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Youth maturation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639838/provider-perceptions-of-stigma-and-discrimination-experienced-by-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-phiv-while-accessing-sexual-and-reproductive-health-care
#1
Cynthia D Fair, Meredith Berk
Historically, children with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) were viewed as the "innocent victims" as their HIV infection was not acquired through sexual/drug related means. Today, adolescents with PHIV are surviving into young adulthood and are engaging in developmentally expected behaviors such as establishing intimate, sexual relationships. Like other youth, those living with PHIV often need to access sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. Previous research has documented stigma and discrimination experienced by adult women living with HIV as they try to access SRH care...
June 22, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628369/premier-league-academy-soccer-players-experiences-of-competing-in-a-tournament-bio-banded-for-biological-maturation
#2
Sean P Cumming, Daniel J Brown, Siobhan Mitchell, James Bunce, Dan Hunt, Chris Hedges, Gregory Crane, Aleks Gross, Sam Scott, Ed Franklin, Dave Breakspear, Luke Dennison, Paul White, Andrew Cain, Joey C Eisenmann, Robert M Malina
Individual differences in the growth and maturation have been shown to impact player performance and development in youth soccer. This study investigated Premier League academy players' experiences of participating in a tournament bio-banded for biological maturation. Players (N = 66) from four professional soccer clubs aged 11 and 14 years and between 85-90% of adult stature participated in a tournament. Players competed in three 11 vs 11 games on a full size pitch with 25-min halves. Sixteen players participated in four 15-min focus groups and were asked to describe their experiences of participating in the bio-banded tournament in comparison to age group competition...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608181/modified-maturity-offset-prediction-equations-validation-in-independent-longitudinal-samples-of-boys-and-girls
#3
Sławomir M Kozieł, Robert M Malina
BACKGROUND: Predicted maturity offset and age at peak height velocity are increasingly used with youth athletes, although validation studies of the equations indicated major limitations. The equations have since been modified and simplified. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to validate the new maturity offset prediction equations in independent longitudinal samples of boys and girls. METHODS: Two new equations for boys with chronological age and sitting height and chronological age and stature as predictors, and one equation for girls with chronological age and stature as predictors were evaluated in serial data from the Wrocław Growth Study, 193 boys (aged 8-18 years) and 198 girls (aged 8-16 years)...
June 12, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605273/improving-the-prediction-of-maturity-from-anthropometric-variables-using-a-maturity-ratio
#4
Job Fransen, Stephen Bush, Stephen Woodcock, Andrew Novak, Dieter Deprez, Adam D G Baxter-Jones, Roel Vaeyens, Matthieu Lenoir
PURPOSE: This study aimed to improve the prediction accuracy of Age at Peak Height Velocity (APHV) from anthropometric assessment using non-linear models and a maturity ratio rather than a maturity offset. METHODS: The dataset used to develop the original prediction equations was used to test a new prediction model, utilising the maturity ratio and a polynomial prediction equation. This model was then applied to a sample of male youth academy soccer players (n = 1330) to validate the new model in youth athletes...
June 12, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604286/growth-functional-capacities-and-motivation-for-achievement-and-competitiveness-in-youth-basketball-an-interdisciplinary-approach
#5
Humberto Moreira Carvalho, Carlos E Gonçalves, Dave Collins, Roberto R Paes
The interaction of multiple influences on the path to sport success is not yet fully understood by sport scientists. In this study, we examined variation in body size, functional capacities and motivation for achievement, competitiveness and deliberate practice of youth basketball players associated with differences in biological maturity status, chronological age and years of training experience. Reflecting the importance of interactive effects, we examined the relationships between the psychological variables and functional capacities...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597618/effects-of-resistance-training-overtraining-and-early-specialization-on-youth-athletes
#6
Benjamin K Walters, Connor R Read, A Reed Estes
INTRODUCTION: In 2014, 60 million youth ages 6-18 participated in some form of generalized athletics. 3.5 million children are injured annually participating in organized sport or recreational activities. While sound physical education can decrease the burden of youth sports injuries, the median annual physical education budget of $764 for United States elementary, middle and high schools may not allow enough flexibility to apply evidenced-based guidelines. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The topics were selected after a careful review of the 2016 National Strength and Conditioning Association Position Statement on Long-Term Athletic Development...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579327/manipulating-cognitive-reserve-pre-injury-environmental-conditions-influence-the-severity-of-concussion-symptomology-gene-expression-and-response-to-melatonin-treatment-in-rats
#7
Glenn R Yamakawa, Sabrina Salberg, Karen M Barlow, Brian L Brooks, Michael J Esser, Keith Owen Yeates, Richelle Mychasiuk
In an effort to understand the factors that contribute to heterogeneity in outcomes often associated with mTBI in youth, this study examined the role of premorbid differences in cognitive reserve on post-concussive symptoms (PCS), molecular markers, and treatment response. Male and female rats matured in one of three environmental conditions (Stress, Enrichment, Control), received a mTBI in adolescence, and were randomized to melatonin or placebo treatment. All animals underwent a behavioural test battery designed to examine PCS...
