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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530427/a-meta-analytic-review-of-the-association-between-pubertal-timing-and-psychopathology-in-adolescence-are-there-sex-differences-in-risk
#1
Josie M Ullsperger, Molly A Nikolas
Research examining pubertal timing effects on psychopathology has emphasized that a subset of adolescents, particularly females, who experience early pubertal maturation relative to their peers appear to be at increased risk for psychopathology. The aims of the current meta-analysis were (a) to quantify the magnitude of early pubertal timing effects on psychopathology, (b) to examine potential moderators of pubertal timing effects (sex, psychopathology domain, sample composition, measurement method, and mean sample age), and (c) to examine findings in relation to hypotheses in the extant literature explicating differential pubertal timing effects for early versus late youth and males versus females...
May 22, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529439/pubertal-timing-and-youth-internalizing-psychopathology-the-role-of-relational-aggression
#2
Hayley Pomerantz, Justin Parent, Rex Forehand, Nicole Lafko Breslend, Jeffrey P Winer
The current study examined relational aggression as a potential mechanism that explains the association between off-time pubertal development and internalizing problems in youth. Youth gender was also examined as a moderator for the association between these variables. It was hypothesized that early pubertal maturation would be associated with higher levels of relationally aggressive behavior which, in turn, would be associated with elevated levels of internalizing problems. Parents of 372 children between the ages of 8 and 17 were recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk...
February 2017: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523517/body-size-of-male-youth-soccer-players-1978-2015
#3
REVIEW
Robert M Malina, António J Figueiredo, Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva
BACKGROUND: Studies of the body size and proportions of athletes have a long history. Comparisons of athletes within specific sports across time, though not extensive, indicate both positive and negative trends. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate secular variation in heights and weights of male youth soccer players reported in studies between 1978 and 2015. METHODS: Reported mean ages, heights, and weights of male soccer players 9-18 years of age were extracted from the literature and grouped into two intervals: 1978-99 and 2000-15...
May 18, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443258/the-effect-of-first-nocturnal-ejaculation-timing-on-risk-and-sexual-behaviors-of-korean-male-adolescents
#4
Mi-Ji Lee, Go-Eun Yang, Hee Won Chueh, Jae Hong Park, Jae-Ho Yoo
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of first nocturnal ejaculation timing on risk and sexual behaviors of Korean male adolescents. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 10th edition of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based survey that was conducted with male high school adolescents in grades 10-12. The survey included 17,907 adolescents, and 10,326 responded their experience of first nocturnal ejaculation. Of these, 595 had their first nocturnal ejaculation in ≤grade 4 ("early puberty") and 9,731 had their first nocturnal ejaculation in ≥grade 5 ("normal puberty")...
March 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434870/maternal-socioeconomic-disadvantage-is-associated-with-transcriptional-indications-of-greater-immune-activation-and-slower-tissue-maturation-in-placental-biopsies-and-newborn-cord-blood
#5
Gregory E Miller, Ann E Borders, Amy H Crockett, Kharah M Ross, Sameen Qadir, Lauren Keenan-Devlin, Adam K Leigh, Paula Ham, Jeffrey Ma, Jesusa M G Arevalo, Linda M Ernst, Steve W Cole
Children from economically disadvantaged families experience worse cognitive, psychiatric, and medical outcomes compared to more affluent youth. Preclinical models suggest some of the adverse influence of disadvantage could be transmitted during gestation via maternal immune activation, but this hypothesis has not been tested in humans. It also remains unclear whether prenatal interventions can mitigate such effects. To fill these gaps, we conducted two studies. Study 1 characterized the socioeconomic conditions of 79 women during pregnancy...
April 21, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416901/mechanical-efficiency-in-children-with-different-body-weight-a-longitudinal-assessment-of-the-quality-cohort
#6
G Jabbour, A Tremblay, M Henderson, M-E Mathieu
Net mechanical efficiency (MEnet), which reflects the body's ability to transfer energy above resting levels in external work, is similar in young children regardless of their body weights. However, it is unclear whether MEnet remains stable during growth and maturation. We sought to determine whether net mechanical efficiency (MEnet) changes over a period of 3 years in children and to identify the factors associated with possible changes. A total of 169 children participating in the QUALITY (Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth) cohort completed an incremental cycling test, resulting in the same maximal power output during both visits...
