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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629456/comparison-of-the-effects-of-7-2-hypertonic-saline-and-20-mannitol-on-whole-blood-coagulation-and-platelet-function-in-dogs-with-suspected-intracranial-hypertension-a-pilot-study
#1
Ivayla D Yozova, Judith Howard, Diana Henke, Daniel Dirkmann, Katja N Adamik
BACKGROUND: Hyperosmolar therapy with either mannitol or hypertonic saline (HTS) is commonly used in the treatment of intracranial hypertension (ICH). In vitro data indicate that both mannitol and HTS affect coagulation and platelet function in dogs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 20% mannitol and 7.2% HTS on whole blood coagulation using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) and platelet function using a platelet function analyzer (PFA®) in dogs with suspected ICH...
June 19, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625546/the-lateral-parabrachial-nucleus-and-central-angiotensinergic-mechanisms-in-the-control-of-sodium-intake-induced-by-different-stimuli
#2
Camila F Roncari, Richard B David, Patrícia M De Paula, Débora S A Colombari, Laurival A De Luca, Eduardo Colombari, José V Menani
Angiotensin II (ANG II) is a typical facilitatory stimulus for sodium appetite. Surprisingly, hyperosmolarity and central cholinergic stimulation, two classical antinatriorexigenic stimuli, also facilitate NaCl intake when they are combined with injections of the α2-adrenoceptor/imidazoline agonist moxonidine into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN). In the present study, we tested the relative importance of central angiotensinergic and cholinergic mechanisms for the control of water and NaCl intake by combining different dipsogenic or natriorexigenic stimuli with moxonidine injection into the LPBN...
June 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596470/-epidural-emphysema-associated-with-diabetic-nonketotic-hyperosmolar-coma
#3
Yoshinari Takaya, Tomoyuki Uchiyama, Shunichi Murano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593362/hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-1%C3%AE-maturity-onset-diabetes-of-the-young-in-a-chinese-child-presenting-with-hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar-state
#4
Yue Luo, Zhijuan Dai, Liyi Li, Xiaoou Shan, Chaoming Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587319/seawater-drowning-induced-acute-lung-injury-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-potential-treatments
#5
Faguang Jin, Congcong Li
Drowning is a crucial public safety problem and is the third leading cause of accidental fatality, claiming ~372,000 lives annually, worldwide. In near-drowning patients, acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the most common complications. Approximately 1/3 of near-drowning patients fulfill the criteria for ALI or ARDS. In the present article, the current literature of near-drowning, pathophysiologic changes and the molecular mechanisms of seawater-drowning-induced ALI and ARDS was reviewed...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580075/role-of-vasopressin-in-current-anesthetic-practice
#6
REVIEW
Keun Suk Park, Kyung Yeon Yoo
Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as antidiuretic hormone, is a peptide endogenously secreted by the posterior pituitary in response to hyperosmolar plasma or systemic hypoperfusion states. When administered intravenously, it causes an intense peripheral vasoconstriction through stimulation of V1 receptors on the vascular smooth muscle. Patients in refractory shock associated with severe sepsis, cardiogenic or vasodilatory shock, or cardiopulmonary bypass have inappropriately low plasma levels of AVP ('relative vasopressin deficiency') and supersensitivity to exogenously-administered AVP...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571661/-evaluation-and-perioperative-management-of-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-a-challenge-for-the-anesthesiologist
#7
REVIEW
João Paulo Jordão Pontes, Florentino Fernandes Mendes, Mateus Meira Vasconcelos, Nubia Rodrigues Batista
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by alteration in carbohydrate metabolism, leading to hyperglycemia and increased perioperative morbidity and mortality. It evolves with diverse and progressive physiological changes, and the anesthetic management requires attention regarding this pathology interference in multiple organ systems and their respective complications. Patient's history, physical examination, and complementary exams are important in the preoperative management, particularly glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), which has a strong predictive value for complications associated with diabetes...
May 29, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570329/endocrine-emergencies-with-neurologic-manifestations
#8
Makoto Ishii
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an overview of endocrine emergencies with potentially devastating neurologic manifestations that may be fatal if left untreated. Pituitary apoplexy, adrenal crisis, myxedema coma, thyroid storm, acute hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia, hyperglycemic emergencies (diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state), and acute hypoglycemia are discussed, with an emphasis on identifying the signs and symptoms as well as diagnosing and managing these clinical entities...
