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Youth maturation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088438/a-snapshot-of-urban-adolescent-women-s-contraceptive-knowledge-at-the-onset-of-a-community-larc-promotion-initiative
#1
K B Greenberg, S C Jenks, N G Piazza, B R Malibiran, C A Aligne
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To contextualize young women's knowledge and attitudes regarding contraception at the outset of an intervention promoting long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC) for teen pregnancy prevention. DESIGN: and Setting: Our intervention is based on diffusion of innovation theory, and at the outset we were interested in likely early adopters' existing knowledge and attitudes towards contraception. This mixed methods study consists of focus groups within positive youth development programs in Rochester, New York; we discussed young women's knowledge and sources of information for all FDA-approved contraceptive methods...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055288/eveningness-as-a-risk-for-behavioral-problems-in-late-adolescence
#2
Ilona Merikanto, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Liisa Kuula, Jari Lahti, Kati Heinonen, Eero Kajantie, Katri Räikkönen
Circadian preference toward eveningness has been associated with increased risk for mental health problems both in early adolescence and in adulthood. However, in late adolescence, when circadian rhythm naturally shifts to later, its significance for mental health is not clear. Accordingly, we studied how circadian rhythm estimated both by self-reported chronotype and by actigraph-defined midpoint of sleep was associated with self-reported psychiatric problems based on Youth Self Report (YSR). The study builds on a community cohort born in 1998, Helsinki, Finland...
January 5, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054492/match-running-performance-and-skill-execution-improves-with-age-but-not-the-number-of-disposals-in-young-australian-footballers
#3
Paul B Gastin, Christie Tangalos, Lorena Torres, Sam Robertson
This study investigated age-related differences in maturity, physical and functional characteristics and playing performance in youth Australian Football (AF). Young male players (n = 156) were recruited from 12 teams across 6 age groups (U10-U15) of a recreational AF club. All players were tested for body size, maturity and fitness. Player performance was assessed during a match in which disposals (kicks and handballs) and their effectiveness were coded from a video recording and match running performance measured using Global Positioning System...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009272/searching-for-signatures-of-brain-maturity-what-are-we-searching-for
#4
Leah H Somerville
Evidence of continued neurobiological maturation through adolescence is increasingly invoked in discussions of youth-focused policies. This should motivate neuroscientists to grapple with core issues such as the definition of brain maturation, how to quantify it, and how to precisely translate this knowledge to broader audiences.
December 21, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003389/predictors-of-competency-to-stand-trial-in-connecticut-s-inpatient-juvenile-competency-restoration-program
#5
Joseph Chien, Kendell L Coker, Susan Parke, Nabyl Tejani, Remy A Sirken, Christina Sanchez-Jaquez, Fernando Rausch, Muhammad W Azeem
There are substantial differences between adults and juveniles in the context of competency restoration. Among juveniles, factors such as maturity level, age, intellectual functioning, and psychiatric diagnoses may affect competency to stand trial. In this study, subjects included all juveniles who were admitted to the Albert J. Solnit Children's Center for inpatient competency restoration in the period spanning January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2012. Sixty-one juveniles were referred during this period, and 58 were included in the final analyses...
December 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000283/maturational-and-social-factors-contributing-to-relative-age-effects-in-school-sports-data-from-the-london-youth-games
#6
K E Reed, D A Parry, G R H Sandercock
Few studies have investigated whether relative age effects (RAEs) exist in school sport. None have sought to test the competing maturational and social-agent hypotheses proposed to explain the RAE. We aimed to determine the presence of RAEs in multiple school sports and examine the contribution of maturational and social factors in commonplace school sports. We analyzed birth dates of n=10645 competitors (11-18 years) in the 2013 London Youth Games annual inter-school multisport competition and calculated odds ratio (OR) for students competing based on their yearly birth quarter (Q1-Q4)...
December 20, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955636/effects-of-delaying-binge-drinking-on-adolescent-brain-development-a-longitudinal-neuroimaging-study
#7
Josiane Bourque, Travis E Baker, Alain Dagher, Alan C Evans, Hugh Garavan, Marco Leyton, Jean R Séguin, Robert Pihl, Patricia J Conrod
BACKGROUND: Onset of alcohol use by 14 relative to 21 years of age strongly predicts elevated risk for severe alcohol use problems, with 27% versus 4% of individuals exhibiting alcohol dependence within 10 years of onset. What remains unclear is whether this early alcohol use (i) is a marker for later problems, reflected as a pre-existing developmental predisposition, (ii) causes global neural atrophy or (iii) specifically disturbs neuro-maturational processes implicated in addiction, such as executive functions or reward processing...
