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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212925/reversible-opercular-syndrome-secondary-to-osmotic-demyelination
#1
Shuchit Pandey, Vikram V Holla, Imran Rizvi, Rakesh Shukla
Opercular syndrome (OPS) is characterized by weakness of facial, masticatory, pharyngeal, laryngeal, tongue and brachial muscles on voluntary command with preservation of emotional and reflexive movements. We report a case of 45year old female who developed the features of OPS due to lesions of bilateral frontal opercular region induced by osmotic demyelination secondary to hyperosmolar hyperglycaemia. On follow up at 6 months, she had complete recovery.
February 11, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176024/hyperosmotic-stress-induces-atp-release-and-changes-in-p2x7-receptor-levels-in-human-corneal-and-conjunctival-epithelial-cells
#2
Ana Guzman-Aranguez, María J Pérez de Lara, Jesús Pintor
Tear hyperosmolarity is a key event in dry eye. In this work, we analyzed whether hyperosmolar challenge induces ATP release on the ocular surface. Moreover, as extracellular ATP can activate P2X7 receptor, the changes in P2X7 protein levels and its involvement in pathological process triggered by hypertonic treatment were also examined. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that ATP levels significantly increased in human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells exposed to hyperosmotic challenge as well as in dry eye patients as compared to control subjects...
February 7, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168986/gastric-emptying-is-reduced-in-experimental-nec-and-correlates-with-the-severity-of-intestinal-damage
#3
Yuhki Koike, Bo Li, Carol Lee, Shigang Cheng, Hiromu Miyake, Christopher Welsh, Alison Hock, Jaques Belik, Augusto Zani, Agostino Pierro
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to assess gastric emptying in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and its diagnostic significance using non-invasive ultrasound imaging. METHODS: Fourteen neonatal mice (C57BL/6) were randomized into two groups: NEC [n=10] and control [n=4]. NEC was induced by gavage feeding of hyperosmolar formula, hypoxia, and lipopolysaccharide between postnatal day 5 (P5) and 9 (P9). Stomach volume was measured using a 40-MHz ultrasound transducer on P5 and P9...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146363/keratitis-in-dry-eye-disease-and-topical-ciclosporin-a
#4
Andrea Leonardi, Bruno Flamion, Christophe Baudouin
Tear film alterations in dry eye disease (DED) include reduced tear volume and an increase in inflammatory cytokines. Instability and reduced tear production initiate a vicious cycle where hyperosmolarity, ocular inflammation, and apoptosis may induce damage of the ocular surface including keratitis. Topical cyclosporine (CsA) has been used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe DED; however, previous studies failed to demonstrate its benefits by the European Agency standards. A new formulation of CsA 0.1% has been recently approved in the EU to treat severe keratitis in DED patients...
February 1, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145211/-fatal-cerebral-oedema-during-the-treatment-of-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-an-adult-male
#5
T J A Dekker, J A Janson, E J Hoorn, Y W J Sijpkens
Diabetic ketoacidosis is relatively common, but the optimal treatment of this condition is still controversial. Cerebral oedema is a rare, but potentially fatal complication. We present the case of an adult patient who presented with de novo diabetic ketoacidosis that was complicated by cerebral oedema during treatment. In this article we discuss factors that may have played a role in the development of this complication. A prolonged hyperosmolar state in diabetic ketoacidosis may increase the risk of cerebral oedema as a result of cerebral compensatory mechanisms...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137665/diabetic-microangiopathy-pathogenetic-insights-and-novel-therapeutic-approaches
#6
REVIEW
Rosalinda Madonna, Carmela Rita Balistreri, Yong-Jian Geng, Raffaele De Caterina
Diabetic microangiopathy, including retinopathy, is characterized by abnormal growth and leakage of small blood vessels, resulting in local edema and functional impairment of the depending tissues. Mechanisms leading to the impairment of microcirculation in diabetes are multiple and still largely unclear. However, a dysregulated vascular regeneration appears to play a key role. In addition, oxidative and hyperosmolar stress, as well as the activation of inflammatory pathways triggered by advanced glycation end-products and toll-like receptors, have been recognized as key underlying events...
January 28, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130014/-biology-and-mechanobiology-of-the-intervertebral-disc
#7
Emilio González Martínez, José García-Cosamalón, Iván Cosamalón-Gan, Marta Esteban Blanco, Olivia García-Suarez, José A Vega
The intervertebral disc (IVD) is noted for its low cell content, and being the largest avascular structure of human body. The low amount of cells in the disc have to adapt to an anaerobic metabolism with low oxygen pressure and acidic pH. Apart from surviving in an adverse microenvironment, they are exposed to a high level of mechanical stress. The biological adaptation of cells to acidosis and hyperosmolarity conditions are regulated by mechanoproteins, which are responsible for converting a mechanical signal into a cellular response, thus modifying its gene expression...
