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hyperglycemia critical

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457786/intracellular-lipid-metabolism-impairs-%C3%AE-cell-compensation-during-diet-induced-obesity
#1
Risheng Ye, Ruth Gordillo, Mengle Shao, Toshiharu Onodera, Zhe Chen, Shiuhwei Chen, Xiaoli Lin, Jeffrey A SoRelle, Xiaohong Li, Miao Tang, Mark P Keller, Regina Kuliawat, Alan D Attie, Rana K Gupta, William L Holland, Bruce Beutler, Joachim Herz, Philipp E Scherer
The compensatory proliferation of insulin-producing β cells is critical to maintaining glucose homeostasis at the early stage of type 2 diabetes. Failure of β cells to proliferate results in hyperglycemia and insulin dependence in patients. To understand the effect of the interplay between β cell compensation and lipid metabolism upon obesity and peripheral insulin resistance, we eliminated LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), a pleiotropic mediator of cholesterol, insulin, energy metabolism, and other cellular processes, in β cells...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444446/pathophysiological-changes-after-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-inflammation-in-a-type-2-diabetic-rat-model-versus-normal-controls
#2
Tingting Han, Xingxing Ren, Dongdong Jiang, Shuang Zheng, Yawen Chen, Huiying Qiu, Peter C Hou, Wei Liu, Yaomin Hu
AIMS: The present study aimed to explore the mechanism of a potential beneficial effect of pre-existing diabetes in acute hyperglycemia during critical illness. METHODS: Pathophysiological changes including blood glucose variability, changes of inflammatory and oxidative stress responses after lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute infection were compared between type 2 diabetic rat model (GK rats) and normal controls (Wistar rats). RESULTS: After LPS injection, Wistar rats showed serious infective symptoms while GK rats did not...
February 11, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443547/modeling-heart-failure-risk-in-diabetes-and-kidney-disease-limitations-and-potential-applications-of-transverse-aortic-constriction-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#3
Wei Sheng Tan, Thomas P Mullins, Melanie Flint, Sarah L Walton, Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, David A Carter, Meera R Gandhi, Hayley R McDonald, Joan Li, Karen M Moritz, Melissa E Reichelt, Linda A Gallo
There is an increased incidence of heart failure in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). The co-existence of kidney disease in DM exacerbates the cardiovascular prognosis. Researchers have attempted to combine the critical features of heart failure, using transverse aortic constriction, with DM in mice but variable findings have been reported. Furthermore, kidney outcomes have not been assessed in this setting thus its utility as a model of heart failure in DM and kidney disease is unknown. We generated a mouse model of obesity, hyperglycemia and mild kidney pathology by feeding male C57BL/6J mice a high fat diet (HFD)...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442175/common-models-used-for-inpatient-diabetes-management
#4
REVIEW
Andjela T Drincic, Padmaja Akkireddy, Jon T Knezevich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetes affects about a third of all hospitalized patients and up to 50% of inpatients go on to experience hyperglycemia. Despite strong evidence supporting the importance of adequate glycemic control, as well detailed guidelines from major national organizations, many patients continue to have hypo- and hyperglycemia during their hospital stay. While this may be partially related to provider and patient-specific factors, system-based barriers continue to pose a major obstacle...
February 14, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439517/hyperglycemia-alters-the-structure-and-hemodynamics-of-the-developing-embryonic-heart
#5
Taylor B Lawson, Devon E Scott-Drechsel, Venkat Keshav Chivukula, Sandra Rugonyi, Kent L Thornburg, Monica T Hinds
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) represent the most common form of human birth defects; approximately one-third of heart defects involve malformations of the outflow tract (OFT). Maternal diabetes increases the risk of CHD by 3-5 fold. During heart organogenesis, little is known about the effects of hyperglycemia on hemodynamics, which are critical to normal heart development. Heart development prior to septation in the chick embryo was studied under hyperglycemic conditions. Sustained hyperglycemic conditions were induced, raising the average plasma glucose concentration from 70 mg/dL to 180 mg/dL, akin to the fasting plasma glucose of a patient with diabetes...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434227/the-nlrp3-inflammasome-may-contribute-to-pathologic-neovascularization-in-the-advanced-stages-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#6
Shyam S Chaurasia, Rayne R Lim, Bhav H Parikh, Yeo Sia Wey, Bo Bo Tun, Tien Yin Wong, Chi D Luu, Rupesh Agrawal, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Alessandra Mortellaro, Elizabeth Rackoczy, Rajiv R Mohan, Veluchamy A Barathi
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a retinal microvascular disease characterized by inflammatory and angiogenic pathways. In this study, we evaluated NLRP3 inflammasome in a double transgenic mouse model, Akimba (Ins2 Akita xVEGF +/- ), which demonstrates hyperglycemia, vascular hyperpermeability and neovascularization seen in the proliferative DR. Retinal structural integrity, vascular leakage and function were examined by fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, retinal flat mounts, laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), and electroretinography in Akimba and its parental strains, Akita (Ins2 Akita ) and Kimba (trVEGF029) mice...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430446/models-of-disuse-muscle-atrophy-therapeutic-implications-in-critically-ill-patients