December 13, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898872/the-effect-of-oxidative-stress-during-exercise-in-the-horse
#8
C A Williams
Oxidative stress is an imbalance of the oxidant-to-antioxidant ratio in the body. Increases in oxidative stress and changes in antioxidant status have been shown during endurance and intense exercise and eventing competition in horses. Antioxidants include vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and proteins that must be synthesized in the body or obtained from the diet. Therefore, exercise level and diet are both factors that play a role in influencing the oxidative stress and antioxidant status of the equine athlete...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870579/evidence-base-update-of-psychosocial-treatments-for-child-and-adolescent-depression
#9
V Robin Weersing, Megan Jeffreys, Minh-Chau T Do, Karen T G Schwartz, Carl Bolano
Depression in youth is prevalent and disabling and tends to presage a chronic and recurrent course of illness and impairment in adulthood. Clinical trial research in youth depression has a 30-year history, and evidence-based treatment reviews appeared in 1998 and 2008. The current review of 42 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) updates these reviews to include RCTs published between 2008 and 2014 (N = 14) and reevaluates previously reviewed literature. Given the growing maturity of the field, this review utilized a stringent set of methodological criteria for trial inclusion, most notable for excluding trials based in subclinical samples of youth that had been included in previous reviews (N = 12) and including well-designed RCTs with null and negative findings (N = 8)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868432/a-criterion-referenced-assessment-is-needed-for-measuring-child-obesity
#10
Elise C Brown, J Lon Kilgore, Duncan S Buchan, Julien S Baker
Body Mass Index (BMI), as an adiposity indicator, assumes that for any given height a change in weight is attributed to a change in fat. This seems problematic in growing youth as great divergence is evident in bone, muscle, and adipose tissue development. Secondly, use of reference populations in categorizing children based on BMI, frequently use arbitrary percentile cut-offs for obesity and do not meet all of the assumptions that cut-offs imply. Lastly, BMI does not control for maturation status. Criterion-referenced assessments of child obesity that account for abdominal adiposity and permit international comparisons, such as waist-to-height ratio (WtHR), must be considered...
January 2017: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834619/maturation-related-effect-of-low-dose-plyometric-training-on-performance-in-youth-hockey-players
#11
Jason Moran, Gavin R H Sandercock, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Oliver Todd, Collison, Dave A Parry
PURPOSE: The purpose of this intervention study was to investigate if a low-dose of plyometric training (PT) could improve sprint and jump performance in groups of different maturity status. METHODS: Male youth field hockey players were divided into Pre-PHV (from -1 to -1.9 from PHV; Experimental: n = 9; Control = 12) and Mid-PHV (0 to +0.9 from PHV; Experimental: n = 8; Control = 9) groups. Participants in the experimental groups completed 60 foot contacts, twice-weekly, for 6 weeks...
November 11, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806534/association-between-adrenal-hematoma-and-mortality-in-pediatric-multiple-blunt-traumas-an-autopsy-evaluation
#12
Farrokh Taftachi, Leyla Abdolkarimi, Maryam Ameri, Azadeh Memarian, Alireza Behzadi, Hooman Bakhshandeh
Adrenal hematoma is a common hidden catastrophic complication in pediatric victims of multiple blunt traumas. Adrenal hematoma has no obvious symptoms and may not be detected by diagnostic methods such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography scan, and sonography; consequently, this complication may be neglected in children with multiple blunt traumas and cause death through sudden adrenal crisis.The current study was conducted on 55 dead children (<13 y) and 110 matured youths (13-17 y) who died in consequence of multiple blunt traumas, comprising car crashes, fall from heights, and falling debris...
August 4, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793062/variation-in-responses-to-sprint-training-in-male-youth-athletes-a-meta-analysis
#13
J Moran, G Sandercock, M C Rumpf, D A Parry
The trainability of youths and the existence of periods of accelerated adaptation to training have become key subjects of debate in exercise science. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to characterise youth athletes' adaptability to sprint training across PRE-, MID-, and POST-peak height velocity (PHV) groups. Effect sizes were calculated as a measure of straight-line sprinting performance with studies qualifying based on the following criteria: (a) healthy male athletes who were engaged in organised sports; (b) groups of participants with a mean age between 10 and 18 years; (c) sprint training intervention duration between 4 and 16 weeks...
