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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646357/management-of-hyperglycemia-and-diabetes-in-the-emergency-department
#1
REVIEW
Justin B Echouffo-Tcheugui, Rajesh Garg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hyperglycemia in the emergency department (ED) is being recognized as a public health problem and presents a clinical challenge. This review critically summarizes available evidence on the burden, etiology, diagnosis, and practical management strategies for hyperglycemia in the ED. RECENT FINDINGS: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are hyperglycemic emergencies that commonly present to the ED. However, the most common form of hyperglycemia in ED is associated with non-hyperglycemic medical emergencies...
August 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637358/comparative-simulation-study-of-glucose-control-methods-designed-for-use-in-the-intensive-care-unit-setting-via-a-novel-controller-scoring-metric
#2
Jeremy DeJournett, Leon DeJournett
BACKGROUND: Effective glucose control in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting has the potential to decrease morbidity and mortality rates and thereby decrease health care expenditures. To evaluate what constitutes effective glucose control, typically several metrics are reported, including time in range, time in mild and severe hypoglycemia, coefficient of variation, and others. To date, there is no one metric that combines all of these individual metrics to give a number indicative of overall performance...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627440/microrna-21-regulates-hepatic-glucose-metabolism-by-targeting-foxo1
#3
Ailing Luo, Haibo Yan, Jichao Liang, Chunyuan Du, Xuemei Zhao, Lijuan Sun, Yong Chen
Abnormal activation of hepatic gluconeogenesis is a major contributor to fasting hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes; however, the potential role of microRNAs in gluconeogenesis remains unclear. Here, we showed that hepatic expression levels of microRNA-21 (miR-21) were decreased in db/db and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of miR-21 decreased the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and inhibited glucose production in primary mouse hepatocytes...
June 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606340/cardiovascular-protection-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-a%C3%A2-review-of-clinical-trial-results-across-drug-classes
#4
Francesco Paneni, Thomas F Lüscher
Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have a significantly higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD)-namely myocardial infarction, heart failure, and stroke. Despite clear advances in the prevention and treatment of CVD, the impact of T2DM on CVD outcome remains high and continues to escalate. Available evidence indicates that the risk of macrovascular complications increases with the severity of hyperglycemia, thus suggesting that the relation between metabolic disturbances and vascular damage is approximately linear...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598552/acrolein-scavenger-hydralazine-prevents-streptozotocin-induced-painful-diabetic-neuropathy-and-spinal-neuroinflammation-in-rats
#5
Lu Yao, Yun-Tao Wu, Guo-Xiang Tian, Chang-Quan Xia, Feng Zhang, Wei Zhang
Diabetes-induced neuropathic pain (DNP) substantially influences people's life qualities. Hyperglycemia-induced excess free radicals have been considered as the most critical mechanisms underlying DNP. As an unsaturated aldehyde and a reactive product of lipid peroxidation, acrolein plays critical roles in diabetic nephropathy and inflammatory pain. We sought to determine whether acrolein is involved in DNP in the present study. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ)...
June 9, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580286/role-of-nutrients-and-mtor-signaling-in-the-regulation-of-pancreatic-progenitors-development
#6
Lynda Elghazi, Manuel Blandino-Rosano, Emilyn Alejandro, Corentin Cras-Méneur, Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi
OBJECTIVE: Poor fetal nutrition increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in the offspring at least in part by reduced embryonic β-cell growth and impaired function. However, it is not entirely clear how fetal nutrients and growth factors impact β-cells during development to alter glucose homeostasis and metabolism later in life. The current experiments aimed to test the impact of fetal nutrients and growth factors on endocrine development and how these signals acting on mTOR signaling regulate β-cell mass and glucose homeostasis...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545981/the-role-of-dyslipidemia-in-diabetic-retinopathy
#7
Sandra S Hammer, Julia V Busik
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) affects over 93million people worldwide and is the number one cause of blindness among working age adults. These indicators coupled with the projected rise of patients diagnosed with diabetes, makes DR a serious and prevalent vision threating disease. Data from recent clinical trials demonstrate that in addition to the well accepted role of hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia is an important, but often overlooked factor in the development of DR. The central aim of this review article is to showcase the critical role of dyslipidemia in DR progression as well as highlight novel therapeutic solutions that take advantage of the vital roles lipid metabolism plays in DR progression...
May 26, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540644/the-epigenetic-machinery-in-vascular-dysfunction-and-hypertension
#8
REVIEW
Emile Levy, Schohraya Spahis, Jean-Luc Bigras, Edgard Delvin, Jean-Michel Borys
Hypertension (HT) is among the major components of the metabolic syndrome, i.e., obesity, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia/insulin resistance. It represents a significant health problem with foremost risks for chronic cardiovascular disease and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therefore, it is not surprising that this disorder constitutes a serious public health concern. Although multiple studies have stressed the multifactorial nature of HT, the pathogenesis remains largely unknown...