March 2017: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416037/birth-weight-biological-maturation-and-obesity-in-adolescents-a-mediation-analysis
#7
A O Werneck, D R P Silva, P J Collings, R A Fernandes, E R V Ronque, M J Coelho-E-Silva, L B Sardinha, E S Cyrino
This study was aimed to investigate associations between birth weight and multiple adiposity indicators in youth, and to examine potential mediating effects by biological maturation. This was a school-based study involving 981 Brazilian adolescents aged between 10 and 17 years. Birth weight was reported retrospectively by mothers. Maturation was estimated by age of peak height velocity. Adiposity indicators included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and percent body fat estimated from triceps and subscapular skinfolds...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402178/top-10-research-questions-related-to-youth-aerobic-fitness
#8
Neil Armstrong
Peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]2) is internationally recognized as the criterion measure of youth aerobic fitness, but despite pediatric data being available for almost 80 years, its measurement and interpretation in relation to growth, maturation, and health remain controversial. The trainability of youth aerobic fitness continues to be hotly debated, and causal mechanisms of training-induced changes and their modulation by chronological age, biological maturation, and sex are still to be resolved...
June 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394831/progression-in-youth-soccer-selection-and-identification-in-youth-soccer-players-aged-13-15-years
#9
Iraia Bidaurrazaga-Letona, José Antonio Lekue, Markos Amado, Susana Maria Gil
The aim of this study was to identify the factors which are important for the identification and selection of young soccer players. Ninety four adolescent soccer players from the Under-13 (U13; age=12.3 ± 0.3 years; n=50) and Under-15 (U15; age=14.0 ± 0.2 years; n=44) categories belonging to a professional club participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements, physical tests (sprint, agility, endurance and jump) and maturity status (age at peak height velocity) were recorded over four seasons. Comparisons were performed amongst new players joining the club (Enter players, n=15), players progressing to the next age category (Club players, n=54) and players leaving the club (Deselected players, n=25)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358737/delay-in-sexual-maturation-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-youths-is-mediated-by-poor-growth
#10
Andrea Bellavia, Paige L Williams, Linda A DiMeglio, Rohan Hazra, Mark J Abzug, Kunjal Patel, Denise L Jacobson, Russell B Van Dyke, Mitchell E Geffner
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between HIV infection and sexual maturation, and mediation of this association by HIV effects on growth. DESIGN: Pooled data were analyzed from two longitudinal cohort studies, the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials P219/219C Study (1993-2007) and the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study Adolescent Master Protocol (2007-2015), including perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) and HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) youths...
June 1, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342431/-considerations-for-the-definition-of-a-interval-of-vulnerability-possibility-in-adolescence
#11
José Víctor Orón Semper, Luis Enrique Echarte Alonso
This article explores the hypothesis that while maturation related cognitive abilities reaches maturity around the age of fifteen, maturation related social skills is delayed until well into the twenties. Our goal is to try to define what is the window of opportunity/vulnerability and what is the maturational status of the young in this interval. In this context, we argue how the maturational time of the closing of adolescence has an impact on the valuation of autonomy in decision-making of the person. Particularly, we figure out implications for the assessment of the autonomy of youth in health issues, and also criminal liability...
January 2017: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340491/comparison-of-skillful-vs-less-skilled-young-soccer-players-on-anthropometric-maturation-physical-fitness-and-time-of-practice
#12
Márcio André de Gouvêa, Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino, João Valente-Dos-Santos, Alex Silva Ribeiro, Danilo Rodrigues Pereira da Silva, David Ohara, Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva, Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque
This study compared maturation, body composition and physical fitness between youth soccer athletes with different technical skills levels. Sixty-two young athletes (11-17 years) were categorized dichotomously in more skilled (n=31) and less skilled (n=31) groups based on 3 specific technical tests (Dribbling Speed Test [DST], Shuttle Dribble Test [SDT] and Slalom Dribble Test [SLDT]). Chronological and skeletal age, time of practice, body composition and 4 physical fitness tests were performed for comparisons...
