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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733210/threat-effects-on-human-oculo-motor-function
#1
E N Naranjo, T W Cleworth, J H J Allum, J T Inglis, J Lea, B D Westerberg, M G Carpenter
Neuro-anatomical evidence supports the potential for threat-related factors, such as fear, anxiety and vigilance, to influence brainstem motor nuclei controlling eye movements, as well as the vestibular nuclei. However, little is known about how threat influences human ocular responses, such as eye saccades (ES), smooth pursuit eye tracking (SP), and optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), and whether these responses can be facilitated above normal baseline levels with a natural source of threat. This study was designed to examine the effects of height-induced postural threat on the gain of ES, SP and OKN responses in humans...
July 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714773/impact-of-martial-arts-judo-karate-and-kung-fu-on-bone-mineral-density-gains-in-adolescents-of-both-genders-9-month-follow-up-martial-arts-and-bone-density
#2
Igor H Ito, Han C G Kemper, Ricardo R Agostinete, Kyle R Lynch, Diego G D Christofaro, Enio R Ronque, Rômulo A Fernandes
PURPOSE: To compare bone mineral density gains in adolescents of both genders stratified according to different martial art styles in a 9-month follow-up study. METHODS: The longitudinal study consisted of 29 adolescents of both genders and age between 11 and 17 years stratified into control group ([CG] not engaged in any sport) and 50 fighters (Kung-fu / karate-KF / KT, n = 29; Judo, n = 21). All 79 subjects underwent anthropometric measures (weight, height, leg length and height set), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (Bone Mineral Density [BMD], in g/cm(2)) at two moments, baseline and nine months later...
July 17, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701166/which-early-life-events-or-current-environmental-and-lifestyle-factors-influence-lung-function-in-adolescents-results-from-the-giniplus-lisaplus-studies
#3
Agnes Luzak, Elaine Fuertes, Claudia Flexeder, Marie Standl, Andrea von Berg, Dietrich Berdel, Sibylle Koletzko, Joachim Heinrich, Dennis Nowak, Holger Schulz
BACKGROUND: Various factors may affect lung function at different stages in life. Since investigations that simultaneously consider several factors are rare, we examined the relative importance of early life, current environmental/lifestyle factors and allergic diseases on lung function in 15-year-olds. METHODS: Best subset selection was performed for linear regression models to investigate associations between 21 diverse early life events and current factors with spirometric parameters (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and maximal mid-expiratory flow (FEF25-75)) in 1326 participants of the German GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts...
July 12, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699696/scaling-children-s-waist-circumference-for-differences-in-body-size
#4
Alan M Nevill, Michael J Duncan, Ian M Lahart, Paul Davies, Robinson Ramirez-Velez, Gavin Sandercock
OBJECTIVES: Both waist circumference (WC) and body size (height) increase with age throughout childhood. Hence, there is a need to scale WC in children to detect differences in adiposity status (eg, between populations and different age groups), independent of body size/height. METHODS: Using two culturally different samples, 1 English (10-15.9 years n = 9471) and 2 Colombian (14-15 years, n = 37,948), for WC to be independent of height (HT), a body shape index was obtained using the allometric power law WC = a...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681419/linear-and-nonlinear-relationships-between-body-mass-index-and-physical-fitness-in-brazilian-children-and-adolescents
#5
Vítor P Lopes, Marco Cossio-Bolaños, Rossana Gómez-Campos, Miguel de Arruda, Jefferson Eduardo Hespanhol, Luis P Rodrigues
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the linear and curvilinear relationship between body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness in children and adolescents. METHODS: Participants were 4567 (2505 girls) children aged 6-16 years. Weight and height were measured and BMI was calculated and adjusted for age and sex using WHO z-scores. Physical fitness was evaluated with the following tests: Yo-Yo test, standing long jump, seated 2-kg medicine ball throw, and 20-m dash...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673119/biomechanical-differences-of-arm-swing-countermovement-jumps-on-sand-and-rigid-surface-performed-by-elite-beach-volleyball-players
#6
George Giatsis, Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos, Iraklis A Kollias
The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible arm swing effect on the biomechanical parameters of vertical counter movement jump due to differences of the compliance of the take-off surface. Fifteen elite male beach-volleyball players (26.2 ± 5.9 years; 1.87 ± 0.05 m; 83.4 ± 6.0 kg; mean ± standard deviation, respectively) performed counter movement jumps on sand and on a rigid surface with and without an arm swing. Results showed significant (p < .05) surface effects on the jump height, the ankle joint angle at the lowest height of the body center of mass and the ankle angular velocity...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672287/association-between-linear-growth-and-bone-accrual-in-a-diverse-cohort-of-children-and-adolescents
#7
Shana E McCormack, Diana L Cousminer, Alessandra Chesi, Jonathan A Mitchell, Sani M Roy, Heidi J Kalkwarf, Joan M Lappe, Vicente Gilsanz, Sharon E Oberfield, John A Shepherd, Karen K Winer, Andrea Kelly, Struan F A Grant, Babette S Zemel
Importance: Prevention of osteoporosis in adulthood begins with optimizing bone health in early life. The longitudinal association between growth and bone accretion during childhood is not fully understood. Objectives: To assess the acquisition of whole-body (WB) and skeletal site-specific bone mineral content (BMC) relative to linear growth in a healthy, diverse, longitudinal cohort of children, adolescents, and young adults and to test for differences related to sex and African American race...
