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subcutaneous defi

Sonia Caprio, Rachel Perry, Romy Kursawe
As a consequence of the global rise in the prevalence of adolescent obesity, an unprecedented phenomenon of type 2 diabetes has emerged in pediatrics. At the heart of the development of type 2 diabetes lies a key metabolic derangement: insulin resistance (IR). Despite the widespread occurrence of IR affecting an unmeasurable number of youths worldwide, its pathogenesis remains elusive. IR in obese youth is a complex phenomenon that defies explanation by a single pathway. In this review we first describe recent data on the prevalence, severity, and racial/ethnic differences in pediatric obesity...
May 2017: Gastroenterology
Julia M Fraile, Gonzalo R Ordóñez, Pedro M Quirós, Aurora Astudillo, José A Galván, Dolors Colomer, Carlos López-Otín, José M P Freije, Xose S Puente
Proteolytic enzymes play important roles during tumor development and progression through their ability to promote cell growth or by facilitating the invasion of surrounding tissues. The human genome contains more than 570 protease-coding genes, many of them forming functional networks, which has forced the use of global strategies for the analysis of this group of enzymes. In this study, we have designed a new quantitative PCR-based device for profiling the entire degradome in human malignancies. We have used this method to evaluate protease expression levels in colorectal carcinomas with the finding that most proteases with altered expression in these tumors exert their function in the extracellular compartment...
November 2013: Oncotarget
V Gouilleux-Gruart, H Chapel, S Chevret, M Lucas, M Malphettes, C Fieschi, S Patel, D Boutboul, M-N Marson, L Gérard, M Lee, H Watier, E Oksenhendler
Treatment of common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) is based on replacement therapy using intravenous (i.v.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) immunoglobulin (Ig)G. Interindividual variation of IgG dose is common. A total of 380 CVID patients on stable IgG replacement from two prospective cohorts were analysed. An 'efficiency' index was defined as the ratio of serum IgG trough level minus IgG residual to the average weekly dose of IgG infusion. A reduced efficiency of IgG was associated independently with the i...
February 2013: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
W Clark Lambert, Claude E Gagna, Muriel W Lambert
Although the term, "trichothiodystrophy" (TTD) refers to the hair anomalies in this group of patients, this is a heterogeneous, multisystem disease in which any or every organ in the body may be affected. Neuroectodermal derived tissues are particularly likely to be involved. This term was introduced by Price et alin 1980 to designate patients with sulfur-deficient brittle hair, which they recognized as a marker for this complex disease and designated it as a "neuroectodermal symptom complex". Patients with TTD have brittle hair and nails (associated with reduced content ofcysteine-rich matrix proteins), ichthyotic skin and physical and mental growth retardation...
2010: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
K-H Jeong, M-H Lee
Factitial panniculitis can be produced by mechanical, physical, or chemical means. It often causes an unusual clinical and histological feature that defies diagnosis until self-inoculation or mechanical trauma is suspected and proved. Acupuncture has been used in East Asia for centuries as a method of treatment for various conditions, especially for pain relief, and is known to be a relatively safe system. The needles are often manipulated by hand once they are placed at the acupuncture points. Electroacupuncture, the application of pulsating electrical current to acupuncture needles, was developed in China as an extension of hand manipulation, and produces continuous and stronger stimulation; however, although this may provide more effective treatment, it may also provoke more mechanical trauma...
July 2009: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Jacek Gasiorowski, Brygida Knysz, Bartosz Szetela, Andrzej Gładysz
Immune reconstitution syndromes (IRS) in HIV-1-infected patients are associated with an exaggerated infl ammatory response against an opportunistic infection during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The most commonly described cases of this phenomenon concern mycobacterial (Mycobacterium avium and M. tuberculosis) infections, pneumocystodosis, cryptoccoccal meningitis, and CMV infections. Cutaneous cryptococcosis as IRS is less commonly observed. The case of a 45-year-old HIV-1-positive male is reported who developed subcutaneous abscesses due to Cryptococcus neoformans infection after four weeks of effective HAART following profound immune defi ciency...
January 14, 2008: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Marcus Castro Ferreira, Paulo Tuma, Viviane Fernandes Carvalho, Fábio Kamamoto
Complex wound is the term used more recently to group those well-known difficult wounds, either chronic or acute, that challenge medical and nursing teams. They defy cure using conventional and simple "dressings" therapy and currently have a major socioeconomic impact. The purpose of this review is to bring these wounds to the attention of the health-care community, suggesting that they should be treated by multidisciplinary teams in specialized hospital centers. In most cases, surgical treatment is unavoidable, because the extent of skin and subcutaneous tissue loss requires reconstruction with grafts and flaps...
