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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089906/adenosine-signaling-in-diabetes-mellitus-and-associated-cardiovascular-and-renal-complications
#1
REVIEW
Maria Peleli, Mattias Carlstrom
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism, and subsequent hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, which results from defects in pancreatic beta islets insulin secretion and/or decreased insulin sensitivity in metabolically active organs (i.e. liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue). Accumulating evidence highlights a critical role for the adenosine system in the regulation of insulin and glucose homeostasis and the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Adenosine is a key diverse extracellular signaling molecule that regulates several aspects of tissue function by activating four G-protein-coupled receptors (i...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067472/efficacy-of-basal-bolus-insulin-regimens-in-the-inpatient-management-of-non-critically-ill-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Merete B Christensen, Anders Gotfredsen, Kirsten Nørgaard
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia during hospitalization is associated with increased rates of complications and longer hospital stays. Various insulin regimens are used in the inpatient diabetes management of non-critically ill patients. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of basal-bolus insulin therapy (BBI) by summarizing evidence from studies of BBI versus sliding scale insulin therapy (SSI) in the management of hospitalized non-critically ill type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and the Cochrane Library for studies comparing BBI therapy with SSI therapy in hospitalized non-critically ill patients with type 2 diabetes...
January 9, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060694/-management-and-treatment-of-glucocorticoid-induced-hyperglycemia
#3
REVIEW
Sílvia Paredes, Marta Alves
INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoids have been associated to several side effects, specially a diabetogenic action, the most common and representative effect. Glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia is a common medical condition, with general associated morbidity and mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was performed a literature review about the management and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia. RESULTS: Through numerous not quite fully understood mechanics, glucocorticoids promote hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients and worsen diabetes control in diabetic individuals...
September 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057756/dhhc7-palmitoylates-glut4-and-regulates-glut4-membrane-translocation
#4
Keyong Du, Shoko Murakami, Yingmin Sun, Casey Kilpatrick, Bernhard Luscher
Insulin-dependent translocation of glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) to the plasma membrane plays a key role in the dynamic regulation of glucose homeostasis. We recently showed that this process is critically dependent on palmitoylation of Glut4 at Cys223. To gain further insights into the regulation of Glut4 palmitoylation, we set out to identify the palmitoyl acyltransferase (PAT) involved. Here we report that among 23 mammalian DHHC proteins, DHHC7 is the major Glut4 PAT, based on evidence that ectopic expression of DHHC7 increased Glut4 palmitoylation, whereas DHHC7 knockdown in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and DHHC7 KO in adipose tissue and muscle decreased Glut4 palmitoylation...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042054/design-and-rationale-of-heart-and-lung-failure-pediatric-insulin-titration-trial-half-pint-a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-tight-glycemic-control-in-hyperglycemic-critically-ill-children
#5
Michael Sd Agus, Ellie Hirshberg, Vijay Srinivasan, Edward Vincent Faustino, Peter M Luckett, Martha Aq Curley, Jamin Alexander, Lisa A Asaro, Kerry Coughlin-Wells, Donna Duva, Jaclyn French, Natalie Hasbani, Martha T Sisko, Carmen L Soto-Rivera, Garry Steil, David Wypij, Vinay M Nadkarni
OBJECTIVES: Test whether hyperglycemic critically ill children with cardiovascular and/or respiratory failure experience more ICU-free days when assigned to tight glycemic control with a normoglycemic versus hyperglycemic blood glucose target range. DESIGN: Multi-center randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Pediatric ICUs at 35 academic hospitals. PATIENTS: Children aged 2weeks to 17years receiving inotropic support and/or acute mechanical ventilation, excluding cardiac surgical patients...
December 30, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004329/validation-of-the-glycemic-stress-index-in-pediatric-neurosurgical-intensive-care
#6
Marco Piastra, Alessandro Pizza, Federica Tosi, Sonia Mensi, Luca Massimi, Andrea De Bellis, Daniele G Biasucci, Ersilia Luca, Giorgio Conti, Daniele De Luca
BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that both the degree and the duration of hyperglycemia are independent risk factors for adverse outcome both in pediatric anesthesia and in critically ill children. In a recent paper, we combined intraoperative glycemic variations and length of surgery creating a metabolic glucose-related stress index called "Glycemic Stress Index" (GSI). AIM: To validate GSI for predicting PICU stay in a population of children undergoing different major neurosurgical procedures...