January 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786353/longitudinal-study-of-cerebral-surface-morphology-in-youth-with-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-and-association-with-positive-symptoms-of-psychosis
#14
Petya D Radoeva, Ravi Bansal, Kevin M Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Bradley S Peterson, Wendy R Kates
BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic disorder that greatly increases risk of developing schizophrenia. We previously characterized cerebral surface morphology trajectories from late childhood to mid adolescence in a cohort of youth with 22q11DS. Herein, we extend the study period into early adulthood, and describe further the trajectories associated with severe psychiatric symptoms in this cohort. METHODS: Participants included 76 youth with 22q11DS and 30 unaffected siblings, assessed at three timepoints, during which high resolution, anatomic magnetic resonance images were acquired...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747552/evaluation-of-iowa-s-anti-bullying-law
#15
Marizen Ramirez, Patrick Ten Eyck, Corinne Peek-Asa, Angela Onwuachi-Willig, Joseph E Cavanaugh
BACKGROUND: Bullying is the most common form of youth aggression. Although 49 of all 50 states in the U.S. have an anti-bullying law in place to prevent bullying, little is known about the effectiveness of these laws. Our objective was to measure the effectiveness of Iowa's anti-bullying law in preventing bullying and improving teacher response to bullying. METHODS: Sixth, 8th, and 11th grade children who completed the 2005, 2008 and 2010 Iowa Youth Survey were included in this study (n = 253,000)...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687493/the-peak-velocity-derived-from-the-carminatti-test-is-related-to-physical-match-performance-in-young-soccer-players
#16
Juliano Fernandes-da-Silva, Carlo Castagna, Anderson Santiago Teixeira, Lorival José Carminatti, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci Guglielmo
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the peak velocity derived from the Carminatti Test (T-CAR) (PVT-CAR) and physical match performance in young soccer players. Thirty-three youth soccer players were recruited from 2 non-professional clubs. Friendly matches and small-sided game were performed. Physical match demands were assessed using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. On a separate occasion, the players were submitted to the T-CAR. Players were categorised into 3 groups based on their T-CAR performance: Low (PVT-CAR ≤ P33), Intermediate (P33 > PVT-CAR < P66) and High (PVT-CAR ≥ P66)...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669191/influence-of-physical-maturity-status-on-sprinting-speed-among-youth-soccer-players
#17
Robert McCunn, Matthew Weston, John Ka Hill, Rich D Johnston, Neil V Gibson
The relative age effect is well documented with the maturation-selection hypothesis the most common explanation; however, conflicting evidence exists. We observed the birth-date distribution within an elite junior soccer academy. The influence of physical maturity status on anthropometric variables and sprinting ability was also investigated. Annual fitness testing was conducted over an eight-year period with a total of 306 players (age: 12.5 ± 1.7 y [range: 9.7 - 16.6 y]; stature: 156.9 ± 12.9 cm; mass: 46...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662539/violent-video-games-exposed-a-blow-by-blow-account-of-senseless-violence-in-games
#18
Andrew Krantz, Vipul Shukla, Michele Knox, Karyssa Schrouder
Violent video game (VVG) use has repeatedly been found to be associated with hostile expectations about others, desensitization to violence, decreased empathy and prosocial behavior, and aggressive thoughts and behaviors. Although these research findings have been widely publicized, VVGs remain the most extensively played games and represent a multi-billion dollar industry. Although VVGs are typically rated "mature," indicating they are not suitable for youths, they are often purchased for youths. This may be in part because there is currently no system available to consumers that thoroughly describes the content of video games, and much of the public is unaware of the types of violence that characterize game play...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632866/longitudinal-changes-in-hip-strength-and-range-of-motion-in-female-youth-soccer-players-implications-for-acl-injury-a-pilot-study
#19
Anh-Dung Nguyena, Emma F Zuka, Andrea L Baellowa, Kate R Pfileb, Lindsay J DiStefanoc, Michelle C Bolingd
CONTEXT: Risk of ACL injuries in young female athletes increases with age, appearing to peak during maturation. Changes in hip muscle strength and range of motion (ROM) during this time may contribute to altered dynamic movement patterns that are known to increase risk of ACL injuries. Understanding the longitudinal changes in hip strength and ROM is needed in order to develop appropriate interventions to reduce the risk of ACL injuries. OBJECTIVE: To examine the longitudinal changes in hip strength and ROM in female youth soccer players...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607063/the-influence-of-2-year-changes-in-physical-activity-maturation-and-nutrition-on-adiposity-in-adolescent-youth
#20
Javier Benítez-Porres, José Ramón Alvero-Cruz, Margarita Carrillo de Albornoz, Lorena Correas-Gómez, Jesús Barrera-Expósito, Manuel Dorado-Guzmán, Justin B Moore, Elvis A Carnero
The aim of this longitudinal study was to explore temporal patterns of physical activity (PA) and adiposity in Spanish adolescents. Eighty healthy adolescents were followed over a 2-year period (42 girls and 38 boys). A PA score was estimated using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). Adiposity was assessed by anthropometric measurements; body mass index (BMI) and fat mass percent (FMP) were calculated using standard equations. Sexual maturity was estimated by percentage of predicted adult stature...
2016: PloS One
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