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Youth maturation

Marizen Ramirez, Patrick Ten Eyck, Corinne Peek-Asa, Angela Onwuachi-Willig, Joseph E Cavanaugh
BACKGROUND: Bullying is the most common form of youth aggression. Although 49 of all 50 states in the U.S. have an anti-bullying law in place to prevent bullying, little is known about the effectiveness of these laws. Our objective was to measure the effectiveness of Iowa's anti-bullying law in preventing bullying and improving teacher response to bullying. METHODS: Sixth, 8th, and 11th grade children who completed the 2005, 2008 and 2010 Iowa Youth Survey were included in this study (n = 253,000)...
December 2016: Injury Epidemiology
Juliano Fernandes-da-Silva, Carlo Castagna, Anderson Santiago Teixeira, Lorival José Carminatti, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci Guglielmo
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the peak velocity derived from the Carminatti Test (T-CAR) (PVT-CAR) and physical match performance in young soccer players. Thirty-three youth soccer players were recruited from 2 non-professional clubs. Friendly matches and small-sided game were performed. Physical match demands were assessed using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. On a separate occasion, the players were submitted to the T-CAR. Players were categorised into 3 groups based on their T-CAR performance: Low (PVT-CAR ≤ P33), Intermediate (P33 > PVT-CAR < P66) and High (PVT-CAR ≥ P66)...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Robert McCunn, Matthew Weston, John Ka Hill, Rich D Johnston, Neil V Gibson
The relative age effect is well documented with the maturation-selection hypothesis the most common explanation; however, conflicting evidence exists. We observed the birth-date distribution within an elite junior soccer academy. The influence of physical maturity status on anthropometric variables and sprinting ability was also investigated. Annual fitness testing was conducted over an eight-year period with a total of 306 players (age: 12.5 ± 1.7 y [range: 9.7 - 16.6 y]; stature: 156.9 ± 12.9 cm; mass: 46...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Andrew Krantz, Vipul Shukla, Michele Knox, Karyssa Schrouder
Violent video game (VVG) use has repeatedly been found to be associated with hostile expectations about others, desensitization to violence, decreased empathy and prosocial behavior, and aggressive thoughts and behaviors. Although these research findings have been widely publicized, VVGs remain the most extensively played games and represent a multi-billion dollar industry. Although VVGs are typically rated "mature," indicating they are not suitable for youths, they are often purchased for youths. This may be in part because there is currently no system available to consumers that thoroughly describes the content of video games, and much of the public is unaware of the types of violence that characterize game play...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Psychology
Anh-Dung Nguyena, Emma F Zuka, Andrea L Baellowa, Kate R Pfileb, Lindsay J DiStefanoc, Michelle C Bolingd
CONTEXT: Risk of ACL injuries in young female athletes increases with age, appearing to peak during maturation. Changes in hip muscle strength and range of motion (ROM) during this time may contribute to altered dynamic movement patterns that are known to increase risk of ACL injuries. Understanding the longitudinal changes in hip strength and ROM is needed in order to develop appropriate interventions to reduce the risk of ACL injuries. OBJECTIVE: To examine the longitudinal changes in hip strength and ROM in female youth soccer players...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Javier Benítez-Porres, José Ramón Alvero-Cruz, Margarita Carrillo de Albornoz, Lorena Correas-Gómez, Jesús Barrera-Expósito, Manuel Dorado-Guzmán, Justin B Moore, Elvis A Carnero
The aim of this longitudinal study was to explore temporal patterns of physical activity (PA) and adiposity in Spanish adolescents. Eighty healthy adolescents were followed over a 2-year period (42 girls and 38 boys). A PA score was estimated using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). Adiposity was assessed by anthropometric measurements; body mass index (BMI) and fat mass percent (FMP) were calculated using standard equations. Sexual maturity was estimated by percentage of predicted adult stature...