January 24, 2017: Neurocirugía
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122469/dexmedetomidine-for-refractory-intracranial-hypertension
#8
Kendra J Schomer, Christian M Sebat, Jason Y Adams, Jeremiah J Duby, Kiarash Shahlaie, Erin L Louie
Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a selective α2 adrenergic agonist that is commonly used for sedation in the intensive care unit (ICU). The role of DEX for adjunctive treatment of refractory intracranial hypertension is poorly defined. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of DEX on the need for rescue therapy (ie, hyperosmolar boluses, extraventricular drain [EVD] drainages) for refractory intracranial hypertension. Secondary objectives included the number of intracranial pressure (ICP) excursions, bradycardic, hypotensive, and compromised cerebral perfusion pressure episodes...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114576/estimating-the-osmolarities-of-tears-during-evaporation-through-the-eyes-of-the-corneal-nerves
#9
Harumitsu Hirata, Kamila Mizerska, Valentina Dallacasagrande, Mark I Rosenblatt
Purpose: A population of corneal neurons in rats preferentially sense and monitor the hyperosmolar conditions of tears when the tears begin to evaporate during corneal dryness. The present study exploited this ability in an effort to estimate tear osmolarities by comparing the responses to corneal dryness to their responses to hyperosmolar stimuli. Methods: Extracellular recordings were performed from single neurons in the trigeminal ganglia innervating the corneas of rats...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112005/hemichorea-caused-by-nonketotic-hyperosmolar-state-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Hafiz Khuram Raza, Jia Jing, Guiyun Cui, Xiaoqian Liang, Fang Hua, Zunsheng Zhang, Hai Tang, Hongjuan Shi, Hao Chen
Our report involves a case of hemichorea caused by the nonketotic hyperosmolar state. We have analyzed the clinical data and relevant features of a patient who presented herself to the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University. The patient had unilateral involuntary movements for 1 month. We discovered that her blood glucose levels were very high. The patient underwent computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), indicating right basal ganglia lesion...
January 22, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107262/suspected-cerebral-edema-in-diabetic-ketoacidosis-is-there-still-a-role-for-head-ct-in-treatment-decisions
#11
Carmen L Soto-Rivera, Lisa A Asaro, Michael S D Agus, Danielle D DeCourcey
OBJECTIVES: Neurologic deterioration associated with cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis is typically sudden in onset, progresses rapidly, and requires emergent treatment. The utility of brain imaging by head CT in decisions to treat for cerebral edema has not been previously studied. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of pediatric patients with diabetic ketoacidosis who develop altered mental status and evaluate the role of head CT in this cohort. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of clinical, biochemical, and radiologic data...
January 19, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103265/rabbit-model-of-human-gliomas-implications-for-intra-arterial-drug-delivery
#12
Huamin Qin, Miroslaw Janowski, Monica S Pearl, Izabela Malysz-Cymborska, Shen Li, Charles G Eberhart, Piotr Walczak
The prognosis for malignant brain tumors remains poor despite a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. This is partly due to the blood-brain barrier, a major obstacle that prevents therapeutic agents from effectively reaching the tumor. We have recently developed a method for precise and predictable opening of the blood-brain barrier via the intra-arterial administration of mannitol, a hyperosmolar agent, in a rabbit model, whose vascular anatomy facilitates the use of standard interventional neuroradiology techniques and devices...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081152/increased-serum-sodium-and-serum-osmolarity-are-independent-risk-factors-for-developing-chronic-kidney-disease-5-year-cohort-study
#13
Masanari Kuwabara, Ichiro Hisatome, Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Koichiro Niwa, Ana Andres-Hernando, Thomas Jensen, Petter Bjornstad, Tamara Milagres, Christina Cicerchi, Zhilin Song, Gabriela Garcia, Laura G Sánchez-Lozada, Minoru Ohno, Miguel A Lanaspa, Richard J Johnson
BACKGROUND: Epidemics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) not due to diabetes mellitus (DM) or hypertension have been observed among individuals working in hot environments in several areas of the world. Experimental models have documented that recurrent heat stress and water restriction can lead to CKD, and the mechanism may be mediated by hyperosmolarity that activates pathways (vasopressin, aldose reductase-fructokinase) that induce renal injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that elevated serum sodium, which reflects serum osmolality, may be an independent risk factor for the development of CKD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046026/comparison-of-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo-wound-healing-assays-for-the-investigation-of-diabetic-wound-healing-and-demonstration-of-a-beneficial-effect-of-a-triterpene-extract
#14
Christopher Ueck, Thomas Volksdorf, Pia Houdek, Sabine Vidal-Y-Sy, Susanne Sehner, Bernhard Ellinger, Ralf Lobmann, Axel Larena-Avellaneda, Konrad Reinshagen, Ina Ridderbusch, Klaas Kohrmeyer, Ingrid Moll, Rolf Daniels, Philipp Werner, Irmgard Merfort, Johanna M Brandner
Diabetes mellitus is a frequent cause for chronic, difficult-to-treat wounds. New therapies for diabetic wounds are urgently needed and in-vitro or ex-vivo test systems are essential for the initial identification of new active molecules. The aim of this study is to compare in-vitro and ex-vivo test systems for their usability for early drug screening and to investigate the efficacy of a birch bark triterpene extract (TE) that has been proven ex-vivo and clinically to accelerate non-diabetic wound healing (WH), in a diabetic context...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974984/technical-innovation-case-report-ultrasound-guided-prolotherapy-injection-for-insertional-achilles-calcific-tendinosis
#15
Benjamin K Buchanan, Jesse P DeLuca, Kyle P Lammlein
We describe the use of ultrasound guidance for hyperosmolar dextrose (prolotherapy) injection of the distal calcaneal tendon specifically just anterior to identified enthesophytes in patients with insertional Achilles calcific tendinosis refractory to conservative treatment. This specific technique has not to our knowledge been described or used in literature previously.