June 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528862/crocetin-restores-diabetic-endothelial-progenitor-cell-dysfunction-by-enhancing-no-bioavailability-via-regulation-of-pi3k-akt-enos-and-ros-pathways
#9
Wei Cao, Jinjin Cui, Shufeng Li, Donghui Zhang, Yibo Guo, Qiannan Li, Ying Luan, Xian Liu
AIMS: Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) dysfunction underlies a critical risk factor in diabetic vascular complications due to function defect in restoring endothelium injury. Crocetin has attracted increasing attention in several vascular-related diseases. In present study, we aimed to explore the role of crocetin in diabetic EPC dysfunction. MAIN METHODS: EPCs were isolated from bone marrow in diabetic mice and identified using the fluorescence staining and flow cytometry...
May 18, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526186/cardiovascular-protection-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-a-review-of-clinical-trial-results-across-drug-classes
#10
Francesco Paneni, Thomas F Lüscher
Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have a significantly higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD)-namely myocardial infarction, heart failure, and stroke. Despite clear advances in the prevention and treatment of CVD, the impact of T2DM on CVD outcome remains high and continues to escalate. Available evidence indicates that the risk of macrovascular complications increases with the severity of hyperglycemia, thus suggesting that the relation between metabolic disturbances and vascular damage is approximately linear...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515940/nivolumab-induced-autoimmune-diabetes-mellitus-presenting-as-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-lung-cancer
#11
James Luke Godwin, Shuchie Jaggi, Imali Sirisena, Pankaj Sharda, Ajay D Rao, Ranee Mehra, Colleen Veloski
BACKGROUND: Advances in cancer immunotherapy have generated encouraging results in multiple malignancies refractory to standard chemotherapies. As the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) proliferates, the incidence of autoimmune side effects associated with these agents, termed immune related adverse events (irAE), is expected to increase. The frequency of significant irAE in ICI treated patients is about 10-20% and early recognition is critical to prevent serious morbidity and even mortality...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511644/relationship-between-glycemic-levels-and-treatment-outcome-among-critically-ill-children-admitted-into-emergency-room-in-enugu
#12
Nwachinemere Davidson Uleanya, Elias Chikee Aniwada, Ikenna Chidiebele Nwokoye, Ikenna Kingsley Ndu, Christopher Bismarck Eke
BACKGROUND: Critically ill children are those in need of immediate attention on arrival to an emergency room. The importance of glycemic level measurement as well as maintaining the patency of the airway, effective breathing and circulation cannot be overemphasied. It has been highlighted that the peak hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia predict poor prognosis, longer lengths of hospital stay and higher mortality. The study aims to assess the relationship between glycemic level and treatment outcomes as well as length of hospital stay...
May 16, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504650/neutrophil-derived-s100-calcium-binding-proteins-a8-a9-promote-reticulated-thrombocytosis-and-atherogenesis-in-diabetes
#13
Michael J Kraakman, Man Ks Lee, Annas Al-Sharea, Dragana Dragoljevic, Tessa J Barrett, Emilie Montenont, Debapriya Basu, Sarah Heywood, Helene L Kammoun, Michelle Flynn, Alexandra Whillas, Nordin Mj Hanssen, Mark A Febbraio, Erik Westein, Edward A Fisher, Jaye Chin-Dusting, Mark E Cooper, Jeffrey S Berger, Ira J Goldberg, Prabhakara R Nagareddy, Andrew J Murphy
Platelets play a critical role in atherogenesis and thrombosis-mediated myocardial ischemia, processes that are accelerated in diabetes. Whether hyperglycemia promotes platelet production and whether enhanced platelet production contributes to enhanced atherothrombosis remains unknown. Here we found that in response to hyperglycemia, neutrophil-derived S100 calcium-binding proteins A8/A9 (S100A8/A9) interact with the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) on hepatic Kupffer cells, resulting in increased production of IL-6, a pleiotropic cytokine that is implicated in inflammatory thrombocytosis...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497374/the-effect-of-insulin-administration-on-c-peptide-in-critically-ill-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#14
Marco Crisman, Luca Lucchetta, Nora Luethi, Luca Cioccari, Que Lam, Glenn M Eastwood, Rinaldo Bellomo, Johan Mårtensson
BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients with permissive hyperglycemia, it is uncertain whether exogenous insulin administration suppresses or enhances c-peptide secretion (a marker of pancreatic beta-cell response). We aimed to explore this effect in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled a cohort of 45 critically ill patients with type 2 diabetes managed according to a liberal glucose protocol (target blood glucose 10-14 mmol/l). We recorded the administration of insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents and measured plasma c-peptide as surrogate marker of endogenous insulin secretion on the first two consecutive days in ICU...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495827/hyperbaric-oxygen-reduces-infarction-volume-and-hemorrhagic-transformation-through-atp-nad-sirt1-pathway-in-hyperglycemic-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-rats
#15
Qin Hu, Anatol Manaenko, Hetao Bian, Zongduo Guo, Jun-Long Huang, Zhen-Ni Guo, Peng Yang, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Energy depletion is a critical factor leading to cell death and brain dysfunction after ischemic stroke. In this study, we investigated whether energy depletion is involved in hyperglycemia-induced hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke and determined the pathway underlying the beneficial effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). METHODS: After 2-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion, hyperglycemia was induced by injecting 50% dextrose (6 mL/kg) intraperitoneally at the onset of reperfusion...