May 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334178/inter-regional-variations-in-gene-expression-and-age-related-cortical-thinning-in-the-adolescent-brain
#13
Angelita Pui-Yee Wong, Leon French, Gabriel Leonard, Michel Perron, G Bruce Pike, Louis Richer, Suzanne Veillette, Zdenka Pausova, Tomáš Paus
Age-related decreases in cortical thickness observed during adolescence may be related to fluctuations in sex and stress hormones. We examine this possibility by relating inter-regional variations in age-related cortical thinning (data from the Saguenay Youth Study) to inter-regional variations in expression levels of relevant genes (data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas); we focus on genes coding for glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PGR), and estrogen receptors (ESR1 and ESR2)...
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314449/aligning-mental-health-treatments-with-the-developmental-stage-and-needs-of-late-adolescents-and-young-adults
#14
REVIEW
Brian Skehan, Maryann Davis
Transitional age youth (TAY) are in a discrete developmental stage, different from both adolescents and mature adults. Serious mental illness can result in their delayed psychosocial development and morbidity. Systemic, provider, and individual barriers result in poor access to care for these youth, potentially impeding their transition to mature adulthood. Current strategies for TAY treatment include patient centered care, vocational and educational support, and shared decision making. There is a paucity of evidence-based practices to effectively treat this population or provide practice guidelines...
April 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314379/rejuvenation-by-partial-reprogramming-of-the-epigenome
#15
Andrew R Mendelsohn, James W Larrick, Jennifer L Lei
Epigenetic variation with age is one of the most important hallmarks of aging. Resetting or repairing the epigenome of aging cells in intact animals may rejuvenate the cells and perhaps the entire organism. In fact, differentiated adult cells, which by definition have undergone some epigenetic changes, are capable of being rejuvenated and reprogrammed to create pluripotent stem cells and viable cloned animals. Apparently, such reprogramming is capable of completely resetting the epigenome. However, attempts to fully reprogram differentiated cells in adult animals have failed in part because reprogramming leads to the formation of teratomas...
April 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299968/setting-a-minimum-age-for-juvenile-justice-jurisdiction-in-california
#16
Elizabeth S Barnert, Laura S Abrams, Cheryl Maxson, Lauren Gase, Patricia Soung, Paul Carroll, Eraka Bath
Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271803/metabolism-and-exercise-during-youth
#17
Keith Tolfrey, Julia K Zakrzewski-Fruer, James Smallcombe
Three publications were selected based on the strength of the research questions, but also because they represent different research designs that are used with varying degrees of frequency in the pediatric literature. The first, a prospective, longitudinal cohort observation study from 7 to 16 years with girls and boys reports an intrinsic reduction in absolute resting energy expenditure after adjustment for lean mass, fat mass, and biological maturity. The authors suggest this could be related to evolutionary energy conservation, but may be problematic now that food energy availability is so abundant...
February 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271802/growth-maturation-and-exercise-during-youth-2016
#18
Jaak Jürimäe
For The Year that Was-2016, I have selected three papers in the area of growth, maturation, and exercise during youth. The year of 2016 was a successful year and it was not an easy task to highlight the most significant publications in this specific area of pediatric exercise science. The first paper has been chosen because it provides, for the first time, the growth and maturational status of elite junior tennis players belonging to the top eight players in the National rankings in various ages and compares against population norms...
February 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271801/pediatric-aerobic-fitness-and-trainability
#19
Neil Armstrong
Three papers which between them raise controversial issues, apply laboratory measures to sport performance, and expose gaps in knowledge were selected for commentary. The first paper (Sports Med. 2016;46:1451-1460) reviews the literature on peak V̇O2 in relation to body size and recommends that peak V̇O2 in youth is best expressed via allometric scaling of lean body mass. The second paper (Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2016;28:456-465) reports that maturity status has no effect on peak V̇O2, respiratory compensation point, or ventilatory threshold in youth soccer players once data have been allometrically normalized by lower limb muscle volume...
February 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238294/within-subject-neural-reactivity-to-reward-and-threat-is-inverted-in-young-adolescents
#20
M E Thomason, H A Marusak
BACKGROUND: As children mature, they become increasingly independent and less reliant on caregiver support. Changes in brain systems are likely to stimulate and guide this process. One mechanistic hypothesis suggests that changes in neural systems that process reward and threat support the increase in exploratory behavior observed in the transition to adolescence. This study examines the basic tenets of this hypothesis by performing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during well-established reward and threat processing tasks in 40 children and adolescents, aged 9-15 years...
February 27, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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