December 21, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003212/subfornical-organ-neurons-integrate-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-signals
#7
Nicole M Cancelliere, Alastair V Ferguson
The subfornical organ (SFO) is a critical circumventricular organ involved in the control of cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis. Despite the plethora of circulating signals continuously sensed by the SFO, studies investigating how these signals are integrated are lacking. In this study, we use patch clamp techniques to investigate how the traditionally classified 'cardiovascular' hormone angiotensin II (ANG), 'metabolic' hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) and 'metabolic' signal glucose interact and are integrated in the SFO...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998542/-metabolic-control-in-the-critically-ill-patient-an-update-hyperglycemia-glucose-variability-hypoglycemia-and-relative-hypoglycemia
#8
Ángel Augusto Pérez-Calatayud, Ariadna Guillén-Vidaña, Irving Santiago Fraire-Félix, Eduardo Daniel Anica-Malagón, Jesús Carlos Briones Garduño, Raúl Carrillo-Esper
BACKGROUND: Metabolic changes of glucose in critically ill patients increase morbidity and mortality. The appropriate level of blood glucose has not been established so far and should be adjusted for different populations. However concepts such as glucose variability and relative hypoglycemia of critically ill patients are concepts that are changing management methods and achieving closer monitoring. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review is to present new data about the management and metabolic control of patients in critical areas...
January 2017: Cirugia y Cirujanos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997722/pitavastatin-suppresses-hyperglycemia-induced-podocyte-injury-via-bone-morphogenetic-protein-7-preservation
#9
Makoto Ohigashi, Miyuki Kobara, Tamotsu Takahashi, Hiroe Toba, Takehiko Wada, Tetsuo Nakata
BACKGROUND: Podocytes form the essential components of the glomerular filtration barrier and play a critical role in diabetic nephropathy. Recent evidence suggests that HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) exert renoprotective effects. We investigated whether pitavastatin directly suppresses hyperglycemia-induced podocyte injury using cultured podocytes and, if so, the mechanism of the beneficial effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cultured podocytes were exposed to media containing normal (NG; 5 mmol/L) or high (HG; 25 mmol/L) glucose for one week...
December 20, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932386/aberrant-expression-of-fbxo2-disrupts-glucose-homeostasis-through-ubiquitin-mediated-degradation-of-insulin-receptor-in-obese-mice
#10
Bin Liu, Han Lu, Duanzhuo Li, Xuelian Xiong, Lu Gao, Zhixiang Wu, Yan Lu
Insulin resistance is a critical factor in the development of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, its molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we found that F-box only protein 2 (FBXO2), a substrate recognition component of SKP1-Cullin1-F-box protein (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, were up-regulated in livers of obese mice. Furthermore, using a protein purification approach combined with high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS), we carried out a system-wide screening of FBXO2 substrates, in which insulin receptor (IR) was identified as a substrate for FBXO2...
December 8, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927722/age-dependent-control-of-energy-homeostasis-by-brown-adipose-tissue-in-progeny-subjected-to-maternal-diet-induced-fetal-programming
#11
Olivier Dumortier, Estelle Roger, Didier F Pisani, Virginie Casamento, Nadine Gautier, Patricia Lebrun, Hereroa Johnston, Pascal Lopez, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Céline Jousse, Pierre Fafournoux, Marc Prentki, Charlotte Hinault, Emmanuel Van Obberghen
Epidemiological and animal studies show that deleterious maternal environments predispose aging offspring to metabolic disorders and type 2 diabetes. Young progeny in a rat model of maternal low protein diet (LP) is normoglycemic despite collapsed insulin secretion. However, without further worsening of the insulin secretion defect glucose homeostasis deteriorates in aging LP descendants. Here we report that normoglycemic and insulinopenic 3-month-old LP progeny shows increased body temperature and energy dissipation in association with enhanced brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity...
December 7, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895819/nutrition-insulin-resistance-and-dysfunctional-adipose-tissue-determine-the-different-components-of-metabolic-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Juan Antonio Paniagua
Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat that may be harmful to health. Today, obesity is a major public health problem, affecting in greater or lesser proportion all demographic groups. Obesity is estimated by body mass index (BMI) in a clinical setting, but BMI reports neither body composition nor the location of excess body fat. Deaths from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes accounted for approximately 65% of all deaths, and adiposity and mainly abdominal adiposity are associated with all these disorders...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847829/prevalence-of-oral-mucosal-disorders-in-diabetes-mellitus-patients-compared-with-a-control-group
#13
REVIEW
José González-Serrano, Julia Serrano, Rosa María López-Pintor, Víctor Manuel Paredes, Elisabeth Casañas, Gonzalo Hernández
Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with impaired wound healing and higher susceptibility to infections. It is unclear whether patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) present more oral mucosal disorders compared to control groups. The objectives were to compare (a) the prevalence rates of oral mucosal disorders in the DM and non-DM population and (b) the prevalence rates of specific disorders in the DM and non-DM population. Full-text articles were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: (a) they must be original articles from scientific journals, (b) they must be only cross-sectional studies in English, (c) the prevalence of oral mucosal disorders in DM patients must be evaluated, (d) results must be compared with a healthy control group, and (e) oral mucosal disorders must be specified in DM and non-DM group...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833913/glycemic-control-with-ipragliflozin-a-novel-selective-sglt2-inhibitor-ameliorated-endothelial-dysfunction-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mouse
#14
Hotimah Masdan Salim, Daiju Fukuda, Shusuke Yagi, Takeshi Soeki, Michio Shimabukuro, Masataka Sata
BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction caused by increased oxidative stress is a critical initiator of macro- and micro-vascular disease development in diabetic patients. Ipragliflozin, a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, offers a novel approach for the treatment of diabetes by enhancing urinary glucose excretion. The aim of this study was to examine whether ipragliflozin attenuates endothelial dysfunction in diabetic mice. METHODS: Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were treated with streptozotocin (150 mg/kg) by a single intraperitoneal injection to induce diabetes mellitus...
