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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225740/glycemic-control-in-acute-illness
#1
REVIEW
Moritoki Egi, Nana Furushima, Shohei Makino, Satoshi Mizobuchi
Hyperglycemia is commonly observed in critical illness. A landmark large randomized controlled trial (RCT) reported that the incidence of hyperglycemia (blood glucose concentration > 108 mg/dl) was as high as 97.2% in critically ill patients. During the past two decades, a number of RCTs and several meta-analyses and network meta-analyses have been conducted to determine the optimal target for acute glycemic control. The results of those studies suggest that serum glucose concentration would be better to be maintained between 144 and 180 mg/dl...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224108/negative-impact-of-testosterone-deficiency-and-5%C3%AE-reductase-inhibitors-therapy-on-metabolic-and-sexual-function-in-men
#2
Abdulmaged M Traish
Androgens are steroid hormones with pleotropic and diverse biochemical and physiological functions, and androgen deficiency exerts a negative impact on human health. Testosterone (T) either directly or via its transformation into the more potent metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) or via aromatization into estradiol (E2) modulates important biochemical signaling pathways of human physiology and plays a critical role in the growth and/or maintenance of functions in a host of tissues and organs. T and 5α-DHT play an important role in regulating physiology of the muscle, adipose tissue, liver, bone, and central nervous system, as well as reproductive and sexual functions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218064/non-diabetic-hyperglycemia-and-some-of-its-correlates-in-icu-hospitalized-patients-receiving-enteral-nutrition
#3
Mohammad Amin Valizadeh Hasanloei, Zahra Vahdat Shariatpanahi, Davoud Vahabzadeh, Zakaria Vahabzadeh, Leila Nasiri, Ali Shargh
Introduction: Hyperglycemia is a common occurrence in critically ill patients, and its prevalence in patients receiving nutritional support is much higher than in other patients. The non-diabetic form is associated with more undesirable outcomes. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of non-diabetic hyperglycemia and its correlates in patients receiving enteral nutrition. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed between March and December 2015...
September 2017: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203863/orai-channels-are-critical-for-receptor-mediated-endocytosis-of-albumin
#4
Bo Zeng, Gui-Lan Chen, Eliana Garcia-Vaz, Sunil Bhandari, Nikoleta Daskoulidou, Lisa M Berglund, Hongni Jiang, Thomas Hallett, Lu-Ping Zhou, Li Huang, Zi-Hao Xu, Viji Nair, Robert G Nelson, Wenjun Ju, Matthias Kretzler, Stephen L Atkin, Maria F Gomez, Shang-Zhong Xu
Impaired albumin reabsorption by proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) has been highlighted in diabetic nephropathy (DN), but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here we find that ORAI1-3, are preferentially expressed in PTECs and downregulated in patients with DN. Hyperglycemia or blockade of insulin signaling reduces the expression of ORAI1-3. Inhibition of ORAI channels by BTP2 and diethylstilbestrol or silencing of ORAI expression impairs albumin uptake. Transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative Orai1 mutant (E108Q) increases albuminuria, and in vivo injection of BTP2 exacerbates albuminuria in streptozotocin-induced and Akita diabetic mice...
December 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181156/proteomic-profile-of-the-lens-in-a-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rat-model-using-shotgun-proteomics
#5
Noriaki Nagai, Tetsushi Yamamoto, Kuniko Mitamura, Atsushi Taga
Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats) were used to investigate diabetic cataracts. In the current study, a shotgun liquid chromatography (LC)/mass spectrometry (MS)-based global proteomic analysis method was used to examine the mechanism of lens opacification as a result of hyperglycemia in STZ rats. The 6-week old Wistar rats were injected with STZ for 2 days (100 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and housed for 3 weeks. The plasma glucose levels were identified to be significantly higher when compared with the normal rats and insulin was not detected in the STZ rats...
November 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178342/microrna-145-regulates-disabled-2-and-wnt3a-expression-in-cardiomyocytes-under-hyperglycemia
#6
Bao-Wei Wang, Wei-Jen Fang, Kou-Gi Shyu
AIMS: MicroRNA-145 (miR-145) could protect cardiomyocyte apoptosis against oxidative stress and repair infarcted myocardium. Angiotensin II (Ang II), a pro-inflammatory cytokine could modulate myocardial remodeling. However, the role of hyperglycemia on miR-145 expression in cardiomyocyte or diabetes is not known. The effect of Ang II on miR-145 expression under hyperglycemia in cardiomyocytes remains unknown. We sought to investigate the effect of hyperglycemia and Ang II on miR-145 expression in cardiomyocytes...