June 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559070/severe-traumatic-brain-injury-at-a-tertiary-referral-center-in-tanzania-epidemiology-and-adherence-to-brain-trauma-foundation-guidelines
#9
Luke R Smart, Halinder S Mangat, Benson Issarow, Paul McClelland, Gerald Mayaya, Emmanuel Kanumba, Linda M Gerber, Xian Wu, Robert N Peck, Isidore Ngayomela, Malik Fakhar, Philip E Stieg, Roger Härtl
BACKGROUND: Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. However, prospective TBI data from sub-Saharan Africa are sparse. This study examines the epidemiology, and explores management of severe TBI patients and adherence to the Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF) Guidelines at a tertiary care referral hospital in Tanzania. METHODS: Patients with severe TBI hospitalized at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania, were recorded in a prospective registry...
May 27, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553560/optical-coherence-tomography-reveals-changes-to-corneal-reflectivity-and-thickness-in-individuals-with-tear-hyperosmolarity
#10
Laura Adelaide Deinema, Algis Jonas Vingrys, Holly Rose Chinnery, Laura Elizabeth Downie
PURPOSE: To investigate whether tear hyperosmolarity, a feature of dry eye disease (DED), affects central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal light reflectivity, and/or tear film reflectivity. METHODS: This prospective, cross-sectional study involved 48 participants (38 with hyperosmolar tears and 10 controls with normo-osmolar tears). Symptoms and signs of DED (tear osmolarity, sodium fluorescein tear break-up time, ocular surface staining, Schirmer test) were assessed...
May 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549643/hypertonic-saline-for-raised-intracranial-pressure-following-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Christopher R Pasarikovski, Naif M Alotaibi, Fawaz Al-Mufti, R Loch Macdonald
BACKGROUND: The use of hyperosmolar agents such as mannitol or hypertonic saline (HTS) to control high intracranial pressure (ICP) in traumatic brain injury patients has been well studied. However, the role of HTS in the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH)-associated raised ICP is still unclear. METHODS: We performed a systematic review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The primary outcome of this review is to quantify ICP reduction produced by HTS and its effect on clinical outcomes defined by any standardized functional score...
May 23, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533125/markers-of-immune-mediated-inflammation-in-the-brains-of-young-adults-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-and-fatal-diabetic-ketoacidosis-is-there-a-difference
#12
William H Hoffman, Carol M Artlett, Dallas Boodhoo, Mary G F Gilliland, Luis Ortiz, Dries Mulder, David H T Tjan, Alvaro Martin, Alexandru Tatomir, Horea Rus
Due to the limited data on diabetic ketoacidosis and brain edema (DKA/BE) in children/adolescents and the lack of recent data on adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D), we addressed the question of whether neuroinflammation was present in the fatal DKA of adults. We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies on the brains of two young adults with T1D and fatal DKA and compared them with two teenagers with poorly controlled diabetes and fatal DKA. C5b-9, the membrane attack complex (MAC) had significantly greater deposits in the grey and white matter of the teenagers than the young adults (p=0...
May 19, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512417/a-case-of-paraneoplastic-cushing-syndrome-presenting-as-hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar-nonketotic-syndrome
#13
Christina E Brzezniak, Nicole Vietor, Patricia E Hogan, Bryan Oronsky, Bennett Thilagar, Carolyn M Ray, Scott Caroen, Michelle Lybeck, Neil Oronsky, Corey A Carter
Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine tumors that mainly arise in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and bronchi. Bronchopulmonary carcinoids have been associated with Cushing syndrome, which results from ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion. We report the case of a 65-year-old man, a colonel in the US Air Force, with metastatic bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumors treated on a clinical trial who was hospitalized for complaints of increasing thirst, polydipsia, polyuria, weakness, and visual changes...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502385/the-effects-of-blood-glucose-regulation-on-tear-function-tests-in-diabetic-patients
#14
S Kan, U Acar, M Kizilgul, E Beyazyildiz, A B Cankaya, O Ozcelik, M Ozbek
PURPOSE: To investigate whether blood glucose regulation in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) has an influence on the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score and tear function tests such as tear film osmolarity (TFO), tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer tests. METHODS: Fifty diabetic patients with a fasting blood glucose (FBG) level greater than 200mg/dL and HbA1c level greater than 10% were recruited for this prospective study. All of the patients underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination including OSDI questionnaire, TFO test, TBUT test and Schirmer test initially...