December 2006: Clinics
Wei-liang Zhu, Jian Zhang, Ji-ren Zhang, Sen-ming Wang, Hai-ji Bu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of three commonly used local ablation methods in the treatment of transplanted hepatocellular carcinoma in mice to provide experimental evidence for treating hepatocellular carcinoma that defies surgical removal. METHODS: Mouse models of hepatocellular carcinoma were established by means of subcutaneous transplantation, and treatment results of the three ablation methods, namely percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT), percutaneous acetic acid injection therapy (PAIT) and percutaneous local cryosurgery therapy (PLCT), were compared...
December 2003: Di 1 Jun Yi da Xue Xue Bao, Academic Journal of the First Medical College of PLA
Syed R Husain, Raj K Puri
Central nervous system malignant neoplasias, in particular, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) have defied all current therapeutic modalities. New therapies involving tumor targeting approach are being explored. This approach relies on the identification of unique or over-expressed cell surface receptors or antigens on tumor cells. In that regard, we have identified receptor for an immune regulatory cytokine, interleukin-13 (IL-13), which is over-expressed on human malignant glioma cell lines and primary tumor cell cultures...
October 2003: Journal of Neuro-oncology
J D DeHaan, S Nurbakhsh
When a human body is found with significant portions of its torso and limbs destroyed yet with comparatively minor damage to head, hands and feet, the mechanism of such destruction defies ready explanation, since exposure to external fires, particularly those involving flammable liquids, usually results in the destruction of hands, feet, limbs, and head prior to significant combustion of the large mass of the torso. Previous tests by these authors have demonstrated the conditions necessary to promote combustion of a body: the presence of adequate body fat, presence of a porous, rigid char to act as a wick, and an external flame source sustained for several minutes to char the body and cause the subcutaneous fat to begin rendering...
September 2001: Journal of Forensic Sciences
C M Magro, A N Crowson, A J Kovatich, F Burns
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis and classification of lymphocytic lobular panniculitis (LLP) has historically proven to be a difficult challenge. We encountered 32 cases of primary LLP which could be categorized as: 1) lupus erythematosus profundus (LEP) (19 patients); 2) an indeterminate group termed indeterminate lymphocytic lobular panniculitis (ILLP) (6 patients); and 3) subcutaneous T-cell lymphoma (SCTCL) (7 patients). OBJECTIVE: We attempted to better define the subtypes of LLP by morphologic, phenotypic and genotypic features and to correlate those features to clinical presentation and outcome...
May 2001: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Y Kondo, K Suzuki, Y Sakuma
Capability of estrogen to alleviate spatial-learning deficits due to brain ischemia was evaluated in ovariectomized gerbils. Thirty-nine ovariectomized gerbils were physically trained to swim in a 90 cm-diameter round pool. The half of the ovariectomized animals received subcutaneous implantation of a Silastic capsule of estrogen, 1 week before ischemic assault. Transient brain ischemia was accomplished on experimental day 1 by bilateral clipping of the common carotid artery for 15 min under pentobarbital and ketamine anesthesia...
November 28, 1997: Neuroscience Letters
A F Dalley
Although easily taken for granted when functioning properly, malfunction of the anorectal mechanism presents profound inconvenience and embarrassment. The anal sphincters, internal and external, have been the subjects of extensive study yet much appears to remain unsettled. Each sphincter has been proposed, at one time or another, to be the sine qua non of fecal continence, and both clinical and nonclinical studies have often yielded contradictory results. For example, it has been established that the internal sphincter is actually relaxed during the moments of greatest need! On the other hand, the external sphincter can be fully contracted only for a matter of seconds before becoming fatigued...
May 1987: American Surgeon
G C Oliver, R J Rubin, E P Salvati, T E Eisenstat, J Lott
Each year we treat several patients with an anterior perineal sinus tract. They do not conform to commonly encountered perineal problems such as pilonidal disease, epidermal cysts, hidradenitis, fistulous abscess, or inflammatory bowel disease. In an effort to improve understanding of the problem and its clinical significance, we reviewed our practice records for the period from 1968 through 1988. Fifty-six patients underwent surgery for an anterior perineal sinus tract. In 31 patients, the clinical and pathologic condition defied classical diagnostic categorization...
September 1991: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
C M Quinn, J S Wigglesworth, J Heckmatt
Twenty-one cases of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, which had resulted in death soon after birth or had been aborted following prenatal diagnosis, were studied. Histochemical and histological study of muscle indicated that 11 cases were of myogenic origin, including congenital muscular dystrophy in 10 cases from six families and nemaline rod myopathy in one. Neurogenic causation was established in five cases, including three with intra-uterine anoxic-ischaemic damage and two siblings with a severe form of cerebro-ocular-facio-skeletal syndrome...
August 1991: Histopathology
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