2016: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824941/establishment-and-validation-of-gv-saps-ii-scoring-system-for-non-diabetic-critically-ill-patients
#15
Wen-Yue Liu, Shi-Gang Lin, Gui-Qi Zhu, Sven Van Poucke, Martin Braddock, Zhongheng Zhang, Zhi Mao, Fei-Xia Shen, Ming-Hua Zheng
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recently, glucose variability (GV) has been reported as an independent risk factor for mortality in non-diabetic critically ill patients. However, GV is not incorporated in any severity scoring system for critically ill patients currently. The aim of this study was to establish and validate a modified Simplified Acute Physiology Score II scoring system (SAPS II), integrated with GV parameters and named GV-SAPS II, specifically for non-diabetic critically ill patients to predict short-term and long-term mortality...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824898/stress-induced-hyperglycemia-and-the-subsequent-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-in-survivors-of-critical-illness
#16
Mark P Plummer, Mark E Finnis, Liza K Phillips, Palash Kar, Shailesh Bihari, Vishwanath Biradar, Stewart Moodie, Michael Horowitz, Jonathan E Shaw, Adam M Deane
OBJECTIVE: Stress induced hyperglycemia occurs in critically ill patients who have normal glucose tolerance following resolution of their acute illness. The objective was to evaluate the association between stress induced hyperglycemia and incident diabetes in survivors of critical illness. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: All adult patients surviving admission to a public hospital intensive care unit (ICU) in South Australia between 2004 and 2011...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823609/inpatient-diabetes-management-in-the-twenty-first-century
#17
REVIEW
Natasha B Khazai, Osama Hamdy
In hospitalized patients, both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia have been associated with poor outcomes. During the inpatient period, hyperglycemia has been associated with increased risk of infection, cardiovascular events, and mortality. It is also associated with longer length of hospital stay. Hypoglycemia has also been associated with an increased risk of mortality. Therefore, current evidence supports avoidance of both conditions among hospitalized patients whether they are admitted to critical care units or noncritical care units...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805455/decreased-rates-of-hypoglycemia-following-implementation-of-a-comprehensive-computerized-insulin-order-set-and-titration-algorithm-in-the-inpatient-setting
#18
Naina Sinha Gregory, Jane Jeffrie Seley, Linda M Gerber, Chin Tang, David Brillon
OBJECTIVES: More than one-third of hospitalized patients have hyperglycemia. Despite evidence that improving glycemic control leads to better outcomes, achieving recognized targets remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a computerized insulin order set and titration algorithm on rates of hypoglycemia and overall inpatient glycemic control. METHODS: A prospective observational study evaluating the impact of a glycemic order set and titration algorithm in an academic medical center in non-critical care medical and surgical inpatients...
December 2016: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788805/glucose-metabolism-and-associated-outcome-after-pediatric-liver-transplantation
#19
R Zant, M Melter, D Beck, M Ameres, B Knoppke, J Kunkel
BACKGROUND: Despite hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia being frequently observed in the early postoperative phase, information on glucose metabolism after pediatric liver transplantation (pLT) is scarce. METHODS: The goal of this retrospective single-center study, which included 46 patients who consecutively underwent 55 liver transplantations, was to gather data on glucose uptake, the prognostic relevance of hyperglycemia, and the safety of insulin administration in patients after pLT...
October 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788389/the-association-of-admission-blood-glucose-level-with-the-clinical-picture-and-prognosis-in-cardiogenic-shock-results-from-the-cardshock-study
#20
Anu Kataja, Tuukka Tarvasmäki, Johan Lassus, Jose Cardoso, Alexandre Mebazaa, Lars Køber, Alessandro Sionis, Jindrich Spinar, Valentina Carubelli, Marek Banaszewski, Rossella Marino, John Parissis, Markku S Nieminen, Veli-Pekka Harjola
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients often present with hyperglycemia, regardless of previous history of diabetes mellitus (DM). Hyperglycemia has been associated with adverse outcome in acute myocardial infarction and acute heart failure. We investigated the association of admission blood glucose level with the clinical picture and short-term mortality in cardiogenic shock (CS). METHODS: Consecutively enrolled CS patients were divided into five categories according to plasma glucose level at the time of enrolment: hypoglycemia (glucose <4...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
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