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Youth maturation

Thomas A Avino, Nicole Barger, Martha V Vargas, Erin L Carlson, David G Amaral, Melissa D Bauman, Cynthia M Schumann
Remarkably little is known about the postnatal cellular development of the human amygdala. It plays a central role in mediating emotional behavior and has an unusually protracted development well into adulthood, increasing in size by 40% from youth to adulthood. Variation from this typical neurodevelopmental trajectory could have profound implications on normal emotional development. We report the results of a stereological analysis of the number of neurons in amygdala nuclei of 52 human brains ranging from 2 to 48 years of age [24 neurotypical and 28 autism spectrum disorder (ASD)]...
March 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Dominique Silva Silveira, Luis Filipe Gomes Barbosa Ferreira Lemos, Rafael Miranda Tassitano, Maria Teresa Cattuzzo, Anderson Henry Pereira Feitoza, Luisa Maria Seara Moreira Carneiro Aires, Jorge Augusto Pinto Silva Mota, Clarice Maria de Lucena Martins
This study evaluated the effect of a multi-component intervention on motor performance (MP) and metabolic risk markers (MRM) in overweight/obese youth. A secondary aim was to examine whether changes in MP are associated to changes in MRM. A 3-month multi-component intervention was performed, consisting of physical exercise sessions (twice/week;1h), nutritional education sessions (once/month), and parental support (twice/week). The sample included 35 volunteers (7-13 y.o), allocated to intervention (INT, n = 17) and control (CONT, n = 18) group...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Jennifer M Senia, M Brent Donnellan, Tricia K Neppl
Early pubertal timing is associated with internalizing and externalizing problems during adolescence. However, few studies explicitly test whether early puberty is especially problematic for those with pre-existing problems (i.e., accentuation) and little is known about whether the negative correlates of early pubertal timing persist past young adulthood. We address these questions using longitudinal data from up to 451 participants in the Iowa Youth and Families project (e.g., Ge, Conger, & Elder, 1996, 2001)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Brawnie Petrov, Ayat Aldoori, Cindy James, Kefeng Yang, Guillermo Perez Algorta, Aejin Lee, Liwen Zhang, Tao Lin, Reem Al Awadhi, Jonathan R Parquette, Arpad Samogyi, L Eugene Arnold, Mary A Fristad, Barbara Gracious, Ouliana Ziouzenkova
Genetic, dietary, and inflammatory factors contribute to the etiology of major mood disorders (MMD), thus impeding the identification of specific biomarkers to assist in diagnosis and treatment. We tested association of vitamin D and inflammatory markers in 36 adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) forms of MMD and without MMD (non-mood control). We also assessed the overall level of inflammation using a cell-based reporter assay for nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) activation and measuring antibodies to oxidized LDL...
March 13, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
R F Walker
Based upon evolvability theory, phenotypes like aging that offer no apparent individual benefit may evolve nonetheless. Pursuant to that concept, the evolution of a hypothetical, genome-based aging program called phenoptosis was proposed. However, while aging may facilitate evolvability, it need not result from a program specifically selected for that purpose. Instead, it is possible that the potential for aging is conserved within the genome as a part of a beneficial program that orchestrates and integrates developmental transformation of the soma from conception to maturation...
December 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Mark De Ste Croix, Abigail Priestley, Rhodri Lloyd, Jon Oliver
PURPOSE: Fatigue negatively alters dynamic knee control, and the functional hamstring/quadriceps ratio (H/QFUNC ) plays an important role in stabilizing the joint. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of soccer-specific exercise on H/QFUNC in under (U) 13-, U15-, and U17-year-old female soccer players. METHODS: A total of 36 female players performed concentric and eccentric actions of the hamstrings at 60°, 120°, and 180°/s before and after an age group-specific field-based soccer protocol...