2016: PloS One
María Del Pilar Milke-García
Adulthood starts after youth and is characterized by the completion of growth and the achievement of organic and psychological maturity. Obesity and other preventable diseases related to lifestyle are common at this age. A complete, balanced and sufficient diet, together with exercise are important in order to prevent and treat these diseases. Several studies have brought about the mechanisms by which the incorporation of milk and dairy products to diet is beneficial in order to prevent and treat these diseases...
September 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
Chih-Ting Lee, Meng-Che Tsai, Chung-Ying Lin, Carol Strong
BACKGROUND: Early puberty is linked to adverse developmental outcomes in adolescents in Western societies. However, little is known about this relationship in an East Asian context. In addition, whether the impact of subjective pubertal timing (PT) and menarcheal age (MA) on adolescent psychosocial development persists into early adulthood remains unclear and is worthy of investigation. METHODS: A subset of data was retrieved from the Taiwan Youth Project, which recruited and followed a longitudinal cohort of 7(th)- and 9(th)-grade female Taiwanese students from 2000 to 2007...
July 26, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Cristine E Agresta, Chris Church, John Henley, Tim Duer, Kathleen OʼBrien
Over 30 million US adolescents participate in sport and exercise. Lower extremity injury from sport participation accounts for up to 89% of injuries each year. The single leg squat (SLS) is a simple clinical tool that assesses lower extremity mechanics often associated with injury risk. To date, there is limited information regarding SLS performance in healthy children. Such information could be useful when assessing youth athletes to determine if mechanics demonstrated are different than is to be expected and puts them at risk for injury...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Timothy E Wilens, Joseph Biederman, MaryKate Martelon, Courtney Zulauf, Jesse P Anderson, Nicholas W Carrellas, Amy Yule, Janet Wozniak, Ronna Fried, Stephen V Faraone
OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a highly morbid disorder increasingly recognized in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the relative risk for substance use disorders (SUDs; alcohol or drug abuse or dependence) and cigarette smoking in adolescents with BPD. METHODS: We evaluated the relative risk for SUDs and cigarette smoking in a case-controlled, 5-year prospective follow-up of adolescents with (n = 105, mean ± SD baseline age = 13.6 ± 2.5 years) and without ("controls"; n = 98, baseline age = 13...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Brenda Banwell, Douglas L Arnold, Jan-Mendelt Tillema, Maria A Rocca, Massimo Filippi, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Robert Zivadinov, Maria Pia Sormani
MRI plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in children, as it does in adults. The presence of multiple lesions in CNS locations commonly affected by MS, along with the presence of both enhancing and nonenhancing lesions, can facilitate a diagnosis of MS at the time of a first attack, whereas the accrual of serial lesions or new clinical attacks over time confirms the diagnosis in patients not meeting such criteria at onset. T2 and enhancing lesion accrual could serve as a primary outcome metric for pediatric MS clinical trials of selected therapies with anti-inflammatory activity in order to facilitate feasible trial size numbers...
August 30, 2016: Neurology
Cecile D Ladouceur
Adolescence, with the onset of puberty, represents a developmental period that, in the context of adverse events, renders youth vulnerable to the onset of psychopathology such as affective disorders. It is also a time when fronto-striatal-limbic systems supporting the processing and regulation of emotion and reward undergo important neuromaturational changes. Despite evidence from epidemiological research suggesting that, particularly in girls, the increase in the rate of depression is more strongly associated with pubertal development than maturational age, researchers are just beginning to scratch the surface regarding the specific influence of puberty on the development of fronto-striatal-limbic systems implicated in the pathophysiology of affective disorders...
