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Jin-Lian Chen, Shi-Zhong Sun, Cui-Ping Miao, Kai Wu, You-Wei Chen, Li-Hua Xu, Hui-Lin Guan, Li-Xing Zhao
BACKGROUND: Biocontrol agents are regarded as promising and environmental friendly approaches as agrochemicals for phytodiseases that cause serious environmental and health problems. Trichoderma species have been widely used in suppression of soil-borne pathogens. In this study, an endophytic fungus, Trichoderma gamsii YIM PH30019, from healthy Panax notoginseng root was investigated for its biocontrol potential. METHODS: In vitro detached healthy roots, and pot and field experiments were used to investigate the pathogenicity and biocontrol efficacy of T...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Ramon Gonzalez, Pilar Morales, Jordi Tronchoni, Gustavo Cordero-Bueso, Enrico Vaudano, Manuel Quirós, Maite Novo, Rafael Torres-Pérez, Eva Valero
Adaptation to changes in osmolarity is fundamental for the survival of living cells, and has implications in food and industrial biotechnology. It has been extensively studied in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the Hog1 stress activated protein kinase was discovered about 20 years ago. Hog1 is the core of the intracellular signaling pathway that governs the adaptive response to osmotic stress in this species. The main endpoint of this program is synthesis and intracellular retention of glycerol, as a compatible osmolyte...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zachary D Threlkeld, Mohan Kottapally, Aimee Aysenne, Nerissa Ko
Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring frequently guides key decisions in the management of diseases causing intracranial hypertension. Although typically measured by invasive means, contraindications may leave the clinician with little recourse for dynamic ICP evaluation-particularly when the patient's mental status is compromised. We describe here a healthy 18-year-old woman who subacutely progressed to coma due to diffuse cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Heparinization precluded the use of invasive ICP monitoring, and electroencephalography (EEG) was used novelly as a surrogate ICP monitor...
October 2016: Neurohospitalist
Sindhura Pisipati, Kyle A Smith, Kushal Shah, Koji Ebersole, Roukoz B Chamoun, Paul J Camarata
OBJECTIVE Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is used in numerous neurosurgical applications including lesions that are difficult to resect. Its rising popularity can be attributed to its minimally invasive approach, improved accuracy with real-time MRI guidance and thermography, and enhanced control of the laser. One of its drawbacks is the possible development of significant edema, which contributes to extended hospital stays and often necessitates hyperosmolar or steroid therapy. Here, the authors discuss the use of minimally invasive craniotomy to resect tissue ablated with LITT in attempt to minimize cerebral edema...
October 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
M Hao, H Y Kuang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Li Yi Lim, Che Ani Mohd Firdaus, Xeng Inn Fam, Eng Hong Goh
Computed tomography (CT) is a widely used imaging modality. Although hyponatremia after CT imaging is rare, its effects can be devastating. Hyperosmolar radiocontrast acts as effective osmoles and causes fluid migration from intracellular into extracellular compartment. Dilutional hyponatremia will ensue if translocation of fluid is in excess of diuresis. This case report detailed an unusual case of acute symptomatic hyponatremia after CT renal protocol and the treatments given after its recognition.
September 27, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Goktug Demirci, Sevil Karaman Erdur, Mustafa Ozsutcu, Mustafa Eliacik, Oktay Olmuscelik, Rukiye Aydin, Mehmet Selim Kocabora
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate tear film function in patients with vitamin D deficiency. METHODS: In a single center, 60 eyes of 30 patients with vitamin D deficiency (group 1), and 60 eyes of 30 healthy individuals (group 2) were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear break-up time (TBUT), scoring of ocular surface fluorescein staining using a modified Oxford scale, and tear osmolarity. RESULTS: Tear osmolarity values, OSDI, and Oxford scale scores were significantly higher in group 1 (309±9 mOsm/L, 35...
September 22, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Lucy-Anne Frank, Andrew Solomon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2, 2016: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
Rebecca R Dixon, Maryalice Nocera, Adam J Zolotor, Heather T Keenan
OBJECTIVE: To examine the use of intracranial pressure monitors and treatment for elevated intracranial pressure in children 24 months old or younger with traumatic brain injury in North Carolina between April 2009 and March 2012 and compare this with a similar cohort recruited 2000-2001. DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: Twelve PICUs in North Carolina. PATIENTS: All children 24 months old or younger with traumatic brain injury, admitted to an included PICU...
September 13, 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Anica Winges, Tarcyane Barata Garcia, Philipp Prager, Peter Wiedemann, Leon Kohen, Andreas Bringmann, Margrit Hollborn
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy is associated with osmotic stress resulting from hyperglycemia and intracellular sorbitol accumulation. Systemic hypertension is a risk factor of diabetic retinopathy. High intake of dietary salt increases extracellular osmolarity resulting in systemic hypertension. We determined the effects of extracellular hyperosmolarity, chemical hypoxia, and oxidative stress on the gene expression of enzymes involved in sorbitol production and conversion in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells...
September 14, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Sekar Arunkumar, Bhagavatula Indira Devi, Dhaval Shukla, Madhusudhan Reddy
BACKGROUND: Intracranial pressure monitoring (ICP) is considered as optional for management of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. AIMS: This study was performed to determine whether ICP monitoring is beneficial in the managing severe TBI in children. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Neurosurgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care referral center; prospective observational study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children aged 16 years or less with severe TBI defined as "postresuscitation Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 or less admitted to an ICU" were enrolled...