#7
REVIEW
Esther Barreiro
Skeletal muscle weakness is common in the intensive care units (ICU). Approximately 50% of patients under mechanical ventilation for more than 7 days show signs of ICU-acquired muscle weakness. In these patients, muscle weakness may be the result of axonal polyneuropathy, myopathy or a combination of both. The commonest risk factors in patients with ICU-acquired weakness (AW) are the severity and duration of the systemic inflammatory response, duration of the stay in the ICU and of mechanical ventilation, hyperglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, parenteral nutrition, and administration of corticosteroids and of neuromuscular blocking agents...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421811/swiprosin-1-promotes-mitochondria-dependent-apoptosis-of-glomerular-podocytes-via-p38-mapk-pathway-in-early-stage-diabetic-nephropathy
#8
Rong-Mei Wang, Zhi-Bin Wang, Yue Wang, Wei-Ye Liu, Ya Li, Ling-Chang Tong, Su Zhang, Ding-Feng Su, Yong-Bing Cao, Ling Li, Li-Chao Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Podocyte injury, especially podocyte apoptosis, plays a major role in early-stage diabetic nephropathy (DN). Swiprosin-1, also known as EF hand domain containing 2 (EFhd2), is a Ca2+-binding protein in different cell types. However, the function of swiprosin-1 in podocytes remains unknown. METHODS: The expression and distribution of swiprosin-1 were investigated in the mouse renal glomerulus and conditionally immortalized mouse podocyte cell line MPC-5...
February 2, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419661/hyperglycemia-is-associated-with-cardiac-complications-in-elderly-nondiabetic-patients-receiving-total-parenteral-nutrition
#9
Jinling Ma, Meng Gao, Rong Pan, Lei He, Lei Zhao, Jie Liu, Hongbin Liu
Adverse outcomes have been associated with hyperglycemia in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The relationship may be characteristic in elderly patients. However, limited data are available about the relationship between TPN-related hyperglycemia and cardiac adverse outcome in elderly patients without previously known diabetes. This study aims to identify whether there is an association between hyperglycemia and 45-day cardiac adverse outcomes in critically and noncritically ill elderly nondiabetic patients receiving TPN...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412122/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-nephroprotective-impact-on-diabetic-kidney-disease
#10
Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Konstantinos Imprialos, Nikiforos Stavropoulos, Sofia Bouloukou, Georgios Kerpiniotis, Kyriakos Dimitriadis, Constantinos Tsioufis, Michael Doumas
BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy is a crucial microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus that is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk. SGLT-2 inhibitors are a new class of hypoglycemic drugs that positively affect several risk factors of cardiorenal damage. OBJECTIVES: To review and critically discuss available data on the association of SGLT-2 inhibitors treatment with kidney function, progress of diabetic kidney disease, and renal related outcomes, as well to unveil potential mechanisms of action that mediate such effects...
February 6, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407052/perioperative-management-of-hyperglycemia-and-diabetes-in-cardiac-surgery-patients
#11
REVIEW
Rodolfo J Galindo, Maya Fayfman, Guillermo E Umpierrez
Perioperative hyperglycemia is common after cardiac surgery, reported in 60% to 90% of patients with diabetes and in approximately 60% of patients without history of diabetes. Many observational and prospective randomized trials in critically-ill cardiac surgery patients support a strong association between hyperglycemia and poor clinical outcome. Despite ongoing debate about the optimal glucose target, there is strong agreement that improved glycemic control reduces perioperative complications.
March 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407051/hyperglycemia-in-acute-coronary-syndromes-from-mechanisms-to-prognostic-implications
#12
REVIEW
Mikhail Kosiborod
Numerous studies have documented that hyperglycemia is frequent in patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes, affects patients with and without established diabetes, and is associated with adverse outcomes, with incremental increase in risk of mortality and complications observed across the spectrum of glucose elevations. This article reviews present knowledge about the association between glucose levels and outcomes of patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes; describes available data regarding inpatient glucose management in this patient group, and comparative data across the spectrum of critically ill hospitalized patients; addresses some controversies in this field; and offers practical recommendations for patient management based on existing data...
March 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404514/serine-threonine-protein-kinase-25-antisense-oligonucleotide-treatment-reverses-glucose-intolerance-insulin-resistance-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#13
Esther Nuñez-Durán, Mariam Aghajan, Manoj Amrutkar, Silva Sütt, Emmelie Cansby, Sheri L Booten, Andrew Watt, Marcus Ståhlman, Norbert Stefan, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Harald Staiger, Jan Borén, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Margit Mahlapuu
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) contributes to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are also at risk of developing cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. To date, no specific therapy exists for NAFLD/NASH, which has been recognized as one of the major unmet medical needs of the twenty-first century. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase (STK)25 as a critical regulator of energy homeostasis and NAFLD progression...