February 27, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Richard I Purves, Martine Stead, Douglas Eadie
The consumption of alcohol by young people remains a major public health concern at both the national and international level. Levels of drinking among 15-yearolds in the United Kingdom (UK) remain significantly higher than the European average. This study explored how alcohol brands are used by young people to develop their desired identities and how these acts of consumption extend to young people's profiles on social media. It also deepens understanding of how alcohol brands are connected to young peoples' concerns about image and peer group dynamics...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Nóra Bunford, Autumn Kujawa, Kate D Fitzgerald, Christopher S Monk, K Luan Phan
The neural bases of emotion are commonly measured using blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal and the late positive potential (LPP) event-related potential (ERP) component, but rarely together in the same individuals. Despite evidence of developmental changes in processing socio-emotional signals (e.g., faces) as reflected by both BOLD and LPP indices of brain maturation, the literature on the correspondence between these measures is limited to healthy adults, leaving questions regarding such correspondence across development and in clinical populations unaddressed...
February 17, 2018: Biological Psychology
Heita Goto, John G Morris, Mary E Nevill
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of biological maturity on match performance in elite youth male soccer players. The participants were 80 Premier League Academy outfield players (8-16 years old). Biological maturity was determined by calculating estimated chronological age at peak height velocity. The U9 and U10 squads played 6-a-side and the U11-U16 squads played 11-a-side inter-academy matches. All matches were analyzed using a 1 Hz Global Positioning System (SPI elite, GPSport, Australia) with squad specific speed zones which were calculated based on 5 m flying sprint speed in the last 5 m of 10 m sprint test...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Andrew M Watson, Carol Coutinho, Kristin Haraldsdottir, Stacey Brickson, Warren Dunn, Marlowe Eldridge
PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of physical maturity on the changes in ventricular morphology and function with sport training in female youth athletes. METHODS: Thirty-two female athletes (age 13-18 years) underwent height and weight measurement and 2-D echocardiographic evaluation immediately prior to, and following, a 20-week soccer season. Pre- and post-season left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), ejection fraction (LVEF), stroke volume (LVSV), mass (LVM), and posterior wall thickness (LVPWT), right ventricular end-diastolic diameter (RVEDD), end-diastolic area (RVEDA), and fractional area change (RVFAC), and interventricular septal thickness (IVST) were compared...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Jaak Jürimäe
For "The Year That Was 2017," I have selected 3 papers in the area of growth, maturation, and exercise during youth. The first paper has been chosen because it provides for the first time the relative age, maturation, and anthropometric biases on position allocation in elite youth soccer players participating in talent identification programs in professional soccer league. Specific anthropometrical attributes characterized playing positions with a bias toward these athletes who are comparatively tall and heavy for their age already in younger ages, whereas position-specific physical attributes do not become apparent until the later stages of talent development...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
David G Behm
The pressure for children to excel and succeed in sport continues to mount. Although resistance training for youth was in disfavor by many organizations even into the early 21st century, children's training programs are more closely resembling the volume and intensity of adult programs. The physiological maturation of adolescent youth may impact their response to advanced training programs. Furthermore, the pressure to specialize in specific sports rather than engage in a variety of sporting activities may affect not only training responses but also injury incidence...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Thomas Rowland
The value of exercise studies in children often resides in defining differences, which might make growing youngsters unique from their mature adult counterparts. Many such physiological and behavioral developmental differences have been identified, emphasizing that children are not, physiologically speaking, simply small adults. The following 2 studies published in the past year were chosen for their importance in contributing to the insights into previously unexplored areas. The first study addresses the influence of exercise on physiological variability, an emerging field that offers to provide important insights into the nature of such responses...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Pastin Pushpa Rani, Helen Charles, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar Russell, K G Selvaraj, Priya Mary Mammen, Sushila Russell, Muttathu K C Nair
Objectives: Family dysfunction is observed in families with children with intellectual disability (ID). We study the prevalence, pattern of dysfunction, and severity of impairment in these special families using Systems approach. Methods: Sixty-two special families (a child with ID) and 62 typical families (all children with typical development) were included in the present study. The presence of ID was confirmed and quantified with the Binet-Kamat Scale of intelligence or Gesell's Developmental Schedule and Vineland Social Maturity Scales among the special families...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Mitra Reyhani, Ashraf Kazemi, Mahrokh Keshvari
The present study was conducted to determine the perceptions of middle-aged women of reproductive changes. The present study was a qualitative research with a content analysis approach. The participants were 30 middle-aged women whose perceptions of reproductive changes had been collected on in-depth semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed using the Graneheim and Lundman's inductive content analysis method. The main themes extracted from the data were a sense of "fall" and "the beginning of a new life cycle...