June 1, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578541/anthropometric-and-physical-qualities-of-elite-male-youth-rugby-league-players
#8
REVIEW
Kevin Till, Sean Scantlebury, Ben Jones
Rugby league is a collision team sport played at junior and senior levels worldwide, whereby players require highly developed anthropometric and physical qualities (i.e. speed, change-of-direction speed, aerobic capacity, muscular strength and power). Within junior levels, professional clubs and national governing bodies implement talent identification and development programmes to support the development of youth (i.e. 13-20 years) rugby league players into professional athletes. This review presents and critically appraises the anthropometric and physical qualities of elite male youth rugby league players aged between 13 and 20 years, by age category, playing standard and playing position...
June 3, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557853/influence-of-maturation-stage-on-agility-performance-gains-after-plyometric-training-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Abbas Asadi, Hamid Arazi, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Jason Moran, Mikel Izquierdo
Although plyometric training (PT) improves change of direction (COD) ability, the influence of age on COD gains after PT is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to identify the age-related pattern of improvement in COD ability after PT in youths. A computerized search within six databases was performed, selecting studied based on specific inclusion criteria: experimental trials published in English-language journals, PT focused on the lower body, COD ability measurements reported before and after training, and male participants aged 10-to-18 years old...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552358/modular-segregation-of-structural-brain-networks-supports-the-development-of-executive-function-in-youth
#10
Graham L Baum, Rastko Ciric, David R Roalf, Richard F Betzel, Tyler M Moore, Russell T Shinohara, Ari E Kahn, Simon N Vandekar, Petra E Rupert, Megan Quarmley, Philip A Cook, Mark A Elliott, Kosha Ruparel, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Danielle S Bassett, Theodore D Satterthwaite
The human brain is organized into large-scale functional modules that have been shown to evolve in childhood and adolescence. However, it remains unknown whether the underlying white matter architecture is similarly refined during development, potentially allowing for improvements in executive function. In a sample of 882 participants (ages 8-22) who underwent diffusion imaging as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, we demonstrate that structural network modules become more segregated with age, with weaker connections between modules and stronger connections within modules...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546774/injuries-and-illnesses-in-a-cohort-of-elite-youth-alpine-ski-racers-and-the-influence-of-biological-maturity-and-relative-age-a-two-season-prospective-study
#11
Lisa Müller, Carolin Hildebrandt, Erich Müller, Renate Oberhoffer, Christian Raschner
BACKGROUND: Studies on injuries and illnesses involving youth ski racers younger than 15 years are lacking in the literature. The aim of this study was prospectively to assess the incidence, prevalence, and severity of traumatic and overuse injuries, as well as illnesses of elite youth ski racers with regard to sex, biological maturity status, and relative age. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal cohort design was used to monitor the anthropometrics, training characteristics, traumatic and overuse injuries, and illnesses of 82 elite youth ski racers (51 males, 31 females, age 9-14 years) over 2 consecutive years...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541073/symptoms-of-stress-and-depression-effect-percentage-of-body-fat-and-insulin-resistance-in-healthy-youth-look-longitudinal-study
#12
Lisa S Olive, Rohan M Telford, D G Byrne, Walter P Abhayaratna, Richard D Telford
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the longitudinal and cross-sectional effects of both psychosocial stress and depressive symptoms on insulin resistance and percentage body fat in a cohort of healthy Australian children, following them from childhood into adolescence. METHOD: Participants were 791 healthy, initially Grade 2 children (7-8 years; 394 girls), selected from the general community. Psychosocial stress was assessed using the Children's Stress Questionnaire, while depressive symptoms were assessed using the Children's Depression Inventory...
May 25, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530427/a-meta-analytic-review-of-the-association-between-pubertal-timing-and-psychopathology-in-adolescence-are-there-sex-differences-in-risk
#13
Josie M Ullsperger, Molly A Nikolas
Research examining pubertal timing effects on psychopathology has emphasized that a subset of adolescents, particularly females, who experience early pubertal maturation relative to their peers appear to be at increased risk for psychopathology. The aims of the current meta-analysis were (a) to quantify the magnitude of early pubertal timing effects on psychopathology, (b) to examine potential moderators of pubertal timing effects (sex, psychopathology domain, sample composition, measurement method, and mean sample age), and (c) to examine findings in relation to hypotheses in the extant literature explicating differential pubertal timing effects for early versus late youth and males versus females...
