-Ju Lee, Se-Hui Jung, Jong Yun Hwang, Sohee Jeon, Eun-Taek Han, Won Sun Park, Seok-Ho Hong, Young-Myeong Kim, Kwon-Soo Ha
Cysteamine (an aminothiol), which is derived from coenzyme A degradation and metabolized into taurine, has beneficial effects against cystinosis and neurodegenerative diseases; however, its role in diabetic complications is unknown. Thus, we sought to determine the preventive effect of cysteamine against hyperglycemia-induced vascular leakage in the retinas of diabetic mice. Cysteamine and ethanolamine, the sulfhydryl group-free cysteamine analogue, inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced stress fiber formation and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin disruption in endothelial cells which play a critical role in modulating endothelial permeability...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742432/controversies-surrounding-critical-care-nutrition-an-appraisal-of-permissive-underfeeding-protein-and-outcomes
#9
Jayshil J Patel, Robert G Martindale, Stephen A McClave
Over the past few years, numerous studies have called into question the optimal dose, timing, composition, and advancement rate of nutrition during the early acute phase of critical illness. These studies suggest permissive underfeeding with slow advancement may be more beneficial than aggressive full feeding. These counterintuitive results were possibly explained by enhanced autophagy, less hyperglycemia, or prevention of refeeding syndrome. This review underscores the controversies surrounding permissive underfeeding, aims to answer whether permissive underfeeding is appropriate for all critically ill patients, describes the impact of optimal protein delivery on critical care outcomes, discusses nutrition risk, and cogitates on the impact of nutrition on critical care outcomes...
July 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737575/diabetes-is-not-associated-with-increased-90-day-mortality-risk-in-critically-ill-patients-with-sepsis
#10
Lonneke A van Vught, Rebecca Holman, Evert de Jonge, Nicolette F de Keizer, Tom van der Poll
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of pre-existing diabetes, hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia during the first 24 hours of ICU admissions with 90-day mortality in patients with sepsis admitted to the ICU. DESIGN: We used mixed effects logistic regression to analyze the association of diabetes, hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia with 90-day mortality (n = 128,222). SETTING: All ICUs in the Netherlands between January 2009 and 2014 that participated in the Dutch National Intensive Care Evaluation registry...
July 21, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728435/hyperglycemia-as-a-predictor-for-adverse-outcome-in-icu-patients-with-and-without-diabetes
#11
Simon Lebech Cichosz, Clara Schaarup
The aim of this study was to investigate hyperglycemia as a predictor for mortality and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay in groups of patients with and without known diabetes. The present study examines data from 200 859 patients included in eICU Collaborative Research Database, a large multicenter critical care database. The results show that hyperglycemia among ICU patients without diabetes is strongly associated with adverse event. In comparison, hyperglycemia is not as strong among patients with diabetes...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725195/vitamin-e-as-a-potential-interventional-treatment-for-metabolic-syndrome-evidence-from-animal-and-human-studies
#12
REVIEW
Sok Kuan Wong, Kok-Yong Chin, Farihah Hj Suhaimi, Fairus Ahmad, Soelaiman Ima-Nirwana
A constellation of medical conditions inclusive of central obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia is known as metabolic syndrome (MetS). The safest option in curtailing the progression of MetS is through maintaining a healthy lifestyle, which by itself, is a long-term commitment entailing much determination. A combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological approach, as well as lifestyle modification is a more holistic alternative in the management of MetS. Vitamin E has been revealed to possess anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive and anti-hypercholesterolemic properties...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724042/hyperglycemia-in-critical-patients-determinants-of-insulin-dose-choice
#13
Aline Klitzke Paliosa, Cassiano Teixeira, Regis Goulart Rosa, Carine Raquel Blatt
Objective: To identify factors that can determine the choice of intermittent subcutaneous regular insulin dose in critically ill patients with hyperglycemia. Method: Cross-sectional study in a general adult ICU with 26 beds, data collected between September and October 2014. The variables analyzed were: sex, age, previous diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, use of corticosteroids, use of lactulose, sepsis, fasting, enteral nutrition, use of dextrose 5% in water, NPH insulin prescription and blood glucose level...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720899/p32-heterozygosity-protects-against-age-and-diet-induced-obesity-by-increasing-energy-expenditure
#14
Yong Liu, Patrick L Leslie, Aiwen Jin, Koji Itahana, Lee M Graves, Yanping Zhang
Obesity is increasing in prevalence and has become a global public health problem. The main cause of obesity is a perturbation in energy homeostasis, whereby energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Although mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to the deregulation of energy homeostasis, the precise mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we identify mitochondrial p32 (also known as C1QBP) as an important regulator of lipid homeostasis that regulates both aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism. We show that while whole-body deletion of the p32 results in an embryonic lethal phenotype, mice heterozygous for p32 are resistant to age- and high-fat diet-induced ailments, including obesity, hyperglycemia, and hepatosteatosis...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710409/machine-learning-algorithms-for-risk-prediction-of-severe-hand-foot-mouth-disease-in-children
#15
Bin Zhang, Xiang Wan, Fu-Sheng Ouyang, Yu-Hao Dong, De-Hui Luo, Jing Liu, Long Liang, Wen-Bo Chen, Xiao-Ning Luo, Xiao-Kai Mo, Lu Zhang, Wen-Hui Huang, Shu-Fang Pei, Bao-Liang Guo, Chang-Hong Liang, Zhou-Yang Lian, Shui-Xing Zhang
The identification of indicators for severe HFMD is critical for early prevention and control of the disease. With this goal in mind, 185 severe and 345 mild HFMD cases were assessed. Patient demographics, clinical features, MRI findings, and laboratory test results were collected. Gradient boosting tree (GBT) was then used to determine the relative importance (RI) and interaction effects of the variables. Results indicated that elevated white blood cell (WBC) count > 15 × 10(9)/L (RI: 4(9).47, p < 0...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708678/dysglycemia-glycemic-variability-and-outcome-after-cardiac-arrest-and-temperature-management-at-33%C3%A2-c-and-36%C3%A2-c
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ola Borgquist, Matt P Wise, Niklas Nielsen, Nawaf Al-Subaie, Julius Cranshaw, Tobias Cronberg, Guy Glover, Christian Hassager, Jesper Kjaergaard, Michael Kuiper, Ondrej Smid, Andrew Walden, Hans Friberg
OBJECTIVES: Dysglycemia and glycemic variability are associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients. Targeted temperature management alters blood glucose homeostasis. We investigated the association between blood glucose concentrations and glycemic variability and the neurologic outcomes of patients randomized to targeted temperature management at 33°C or 36°C after cardiac arrest. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of the multicenter TTM-trial. Primary outcome of this analysis was neurologic outcome after 6 months, referred to as "Cerebral Performance Category...