2016: Case Reports in Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941330/hyperosmolarity-and-benzalkonium-chloride-differently-stimulate-inflammatory-markers-in-conjunctiva-derived-epithelial-cells-in-vitro
#16
Elise Warcoin, Chloé Clouzeau, Christophe Roubeix, Anne-Laure Raveu, David Godefroy, Luisa Riancho, Christophe Baudouin, Françoise Brignole-Baudouin
Tear hyperosmolarity is known to cause ocular surface inflammation in dry eye syndrome. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK), an eyedrop preservative, is known to induce dry eye in long-term-treated patients. Analyzing the modulation of the proinflammatory potential of hyperosmolarity in the presence of BAK on the conjunctiva could give new insights into the effect of this preservative on the disease. In a hyperosmolar model on a conjunctiva-derived cell line, and in the presence of BAK, we evaluated key inflammatory markers [CCL2, IL-8, IL-6, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1] as well as the osmoprotectant element nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)5 using ELISA, RT-qPCR or immunofluorescence staining...
December 10, 2016: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928967/hot-topics-in-dry-eye-disease
#17
Pablo Alberto Chiaradia, Luis Alberto Zeman Bardeci, Sebastián Dankert, Marcos Omar Mendaro, Andrzej Grzybowski
BACKGROUND: Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms such as discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear film instability, with potential damage to the ocular surface. The principal pathological mechanisms of DED are hyperosmolarity and inflammation. These mechanisms are deeply interrelated and lead to a self-perpetuating "vicious circle". METHODS: The objective of this review is to describe novel pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for DED...
December 7, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924173/predictors-of-recurrent-hospital-admission-for-patients-presenting-with-diabetic-ketoacidosis-and-hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar-state
#18
Annabel L Bradford, Courtney Champagne Crider, Xizheng Xu, Syed Hasan Naqvi
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are two serious, preventable complications of diabetes mellitus. Analysis of variables associated with recurrent DKA and HHS admission has the potential to improve patient outcomes by identifying possible areas for intervention. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential predictors of recurrent DKA or HHS admission. METHODS: This was a retrospective case-control study of 367 patients presenting during a 5-year period with DKA or HHS at a US tertiary academic medical center...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913232/visual-acuity-and-quality-of-life-in-dry-eye-disease-proceedings-of-the-ocean-group-meeting
#19
José Benítez-Del-Castillo, Marc Labetoulle, Christophe Baudouin, Maurizio Rolando, Yonca A Akova, Pasquale Aragona, Gerd Geerling, Jesús Merayo-Lloves, Elisabeth M Messmer, Kostas Boboridis
Dry eye disease (DED) results in tear film instability and hyperosmolarity, inflammation of the ocular surface and, ultimately, visual disturbance that can significantly impact a patient's quality of life. The effects on visual acuity result in difficulties with driving, reading and computer use and negatively impact psychological health. These effects also extend to the workplace, with a loss of productivity and quality of work causing substantial economic losses. The effects of DED and the impact on vision experienced by patients may not be given sufficient importance by ophthalmologists...
November 29, 2016: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896327/a-case-of-mediastinitis-accompanied-with-hyperosmolar-nonketotic-coma
#20
Mazhar Muslum Tuna, Faruk Kilinc, Zafer Pekkolay, Hikmet Soylu, Alpaslan Kemal Tuzcu
Mediastinitis is a serious infection involving mediastinal spaces after cervical infections spread along the facial planes. A late diagnosis of mediastinitis may result in death. Here we present a diabetic patient suffered from mediastinit accompanied with hyperosmolar nonketotic coma. A 61 years old male patient with type 2 diabetes was admitted to our hospital, with complaint of generalized worsening and fever. A diagnosis of nonketotic hyperosmolar coma was done and proper treatment started immediately. Neck tomography revealed abscess formation in the upper mediastinum...
June 2016: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
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