2016: Santé Mentale Au Québec
Sarah J Cross, Shahrdad Lotfipour, Frances M Leslie
Concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol or psychostimulants represents a major public health concern, with use of one substance influencing consumption of the other. Co-abuse of these drugs leads to substantial negative health outcomes, reduced cessation, and high economic costs, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Epidemiological data suggest that tobacco use during adolescence plays a particularly significant role. Adolescence is a sensitive period of development marked by major neurobiological maturation of brain regions critical for reward processing, learning and memory, and executive function...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Autumn Kujawa, Minjie Wu, Heide Klumpp, Daniel S Pine, James E Swain, Kate D Fitzgerald, Christopher S Monk, K Luan Phan
BACKGROUND: Development of cortico-amygdala circuitry underlies the maturation of emotion processing and regulation, and age-related changes in amygdala connectivity with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) have been shown to mediate normative developmental decreases in anxiety. It remains unclear whether developmental changes in this circuitry relate to pathological anxiety in youth. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study addresses this question by examining amygdala functional connectivity in anxious and healthy individuals spanning the developmental period from childhood through adulthood...
July 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Lisa Müller, Erich Müller, Carolin Hildebrandt, Christian Raschner
The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing...
2016: PloS One
Elias Diarbakerli, Anna Grauers, Aina Danielsson, Paul Gerdhem
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. OBJECTIVE: To describe physical activity level and fracture rates in adults with idiopathic scoliosis, diagnosed before maturity, and to compare with a control group. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: A previous study found a lower level of sporting activities in adults treated for idiopathic scoliosis compared to controls. Other studies have shown a lower bone mass in adults with idiopathic scoliosis compared to controls...
August 5, 2016: Spine
A Messaaoui, S Tenoutasse, H Dorchy
Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) is a monogenic form of diabetes with onset in patients aged less than 25 years. It is a heterogeneous disorder due to heterozygous monogenic mutations with an autosomal dominant transmission. It could represent 2 to 5% of diabetes but is often under-diagnosed. We report three different cases of MODY, two without associated abnormalities and one with renal disorder. Mutations concern genes that are directly involved in the beta-cell function. In patients with non-syndromic diabetes, more than 99% of MODY result from mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-alpha (HNF-1-alpha ; formerly MODY 3), glucokinase (MODY 2), or HNF-4-alpha (MODY 1)...
March 2016: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Anh-Dung Nguyen, Emma F Zuk, Andrea L Baellow, Kate R Pfile, Lindsay J DiStefano, Michelle C Boling
CONTEXT: Risk of ACL injuries in young female athletes increases with age, appearing to peak during maturation. Changes in hip muscle strength and range of motion (ROM) during this time may contribute to altered dynamic movement patterns that are known to increase risk of ACL injuries. Understanding the longitudinal changes in hip strength and ROM is needed in order to develop appropriate interventions to reduce the risk of ACL injuries. OBJECTIVE: To examine the longitudinal changes in hip strength and ROM in female youth soccer players...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Antonia N Kaczkurkin, Tyler M Moore, Kosha Ruparel, Rastko Ciric, Monica E Calkins, Russell T Shinohara, Mark A Elliott, Ryan Hopson, David R Roalf, Simon N Vandekar, Efstathios D Gennatas, Daniel H Wolf, J Cobb Scott, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, John A Detre, Edna B Foa, Raquel E Gur, Ruben C Gur, Theodore D Satterthwaite
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a critical period for emotional maturation and is a time when clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression increase, particularly in females. However, few studies relate developmental differences in symptoms of anxiety and depression to brain development. Cerebral blood flow is one brain phenotype that is known to have marked developmental sex differences. METHODS: We investigated whether developmental sex differences in cerebral blood flow mediated sex differences in anxiety and depression symptoms by capitalizing on a large sample of 875 youths who completed cross-sectional imaging as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort...
November 15, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Jung-Min Lee, Pedro F Saint-Maurice, Youngwon Kim, Glenn A Gaesser, Gregory Welk
BACKGROUND: The assessment of physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure (EE) in youth is complicated by inherent variability in growth and maturation during childhood and adolescence. This study provides descriptive summaries of the EE of a diverse range of activities in children ages 7 to 13. METHODS: A sample of 105 7- to 13-year-old children (boys: 57%, girls: 43%, and Age: 9.9 ± 1.9) performed a series of 12 activities from a pool of 24 activities while being monitored with an indirect calorimetry system...
June 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
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