February 2, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Lindsay Till Hoyt, Julianna Deardorff, Kristine Marceau, Cecile A Laurent, Gayle C Windham, Louise C Greenspan, Susan M Pinney, Susan Teitelbaum, Kevin J Grimm, Melissa J Hagan, Frank M Biro, Mary S Wolff, Lawrence H Kushi, Robert A Hiatt
PURPOSE: This study aims to examine the longitudinal association between puberty and sleep in a diverse sample of girls and explore racial/ethnic differences in this association. METHODS: Using latent growth curve modeling, the present study measured pubertal development (timing and rate) and sleep (wake time and bedtime) in 1,239 socioeconomically and ethnically diverse girls starting when they were 6-8 years old and followed longitudinally for up to 8 years. Pubertal assessment was conducted annually in clinic by physical examination, classified by sexual maturation stage for breast and pubic hair development by trained raters...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Conall F Murtagh, Thomas E Brownlee, Andrew OʼBoyle, Ryland Morgans, Barry Drust, Robert M Erskine
Murtagh, CF, Brownlee, TE, O'Boyle, A, Morgans, R, Drust, B, and Erskine, RM. Importance of speed and power in elite youth soccer depends on maturation status. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 297-303, 2018-Maturation status is a confounding factor when identifying talent in elite youth soccer players (ESP). By comparing performance of ESP and control participants (CON) matched for maturation status, the aims of our study were to establish the importance of acceleration, sprint, horizontal-forward jump, and vertical jump capabilities for determining elite soccer playing status at different stages of maturation...
February 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ryan P Cabeen, David H Laidlaw, Amanda Ruggieri, Daniel P Dickstein
This study investigates multimodal structural MR imaging biomarkers of development trajectories in pediatric bipolar disorder. T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MR imaging was conducted to investigate cross-sectional group differences with age between typically developing controls (N = 26) and youths diagnosed with bipolar disorder (N = 26). Region-based analysis was used to examine cortical thickness of gray matter and diffusion tensor parameters in superficial white matter, and tractography-based analysis was used to examine deep white matter fiber bundles...
January 10, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Nai-Peng Tey, Siow-Li Lai, Sor-Tho Ng
There has been a secular decline in age at menarche since the 19th century. Early-maturing women are more likely to have their sexual debut at a younger age, which in turn gives rise to a host of reproductive health and social problems. This study used data from five waves of National Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in the Philippines between 1993 and 2013 to examine the trends and socioeconomic differentials in age at menarche and sexual debut. The changing trend in age at menarche and sexual debut was examined across birth cohorts, and logistic regressions were used to identify the determinants of early sexual debut...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Yongjoo Kim, S Bryn Austin, S V Subramanian, Jennifer J Thomas, Kamryn T Eddy, Debra L Franko, Rachel F Rodgers, Ichiro Kawachi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for disordered weight control behaviors (DWCB) in South Korean adolescents at multiple levels, including individual, family, school, and geographic area. METHOD: We drew participants from the 11th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, conducted in 2015, with 65,529 adolescents (31,687 girls, 33,842 boys) aged 12-18 years. DWCB was defined as engaging in any of the following behaviors for weight control over the past month: fasting, one-food diet (eating only one food over an extended period of time for weight control), vomiting, and taking laxatives/diuretics/unprescribed diet pills...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
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