November 25, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171700/practical-strategies-for-improving-outcomes-in-t2dm-the-potential-role-of-pioglitazone-and-dpp4-inhibitors
#7
REVIEW
Stefano Del Prato, Robert Chilton
T2DM is a complex disease recognizing multiple pathogenic defects responsible for the development and progression of hyperglycemia. Each of these factors can now be tackled in a more targeted manner thanks to glucose-lowering drugs made available in the past two to three decades. Recognition of the multiplicity of the mechanisms underlying hyperglycemia calls for treatments addressing more than one these mechanisms with more emphasis placed on the earlier use of combination therapies. Although chronic hyperglycemia contributes to and amplifies cardiovascular risk, several trials have failed to show a marked effect from intensive glycemic control...
November 24, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163755/uncoupling-protein-2-a-key-player-and-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-vascular-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Giorgia Pierelli, Rosita Stanzione, Maurizio Forte, Serena Migliarino, Marika Perelli, Massimo Volpe, Speranza Rubattu
Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that belongs to the uncoupling protein family and plays an important role in lowering mitochondrial membrane potential and dissipating metabolic energy with prevention of oxidative stress accumulation. In the present article, we will review the evidence that UCP2, as a consequence of its roles within the mitochondria, represents a critical player in the predisposition to vascular disease development in both animal models and in humans, particularly in relation to obesity, diabetes, and hypertension...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161713/clinical-benefits-of-high-volume-hemofiltration-in-critically-ill-pediatric-patients-with-severe-sepsis-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#9
Huijie Miao, Fei Wang, Xi Xiong, Chunxia Wang, Yucai Zhang
AIMS: The study aimed to assess the clinical benefits of high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF) in pediatric patients with severe sepsis compared with standard-volume continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 155 pediatric patients with severe sepsis admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of Shanghai Children's Hospital from January 2010 to June 2016. A total of 93 patients were treated with HVHF and 62 patients were treated with CVVH...
November 22, 2017: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149943/endocrine-and-metabolic-alterations-in-sepsis-and-implications-for-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Catherine Ingels, Jan Gunst, Greet Van den Berghe
Sepsis induces profound neuroendocrine and metabolic alterations. During the acute phase, the neuroendocrine changes are directed toward restoration of homeostasis, and also limit unnecessary energy consumption in the setting of restricted nutrient availability. Such changes are probably adaptive. In patients not recovering quickly, a prolonged critically ill phase may ensue, with different neuroendocrine changes, which may represent a maladaptive response. Whether stress hyperglycemia should be aggressively treated or tolerated remains a matter of debate...
January 2018: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137144/impact-of-labile-zinc-on-heart-function-from-physiology-to-pathophysiology
#11
REVIEW
Belma Turan, Erkan Tuncay
Zinc plays an important role in biological systems as bound and histochemically reactive labile Zn(2+). Although Zn(2+) concentration is in the nM range in cardiomyocytes at rest and increases dramatically under stimulation, very little is known about precise mechanisms controlling the intracellular distribution of Zn(2+) and its variations during cardiac function. Recent studies are focused on molecular and cellular aspects of labile Zn(2+) and its homeostasis in mammalian cells and growing evidence clarified the molecular mechanisms underlying Zn(2+)-diverse functions in the heart, leading to the discovery of novel physiological functions of labile Zn(2+) in parallel to the discovery of subcellular localization of Zn(2+)-transporters in cardiomyocytes...
November 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135618/pathway-for-the-management-of-hyperglycemia-in-the-cardiac-care-unit
#12
Seyed Hamed Hosseini Dehkordi, Jeanine Albu, Emad F Aziz, Eyal Herzog
Inpatient hyperglycemia has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Optimal control of blood glucose (BG) levels using insulin infusion protocols has been shown to improve clinical outcomes. Protocols have been developed to prescribe a safe and effective rate of insulin infusion for optimal control of BG levels; however, a major obstacle in their implementation is their complexity. We have revised and updated our previously published pathway for the management of hyperglycemia, which introduces the "wheel" concept for insulin dosing...
December 2017: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134928/potential-link-between-post-acute-ischemic-stroke-exposure-to-hypoglycemia-and-hemorrhagic-transformation
#13
Kyle D Klingbeil, Sebastian Koch, Kunjan R Dave
Hemorrhagic transformation is a severe complication of acute ischemic stroke owing to its limited treatment options and poor prognosis. In the last decade, the rates of hemorrhagic transformation incidence have been associated with blood glucose levels. In particular, hyperglycemia at the time of admission has been associated with increased rates of hemorrhagic transformation in acute ischemic stroke patients. Recent pilot clinical trials have attempted to use intensive insulin therapy during stroke treatment to reduce the severity of cerebral infarction and possibly alleviate the risk of hemorrhagic transformation...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133778/glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-receptor-agonist-liraglutide-alters-bone-marrow-exosome-mediated-mirna-signal-pathways-in-ovariectomized-rats-with-type-2-diabetes
#14
Jin Li, Ling-Zhi Fu, Lu Liu, Fen Xie, Ru-Chun Dai
BACKGROUND Compared with normal postmenopausal women, estrogen deficiency and hyperglycemia in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) lead to more severe bone property degradation. Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, has been reported to improve bone condition among people with T2DM but the precise mechanisms remain unclear. Exosomes work as mediators in cell-to-cell communication, delivering functional miRNAs between cells. We aimed to explore the role of exosomes in T2DM-related bone metabolic disorders and the bone protective mechanisms of liraglutide...