May 22, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529439/pubertal-timing-and-youth-internalizing-psychopathology-the-role-of-relational-aggression
#14
Hayley Pomerantz, Justin Parent, Rex Forehand, Nicole Lafko Breslend, Jeffrey P Winer
The current study examined relational aggression as a potential mechanism that explains the association between off-time pubertal development and internalizing problems in youth. Youth gender was also examined as a moderator for the association between these variables. It was hypothesized that early pubertal maturation would be associated with higher levels of relationally aggressive behavior which, in turn, would be associated with elevated levels of internalizing problems. Parents of 372 children between the ages of 8 and 17 were recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk...
February 2017: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523517/body-size-of-male-youth-soccer-players-1978-2015
#15
REVIEW
Robert M Malina, António J Figueiredo, Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva
BACKGROUND: Studies of the body size and proportions of athletes have a long history. Comparisons of athletes within specific sports across time, though not extensive, indicate both positive and negative trends. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate secular variation in heights and weights of male youth soccer players reported in studies between 1978 and 2015. METHODS: Reported mean ages, heights, and weights of male soccer players 9-18 years of age were extracted from the literature and grouped into two intervals: 1978-99 and 2000-15...
May 18, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443258/the-effect-of-first-nocturnal-ejaculation-timing-on-risk-and-sexual-behaviors-of-korean-male-adolescents
#16
Mi-Ji Lee, Go-Eun Yang, Hee Won Chueh, Jae Hong Park, Jae-Ho Yoo
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of first nocturnal ejaculation timing on risk and sexual behaviors of Korean male adolescents. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 10th edition of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based survey that was conducted with male high school adolescents in grades 10-12. The survey included 17,907 adolescents, and 10,326 responded their experience of first nocturnal ejaculation. Of these, 595 had their first nocturnal ejaculation in ≤grade 4 ("early puberty") and 9,731 had their first nocturnal ejaculation in ≥grade 5 ("normal puberty")...
March 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434870/maternal-socioeconomic-disadvantage-is-associated-with-transcriptional-indications-of-greater-immune-activation-and-slower-tissue-maturation-in-placental-biopsies-and-newborn-cord-blood
#17
Gregory E Miller, Ann E Borders, Amy H Crockett, Kharah M Ross, Sameen Qadir, Lauren Keenan-Devlin, Adam K Leigh, Paula Ham, Jeffrey Ma, Jesusa M G Arevalo, Linda M Ernst, Steve W Cole
Children from economically disadvantaged families experience worse cognitive, psychiatric, and medical outcomes compared to more affluent youth. Preclinical models suggest some of the adverse influence of disadvantage could be transmitted during gestation via maternal immune activation, but this hypothesis has not been tested in humans. It also remains unclear whether prenatal interventions can mitigate such effects. To fill these gaps, we conducted two studies. Study 1 characterized the socioeconomic conditions of 79 women during pregnancy...
April 21, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416901/mechanical-efficiency-in-children-with-different-body-weight-a-longitudinal-assessment-of-the-quality-cohort
#18
G Jabbour, A Tremblay, M Henderson, M-E Mathieu
Net mechanical efficiency (MEnet), which reflects the body's ability to transfer energy above resting levels in external work, is similar in young children regardless of their body weights. However, it is unclear whether MEnet remains stable during growth and maturation. We sought to determine whether net mechanical efficiency (MEnet) changes over a period of 3 years in children and to identify the factors associated with possible changes. A total of 169 children participating in the QUALITY (Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth) cohort completed an incremental cycling test, resulting in the same maximal power output during both visits...
March 2017: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416037/birth-weight-biological-maturation-and-obesity-in-adolescents-a-mediation-analysis
#19
A O Werneck, D R P Silva, P J Collings, R A Fernandes, E R V Ronque, M J Coelho-E-Silva, L B Sardinha, E S Cyrino
This study was aimed to investigate associations between birth weight and multiple adiposity indicators in youth, and to examine potential mediating effects by biological maturation. This was a school-based study involving 981 Brazilian adolescents aged between 10 and 17 years. Birth weight was reported retrospectively by mothers. Maturation was estimated by age of peak height velocity. Adiposity indicators included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and percent body fat estimated from triceps and subscapular skinfolds...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402178/top-10-research-questions-related-to-youth-aerobic-fitness
#20
Neil Armstrong
Peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]2) is internationally recognized as the criterion measure of youth aerobic fitness, but despite pediatric data being available for almost 80 years, its measurement and interpretation in relation to growth, maturation, and health remain controversial. The trainability of youth aerobic fitness continues to be hotly debated, and causal mechanisms of training-induced changes and their modulation by chronological age, biological maturation, and sex are still to be resolved...
June 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
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