January 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402368/-efficacy-and-safety-of-simulated-artificial-pancreas-in-modulating-stress-hyperglycemia-in-critically-ill-patients-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-study
#14
Zhongliang Yang, Guoqiang Tao, Meifeng Guo, Baoling Sun, Liang Gong, Yong Ding, Shuming Ye, Weidong Liu, Xiuyun Yang
OBJECTIVE: To explore efficacy and safety of simulated artificial pancreas in modulating stress hyperglycemia in critically ill patients. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled study was performed. Seventy-two critically ill patients with stress hyperglycemia, aged 18-85 years, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score over 15, two consecutive random blood glucose 11.1 mmol/L or higher, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) below 0.065, unable to eat food for 3 days after inclusion, or only accepting parenteral nutrition, admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) in Shanghai Punan Hospital of Pudong New District from January 1st, 2015 to June 30th, 2017 were enrolled...
February 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401634/formaldehyde-induces-diabetes-associated-cognitive-impairments
#15
Tao Tan, Yun Zhang, Wenhong Luo, Jihui Lv, Chanshuai Han, Jason N R Hamlin, Hongjun Luo, Hui Li, You Wan, Xu Yang, Weihong Song, Zhiqian Tong
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) often develop cognitive impairments and have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Hyperglycemia is a major characteristic of T2DM, but how elevated glucose levels lead to cognitive decline remains elusive. Here, we report that patients with T2DM and mutations in the formaldehyde (FA)-degrading enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 ( ALDH2) gene had higher levels of FA and more severe dementia. Injection of FA induced hyperglycemia and cognitive deficits in rats...
February 1, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399727/implications-of-lipids-in-neonatal-body-weight-and-fat-mass-in-gestational-diabetic-mothers-and-non-diabetic-controls
#16
REVIEW
Emilio Herrera, Henar Ortega-Senovilla
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maternal lipid metabolism greatly changes during pregnancy and we review in this article how they influence fetal adiposity and growth under non-diabetic and gestational diabetic conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: In pregnant women without diabetes (control), maternal glycemia correlates with neonatal glycemia, neonatal body weight and fat mass. In pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), maternal glucose correlates with neither neonatal glycemia, neonatal birth weight nor fat mass, but maternal triacylglycerols (TAG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glycerol do correlate with birth weight and neonatal adiposity...
February 5, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371661/cellular-death-reactive-oxygen-species-ros-and-diabetic-complications
#17
REVIEW
Caroline Maria Oliveira Volpe, Pedro Henrique Villar-Delfino, Paula Martins Ferreira Dos Anjos, José Augusto Nogueira-Machado
Chronic or intermittent hyperglycemia is associated with the development of diabetic complications. Several signaling pathways can be altered by having hyperglycemia in different tissues, producing oxidative stress, the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), as well as the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and cellular death (pathological autophagy and/or apoptosis). However, the signaling pathways that are directly triggered by hyperglycemia appear to have a pivotal role in diabetic complications due to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress, and cellular death...
January 25, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363576/the-long-non-coding-rna-gm10768-activates-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-by-sequestering-microrna-214-in-mice
#18
Xianwei Cui, Jingmin Tan, Yujie Shi, Chen Sun, Yun Li, Chenbo Ji, Jun Wu, Zhao Zhang, Siyu Chen, Xirong Guo, Chang Liu
Over-activated hepatic gluconeogenesis contributes to the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes. Precise control of hepatic gluconeogenesis thus is critical for maintaining whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play key roles in diseases by regulating diverse biological processes, but the function of lncRNAs in maintaining normal physiology, particularly glucose homeostasis in the liver, remains largely unexplored. We identified a novel liver-enriched long non-coding RNA, Gm10768, and examined its expression patterns under pathophysiological conditions...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357807/hyperglycemia-in-hospitalized-diabetic-non-critically-ill-patients-prevalence-correlates-management-and-nurses-attitudes
#19
Ghada El Khoury, Hanine Mansour, Wissam Kabbara, Nibal Chamoun, Nadim Attalah, Pascale Salameh
BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease that affects 387 million people around the world. Episodes of hyperglycemia in hospitalized diabetic patients are associated with poor clinical outcomes and increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, prevention of hyperglycemia is critical to, decrease length of hospital stay and to reduce complications and readmissions. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to examine the prevalence of hyperglycemia and assess the correlates and management of hyperglycemia in diabetic non-critically ill patients...
January 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353881/hypertension-with-diabetes-mellitus-complications
#20
REVIEW
Daisuke Yamazaki, Hirofumi Hitomi, Akira Nishiyama
Chronic diabetic complications are classified as microvascular or macrovascular and contribute to mortality and loss of quality of life. Hyperglycemia plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of microvascular complications, such as diabetic retinopathy, incipient nephropathy, and neuropathy, while atherosclerosis contributes to the pathogenesis of macrovascular complications. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are frequently present together. Among many microvascular diabetic complications, hypertension plays a predominant role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy by glomerular hyperfiltration...
January 22, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
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