July 3, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666392/organized-leisure-time-sport-participation-and-academic-achievement-in-preadolescents
#8
Elvar Smari Sævarsson, Erla Svansdottir, Thorarinn Sveinsson, Tinna Laufey Asgeirsdottir, Sigurbjorn Arni Arngrimsson, Erlingur Johannsson
AIMS: The aims of this study were to study the correlation between lifestyle-related factors, such as organized leisure-time sport participation (OLSP), cardiorespiratory fitness, and adiposity, and academic achievement among preadolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 248 nine-year-old school children was carried out. OLSP was self-reported with parental assistance, categorized as ≤ 1× a week, 2-3× a week, and ≥ 4× times a week or more. Academic achievement was estimated with results from standardized test scores in Icelandic and math...
June 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639444/comparison-of-shuttle-and-straight-repeated-sprint-ability-tests-and-their-relationship-to-anthropometrics-and-explosive-muscular-performance-of-lower-limb-in-elite-handball-players
#9
Souhail Hermassi, René Schwesig, Rainer Wollny, Georg Fieseler, Roland van den Tillaar, Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez, Roy J Shephard, Mohamed S Chelly
BACKGROUND: This study assessed inter-relationships between shuttle and straight repeated-sprint ability tests and the relationship of each measure to anthropometric and explosive lower limb performance data in elite handball players. METHODS: Twenty-two elite male handball players (18.9 ± 0.2 years; body mass: 83.3 ± 1.1 kg, height: 1.79 ± 2.30 m, body fat: 12.8 ± 0.2%) completed tests that included a lower limb force-velocity test of peak power (Wpeak), jumping ability (squat and counter-movement jumps; SJ, CMJ), 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) half back squat, average sprint velocity over 5 m (V-5 m), peak velocity between 25-30 m (Vmax), and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1), and anthropometric determinations of cross-sectional areas and muscle volumes for leg and thigh muscles...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630582/doubly-disadvantaged-the-relative-age-effect-in-poland-s-basketball-players
#10
Krystian Rubajczyk, Kamil Świerzko, Andrzej Rokita
The aim of this study was to identify the relative age effect (RAE) in young Polish male (n = 3849) and female (n = 3419) basketball players aged 14 to 22 years competing in the elite games of the Polish Youth Championships. The distribution of birth dates, body height, players' match statistics, and the results of teams participating in championships were identified. The RAE was observed in male and female group, regardless of players age. Nevertheless, the greatest disproportion in the distribution of dates of birth was found in U16 group of boys (V = 0...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630572/the-role-of-a-relative-age-effect-in-the-7-th-international-children-s-winter-games-2016-and-the-influence-of-biological-maturity-status-on-selection
#11
Lisa Müller, Carolin Hildebrandt, Christian Raschner
The aim of this study was to analyse the role of a relative age effect (RAE) and to investigate the influence of biological maturity status on the RAE at the 7(th) International Children`s Winter Games. The birth dates of all 572 participants (365 males, 207 females) were analysed, and the biological maturity status of 384 athletes (243 males, 141 females) was assessed by the age at peak height velocity (APHV) method. A RAE was present in the total sample (χ(2) = 67.81; p < 0.001), and among both male (χ(2) = 49...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608181/modified-maturity-offset-prediction-equations-validation-in-independent-longitudinal-samples-of-boys-and-girls
#12
Sławomir M Kozieł, Robert M Malina
BACKGROUND: Predicted maturity offset and age at peak height velocity are increasingly used with youth athletes, although validation studies of the equations indicated major limitations. The equations have since been modified and simplified. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to validate the new maturity offset prediction equations in independent longitudinal samples of boys and girls. METHODS: Two new equations for boys with chronological age and sitting height and chronological age and stature as predictors, and one equation for girls with chronological age and stature as predictors were evaluated in serial data from the Wrocław Growth Study, 193 boys (aged 8-18 years) and 198 girls (aged 8-16 years)...
June 12, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605273/improving-the-prediction-of-maturity-from-anthropometric-variables-using-a-maturity-ratio
#13
Job Fransen, Stephen Bush, Stephen Woodcock, Andrew Novak, Dieter Deprez, Adam D G Baxter-Jones, Roel Vaeyens, Matthieu Lenoir
PURPOSE: This study aimed to improve the prediction accuracy of Age at Peak Height Velocity (APHV) from anthropometric assessment using non-linear models and a maturity ratio rather than a maturity offset. METHODS: The dataset used to develop the original prediction equations was used to test a new prediction model, utilising the maturity ratio and a polynomial prediction equation. This model was then applied to a sample of male youth academy soccer players (n = 1330) to validate the new model in youth athletes...