May 11, 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495796/phosphorylation-of-nhe3-s-719-regulates-nhe3-activity-through-the-formation-of-multiple-signaling-complexes
#15
Rafiquel Sarker, Boyoung Cha, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Robert Cole, Sandra Gabelli, Chung Ming Tse, Mark Donowitz
Casein kinase 2 (CK2) binds to the NHE3 C-terminus and constitutively phosphorylates a down-stream site (S719) that accounts for 40% of basal NHE3 activity. The role of CK2 in regulation of NHE3 activity in polarized Caco-2/bbe cells was further examined by mutation of NHE3-S(719) to A (not phosphorylated) or D (phosphomimetic). NHE3-S719A but not -S719D had multiple changes in NHE3 activity consisting of a) reduced basal NHE3 activity: specifically, inhibition of the PI3-K/ AKT-dependent component. b) reduced acute stimulation of NHE3 activity by LPA/LPA5R stimulation...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490564/association-between-serum-osmolarity-and-mortality-in-patients-who-are-critically-ill-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
Yanfei Shen, Xuping Cheng, Manzhen Ying, Hao-Tang Chang, Weimin Zhang
OBJECTIVES: This research aims to explore the association between serum osmolarity and mortality in patients who are critically ill with specific categories of disease. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Data were extracted from an online database named 'Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II'. 16 598 patients were included. METHODS: Patients were divided into six disease subgroups based on the diagnosis at admission: cardiac, cerebral, vascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory and non-respiratory...
May 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478873/the-use-of-mannitol-and-hypertonic-saline-therapies-in-patients-with-elevated-intracranial-pressure-a-review-of-the-evidence
#17
REVIEW
Briana Witherspoon, Nathan E Ashby
Patients with increased intracranial pressure generally require pharmacologic therapies and often more definitive treatments, such as surgical intervention. The overall goal of these interventions is to maintain or re-establish adequate cerebral blood flow and prevent herniation. Regardless of the cause of increased intracranial pressure, osmotherapy is considered the mainstay of medical therapy, and should be administered as soon as possible. This article reviews the history of hyperosmolar and hypertonic therapies, the Monro-Kellie hypothesis, and types of cerebral edema...
June 2017: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471928/complication-rates-of-3-hypertonic-saline-infusion-through-peripheral-intravenous-access
#18
Claudia Andira Perez, Stephen A Figueroa
INTRODUCTION: Hyperosmolar therapy with hypertonic saline (HTS) is a cornerstone in the management of intracranial hypertension and hyponatremia in the neurological intensive care unit. Theoretical safety concerns remain for infiltration, thrombophlebitis, tissue ischemia, and venous thrombosis associated with continuous 3% HTS administered via peripheral intravenous (pIV) catheters. It is common practice at many institutions to allow only central venous catheter infusion of 3% HTS. METHODS: Hospital policy was changed to allow the administration of 3% HTS via 16- to 20-gauge pIVs to a maximum infusion rate of 50 mL/h in patients without central venous access...
June 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462510/runx2-alleviates-high-glucose-suppressed-osteogenic-differentiation-via-pi3k-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#19
Yang Chen, Yun Hu, Lan Yang, Jie Zhou, Yuying Tang, Leilei Zheng, Pu Qin
Hyperglycemia is one of the most important pathogenesis of diabetic osteopathy. Several lines of studies indicate Runx2 plays a critical role in the process of osteogenic differentiation. However, little studies have analysed the effect of Runx2 on osteoblast differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) in high glucose condition. In this study, the effect of Runx2 on osteoblast differentiation in high glucose condition was evaluated by the expression of osteogenesis-related maker including Runx2, ALP, OC and OPN, as well as ALP staining, ALP activity and Alizarin red S staining...
April 29, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441045/effects-of-topical-application-of-silver-sulfadiazine-cream-triple-antimicrobial-ointment-or-hyperosmolar-nanoemulsion-on-wound-healing-bacterial-load-and-exuberant-granulation-tissue-formation-in-bandaged-full-thickness-equine-skin-wounds
#20
Caroline C Gillespie Harmon, Jan F Hawkins, Jianming Li, Sean Connell, Margaret Miller, Megan Saenger, Lynetta J Freeman
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of 3 topically applied treatments (1% silver sulfadiazine cream [SSC], triple antimicrobial ointment [TAO], and hyperosmolar nanoemulsion [HNE]) on microbial counts, exuberant granulation tissue (EGT) development, and reepithelialization of contaminated wounds at the distal aspect of the limbs of horses. ANIMALS 8 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES A 2.5 × 2.5-cm, full-thickness, cutaneous wound was created at the dorsal aspect of each metacarpus and metatarsus (1 wound/limb/horse), covered with nonadhesive dressing, and bandaged...
May 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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