November 14, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130725/-eighth-jes%C3%A3%C2%BAs-culebras-lecture-critical-care-nutrition-and-hyperglycemia-a-close-relationship
#15
Alfonso Mesejo
Critically ill patients show a metabolic response to injury that affects carbohydrate metabolism, causing hyperglycemia and an increase in glycemic variability that makes the critically ill patient susceptible to infection, resulting in morbidity and mortality increase. Also, severe hypoglycemia was detected as a consequence of intensive insulin treatment that provokes deleterious effects in their clinical evolution, so a correct monitoring of plasma glucose would contribute to reduce morbidity and mortality...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101051/histone-methyltransferase-g9a-modulates-hepatic-insulin-signaling-via-regulating-hmga1
#16
Weili Xue, Jin Huang, Hong Chen, Yu Zhang, Xiuqin Zhu, Jianshuang Li, Wenquan Zhang, Yangmian Yuan, Yan Wang, Ling Zheng, Kun Huang
Hepatic insulin sensitivity is critical for glucose homeostasis, and insulin resistance is a fundamental syndrome found in various metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Despite considerable studies on the mechanisms of hepatic insulin resistance, the link between epigenetic regulation and the development of insulin resistance remains elusive. Here, we reported that G9a/EHMT2, a histone methyltransferase, was markedly decreased in the liver of db/db mice and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
October 31, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093373/-function-of-perivascular-nerves-in-insulin-resistance-induced-hypertension
#17
Shingo Takatori
 Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus develop hypertension, although the actual mechanism remains unknown. To clarify possible mechanisms of hypertension development in diabetes, this study investigated the acute or chronic influence of hyperinsulinemia and/or hyperglycemia on the function of perivascular nerves, which play a critical role in vascular tone regulation. Acute hyperinsulinemia in euglycemic pithed rats, which had no autonomic flow, significantly augmented adrenergic nerve-mediated pressor responses and inhibited calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing (CGRPergic) nerve-mediated depressor responses...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073149/intrapancreatic-injection-of-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-alleviates-hyperglycemia-and-modulates-the-macrophage-state-in-streptozotocin-induced-type-1-diabetic-mice
#18
Norimitsu Murai, Hirokazu Ohtaki, Jun Watanabe, Zhifang Xu, Shun Sasaki, Kazumichi Yagura, Seiji Shioda, Shoichiro Nagasaka, Kazuho Honda, Masahiko Izumizaki
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease caused by the destruction of pancreatic β-cells, resulting in insulin dependency and hyperglycemia. While transplanted bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMMSCs) have been explored as an alternative therapeutic approach for diseases, the choice of delivery route may be a critical factor determining their sustainability. This study evaluated the effects of intrapancreatic and intravenous injection of human BMMSCs (hBMMSCs) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mouse model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061397/diabetes-aggravates-decreases-in-hippocalcin-and-parvalbumin-expression-in-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#19
Dong-Ju Park, Phil-Ok Koh
Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for stroke and increases brain damage during ischemic stroke. Hyperglycemia increases the intracellular calcium concentration after ischemic injury, thereby triggering neuronal cell death. Calcium binding proteins, including hippocalcin and parvalbumin, are critical regulators of intracellular calcium levels. This study aimed to investigate whether hyperglycemic conditions affect hippocalcin and parvalbumin expression during ischemic brain injury. Male adult rats were treated intraperitoneally with streptozotocin (40mg/kg) to induce hyperglycemia...
October 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057797/oxidative-stress-responsive-apoptosis-inducing-protein-oraip-plays-a-critical-role-in-high-glucose-induced-apoptosis-in-rat-cardiac-myocytes-and-murine-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#20
Takako Yao, Tsutomu Fujimura, Kimie Murayama, Ko Okumura, Yoshinori Seko
We previously identified a novel apoptosis-inducing humoral factor in the conditioned medium of hypoxic/reoxygenated-cardiac myocytes. We named this novel post-translationally-modified secreted-form of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A Oxidative stress-Responsive Apoptosis-Inducing Protein (ORAIP). We confirmed that myocardial ischemia/reperfusion markedly increased plasma ORAIP levels and rat myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was clearly suppressed by neutralizing anti-ORAIP monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in vivo...
October 18, 2017: Cells
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