June 12, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604286/growth-functional-capacities-and-motivation-for-achievement-and-competitiveness-in-youth-basketball-an-interdisciplinary-approach
#14
Humberto Moreira Carvalho, Carlos E Gonçalves, Dave Collins, Roberto R Paes
The interaction of multiple influences on the path to sport success is not yet fully understood by sport scientists. In this study, we examined variation in body size, functional capacities and motivation for achievement, competitiveness and deliberate practice of youth basketball players associated with differences in biological maturity status, chronological age and years of training experience. Reflecting the importance of interactive effects, we examined the relationships between the psychological variables and functional capacities...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595238/distinguishing-playing-status-through-a-functionally-relevant-performance-measure-in-female-division-i-collegiate-soccer-athletes
#15
Mitchel A Magrini, Ryan J Colquhoun, John H Sellers, Eric C Conchola, Garrett M Hester, Ryan M Thiele, Zach K Pope, Doug B Smith
Although soccer is predominately an endurance sport, high velocity movements may be an important indicator of athletic success. The purpose of this investigation was to establish whether squat jumps (SJ) can differentiate starters from non-starters with a female collegiate division I soccer team. Eighteen female division I soccer athletes were separated into two groups: 9 starters (age: 19.5 ± 1.0; mass = 64.8 ± 11.5 kg; height = 167.5 ± 7.7 cm; games started = 18.2 ± 4.7; minutes played = 1633.8 ± 478...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595188/physical-growth-and-biological-maturation-of-children-and-adolescents-proposed-reference-curves
#16
Daniel Leite Portella, Miguel Arruda, Rossana Gómez-Campos, Giovanna Checkin Portella, Cynthia Lee Andruske, Marco A Cossio-Bolaños
BACKGROUND/AIM: The study of physical growth variables in terms of chronological age and biological maturation may provide a common reference point to reflect on the occurrence of body dimensions in and between individuals. The objectives of this study were as follows: (a) verify if the observed gender differences in the variables of physical growth by chronological age are confounded by physical maturation, (b) compare physical growth patterns with the reference of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-2012, and (c) develop regional curves to assess physical growth in terms of biological maturation...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590266/sex-differences-in-aortic-augmentation-index-in-adolescents
#17
Jennifer Y Barraclough, Frances L Garden, Brett Toelle, Shamus O'Meagher, Guy B Marks, Christopher T Cowell, David S Celermajer, Julian G Ayer
BACKGROUND: Augmentation index (AIx) is a noninvasive measure of pulse wave reflection. AIx is associated with cardiovascular disease. Adult women have a higher AIx than men, but the factors determining this sex-related difference remain to be determined. METHODS: To examine factors associated with AIx in adolescents, participants in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study, followed from birth, were assessed at age 14 years, with AIx standardized to a heart rate of 75/min (AIx_75) and pulse wave velocity...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580404/the-associations-of-exposure-to-combined-hormonal-contraceptive-use-on-bone-mineral-content-and-areal-bone-mineral-density-accrual-from-adolescence-to-young-adulthood-a-longitudinal-study
#18
Stefan A Jackowski, Adam D G Baxter-Jones, Ashlee J McLardy, Roger A Pierson, Carol D Rodgers
BACKGROUND: The association of long term combined hormone based contraceptives (CHC) use on bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) development remains controversial, as it appears that the relationship may be age-dependent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term associations of CHC exposure on the accrual of bone parameters from adolescence into young-adulthood. METHODS: 110 women (67 exposed to CHC) were drawn from the Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (PBMAS)...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578458/coronal-plane-trunk-asymmetry-is-associated-with-whole-body-sagittal-alignment-in-healthy-young-adolescents-before-pubertal-peak-growth
#19
Mieke Dolphens, Andry Vleeming, René Castelein, Guy Vanderstraeten, Tom Schlösser, Frank Plasschaert, Lieven Danneels
PURPOSE: To investigate coronal plane trunk asymmetry (TA) and its association with sagittal postural alignment in healthy subjects before pubertal peak growth. METHODS: In this cross-sectional baseline study, 1190 healthy pre-peak growth velocity subjects were included. Coronal plane TA was evaluated using back surface topography. Whole-body sagittal alignment (previously validated and objectively classified as neutral, sway-back or leaning-forward) and sagittal spinopelvic profile (trunk lean, lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, sacral inclination and length of the posteriorly inclined thoracolumbar segment) were determined, as were height, proportion of trunk to body length, body mass index, generalized joint laxity, and handedness...
June 3, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570496/the-effect-of-training-load-distribution-on-aerobic-fitness-measures-in-hurling-players
#20
Shane Malone, Brian Hughes, Kieran Collins
The aim of the current investigation was to quantify the training intensity distribution of hurling players and their association to changes in aerobic fitness measures within hurling players. Thirty hurling players (n = 30; age 25.5 ± 3.2 years; height 178.9 ± 3.2 cm; body mass 78.5 30 ± 4.5 kg) were observed during the pre-championship training period (12 weeks). Aerobic fitness measures (VO2max), peak treadmill velocity (PVT; km·h) and heart rates (HR) at 2 and 4 mmol·L blood-lactate concentrations, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance (Yo-YoIR1) were assessed pre and post the training period...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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