June 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490809/hepatic-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-is-critical-for-regulation-of-gluconeogenesis-and-lipid-metabolism-in-males
#16
Shuiqing Qiu, Juliana Torrens Vazquez, Erin Boulger, Haiyun Liu, Ping Xue, Mehboob Ali Hussain, Andrew Wolfe
Impaired estrogens action is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome in animal models and humans. We sought to determine whether disruption of hepatic estrogens action in adult male mice could recapitulate aspects of the metabolic syndrome to understand the mechanistic basis for the phenotype. We found 17β-estradiol (E2) inhibited hepatic gluconeogenic genes such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck-1) and glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and this effect was absent in mice lacking liver estrogen receptor α (Esr1) (LERKO mice)...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468528/improving-physical-health-of-patients-with-severe-mental-disorders-a-critical-review-of-lifestyle-psychosocial-interventions
#17
Corrado De Rosa, Gaia Sampogna, Mario Luciano, Valeria Del Vecchio, Benedetta Pocai, Giuseppina Borriello, Vincenzo Giallonardo, Micaela Savorani, Federica Pinna, Maurizio Pompili, Andrea Fiorillo
People with severe mental disorders have a mortality rate that is more than two times higher than the general population, with at least a decade of potential years of life lost. People with mental disorders have a significantly higher risk of obesity, hyperglycemia and metabolic syndrome, which are related to modifiable risk factors, such as heavy smoking, poor physical activities, and inappropriate unhealthy diet, which can be improved through lifestyle changes. Areas covered: Lifestyle behaviours are amenable to change through the adoption of specific psychosocial interventions, and several approaches have been promoted...
May 15, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462510/runx2-alleviates-high-glucose-suppressed-osteogenic-differentiation-via-pi3k-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#18
Yang Chen, Yun Hu, Lan Yang, Jie Zhou, Yuying Tang, Leilei Zheng, Pu Qin
Hyperglycemia is one of the most important pathogenesis of diabetic osteopathy. Several lines of studies indicate Runx2 plays a critical role in the process of osteogenic differentiation. However, little studies have analysed the effect of Runx2 on osteoblast differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) in high glucose condition. In this study, the effect of Runx2 on osteoblast differentiation in high glucose condition was evaluated by the expression of osteogenesis-related maker including Runx2, ALP, OC and OPN, as well as ALP staining, ALP activity and Alizarin red S staining...
April 29, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449321/a-review-of-associated-controversies-surrounding-glucocorticoid-use-in-veterinary-emergency-and-critical-care
#19
Maya A Aharon, Jennifer E Prittie, Kate Buriko
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature in human and veterinary medicine regarding the indications for, efficacy of, and controversies surrounding glucocorticoid (GC) administration in the emergency and critical care (ECC) setting, and to provide an overview of the most commonly used synthetic GC formulations. MEDICATIONS: Synthetic GCs vary in GC and mineralocorticoid potency, hypothalamic pituitary axis suppression, duration of action, route of administration, and clinical indication for use...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444346/resistant-starch-as-a-novel-dietary-strategy-to-maintain-kidney-health-in-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Gar Yee Koh, Matthew J Rowling
The worldwide prevalence of diabetes mellitus is expected to reach 439 million by 2030. Diabetes increases the risk for developing secondary complications such as nephropathy and cardiovascular disease, critical factors that dictate the survival rate of diabetes patients. Compelling evidence has indicated that the positive impact of fermentable carbohydrates in obesity-related diabetes is mediated by the production of short-chain fatty acids and the modulation of colonic microbiota. This review summarizes the potential implications of dietary resistant starch, a class of fermentable fiber, in glucose homeostasis and kidney health in obesity-associated diabetes and examines the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of resistant starch...
May 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
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