September 2016: Neurology India
L Pasquesoone, N Aljudaibi, J Ellart, P Guerreschi, V Duquennoy-Martinot
The subcutaneous diffusion of intravenous drips, or extravasation, is a frequent iatrogenic complication in children, mainly in the neonatal period. This potentially severe pathology can lead to local ischemia that sometimes mimics compartment syndrome. It can also evolve towards vast soft-tissue necrosis. Nursing staff often underestimate the risk of functional, aesthetic, and psychological consequences. The speed and quality of the initial medical and surgical management can greatly decrease morbidity associated with extravasation...
October 2016: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthétique
E Warcoin, C Clouzeau, F Brignole-Baudouin, C Baudouin
Dry eye disease is a multifactorial disease affecting the lacrimal functional unit and which has a significant impact on the quality of life of patients. This pathology works as a vicious circle at the ocular surface in which hyperosmolarity of the tear film plays a key role. This review intends to describe the different reported intracellular effects induced by hyperosmolarity in cells: alteration of cytoskeleton, cell cycle slowdown, adaptation mechanisms triggered as restoration of cell volume and accumulation of compatible osmolytes, the crucial role of the osmoprotectant factor Nuclear Factor of the Activated T cells-5 (NFAT5), apoptosis, as well as oxidative stress and inflammatory responses caused by this particular condition...
September 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Thomas H Dohlman, Jessica B Ciralsky, Edward C Lai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dry eye disease (DED) is a complex, multifactorial condition that is challenging to diagnose and monitor clinically. To date, diagnosis has consisted largely of self-reported symptom questionnaires and a collection of clinical tests including vital dye staining, estimation of tear breakup time and Schirmer's testing, as no gold standard exists. As the dry eye field has made progress in understanding disease pathogenesis, new methods for assessment of this condition have been developed...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Usha Devi Appalsawmy, Habib Akbani
A 56-year-old man who was a Jehovah's Witness with an advanced directive against autologous procedures developed acute kidney injury needing renal replacement therapy while he was intubated and ventilated on the intensive care unit. He was being treated for hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state. He also had a healing laparotomy wound, having undergone a splenectomy less than a month ago following a road traffic accident. His hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis were refractory to medical treatment. As he became oligoanuric, decision was taken to carry out acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) by inserting a Tenckhoff catheter in his abdomen using peritoneoscopic technique...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Nadia Roumeliotis, Christian Dong, Géraldine Pettersen, Louis Crevier, Guillaume Emeriaud
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study are to describe the use of hyperosmolar therapy in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) and examine its effect on intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). DESIGN: A retrospective review of patients with severe TBI admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were ICP monitoring and administration of a hyperosmolar agent (20 % mannitol or 3 % hypertonic saline) within 48 h of PICU admission; for which dose and timing were recorded...
August 27, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Hee-Jung Ju, Yong-Soo Byun, Jee-Won Mok, Choun-Ki Joo
To determine the effect of hyperosmolarity on cell survival/apoptosis of conjunctival epithelial cells and evaluate the possible role of IL6, Wong-Kilbourne derivative of Chang conjunctival cell line (WKD) was used in this study. Confluent cells were incubated under different osmolarity (290 mOsm and 500 mOsm) with or without neutralizing IL6 antibody (50 ng/mL). The expression of IL6 level was measured in the supernatant of each conditioned medium. Cell viability/apoptosis assay was performed using Annexin V/Propidium Iodide (PI) and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8)...
2016: Journal of Ophthalmology
Lara Kern, Johanne Spreckels, Andrea Nist, Thorsten Stiewe, Chrysanthi Skevaki, Brandon Greene, Marco Mernberger, Hans-Peter Elsässer
Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation process involved in the turnover of organelles or other cell constituents, in providing sources for energy production under starving conditions and in cell metabolism. A key protein in the macroautophagic machinery is the autophagy-related protein (Atg) 7. Constitutive deletion of Atg7 is lethal at birth. A conditional deletion of Atg7 in hepatocytes leads to hepatomegaly and in aged animals to liver tumors. With this study, we aim at analyzing the hepatomegaly development in more detail...
August 23, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Anna M Ambroziak, Jerzy Szaflik, Jacek P Szaflik, Maciej Ambroziak, Jan Witkiewicz, Piotr Skopiński
The increasing understanding of immune mechanisms changed our perception of the ocular surface, which is now considered a compartment of the common mucosal immune system. It offered the possibility to alter the physiological immune response on the ocular surface and effectively combat inflammation, which impairs stability of the tear film and causes tear hyperosmolarity, causing symptoms of dry eye disease. The paper provides an overview of ocular surface anatomy and physiology, explains the underlying mechanisms of dry eye disease and discusses novel and promising treatment modalities, such as cyclosporine A, biological therapies using autologous serum and various growth factors as well as experimental treatment methods which are currently being investigated...
2016: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Fabia Gamboni, Cameron Anderson, Sanchayita Mitra, Julie A Reisz, Travis Nemkov, Monika Dzieciatkowska, Kenneth L Jones, Kirk C Hansen, Angelo D'Alessandro, Anirban Banerjee
Uncontrolled inflammatory responses underlie the etiology of acute lung injury and acute distress respiratory syndrome, the most common late complications in trauma, the leading cause of death under the age of 59. Treatment with HTS decreases lung injury in clinical trials, rat models of trauma and hemorrhagic shock and inflammation in lung cell lines, although the mechanisms underlying these responses are still incompletely understood. Transcriptomics (RNaseq), proteomics, and U-(13)C-glucose tracing metabolomics experiments were performed to investigate the mechanisms of cellular responses to HTS treatment in primary small airway epithelial cells in the presence or absence of inflammatory injury mediated by a cocktail of cytokines (10 ng/mL of IFNγ, IL-1β, and TNFα)...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
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