August 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705881/defining-a-novel-role-for-the-pdx1-transcription-factor-in-islet-%C3%AE-cell-maturation-and-proliferation-during-weaning
#17
Jason M Spaeth, Manisha Gupte, Mark Perelis, Yu-Ping Yang, Holly Cyphert, Shuangli Guo, Jin-Hua Liu, Min Guo, Joseph Bass, Mark A Magnuson, Christopher Wright, Roland Stein
The transcription factor encoded by the Pancreas Duodenum Homeobox-1 (Pdx1) gene is a critical transcriptional regulator, as it has fundamental actions in the formation of all pancreatic cell types, islet β cell development, and adult islet β cell function. Transgenic- and cell line-based experiments have identified 5'-flanking conserved sequences that control pancreatic and β cell-type-specific transcription, which are found within Area I (base pairs (bp) -2694 to -2561), II (bp -2139 to -1958), III (bp -1879 to -1799), and IV (bp -6200 to -5670)...
July 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702322/mitochondrial-transcription-factor-b2-is-essential-for-mitochondrial-and-cellular-function-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#18
Lisa M Nicholas, Bérengère Valtat, Anya Medina, Lotta Andersson, Mia Abels, Inês G Mollet, Deepak Jain, Lena Eliasson, Nils Wierup, Malin Fex, Hindrik Mulder
OBJECTIVE: Insulin release from pancreatic β-cells is controlled by plasma glucose levels via mitochondrial fuel metabolism. Therefore, insulin secretion is critically dependent on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the genes it encodes. Mitochondrial transcription factor B2 (TFB2M) controls transcription of mitochondrial-encoded genes. However, its precise role in mitochondrial metabolism in pancreatic β-cells and, consequently, in insulin secretion remains unknown. METHODS: To elucidate the role of TFB2M in mitochondrial function and insulin secretion in vitro and in vivo, mice with a β-cell specific homozygous or heterozygous knockout of Tfb2m and rat clonal insulin-producing cells in which the gene was silenced were examined with an array of metabolic and functional assays...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698384/palmitic-acid-dysregulates-the-hippo-yap-pathway-and-inhibits-angiogenesis-by-inducing-mitochondrial-damage-and-activating-the-cytosolic-dna-sensor-cgas-sting-irf3-signaling
#19
Liangshuai Yuan, Yun Mao, Wei Luo, Weiwei Wu, Hao Xu, Xing Li Wang, Ying H Shen
Impaired angiogenesis and wound healing carry significant morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Metabolic stress from hyperglycemia and elevated free fatty acids have been shown to inhibit endothelial angiogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we show that dysregulation of the Hippo-YAP pathway, an important signaling in regulating tissue repair and regeneration, underlies palmitic acid (PA) -induced inhibition of endothelial angiogenesis. PA inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation, which were associated with increased MST1 expression, YAP phosphorylation/inactivation and nuclear exclusion...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672010/fibroblasts-accelerate-islet-revascularization-and-improve-long-term-graft-survival-in-a-mouse-model-of-subcutaneous-islet-transplantation
#20
Marcos Perez-Basterrechea, Manuel Martinez Esteban, Maria Alvarez-Viejo, Tania Fontanil, Santiago Cal, Marta Sanchez Pitiot, Jesus Otero, Alvaro Jesus Obaya
Pancreatic islet transplantation has been considered for many years a promising therapy for beta-cell replacement in patients with type-1 diabetes despite that long-term clinical results are not as satisfactory. This fact points to the necessity of designing strategies to improve and accelerate islets engraftment, paying special attention to events assuring their revascularization. Fibroblasts constitute a cell population that collaborates on tissue homeostasis, keeping the equilibrium between production and degradation of structural components as well as maintaining the required amount of survival factors...
2017: PloS One
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