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Transplant immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332219/desensitisation-strategies-in-high-risk-children-before-kidney-transplantation
#1
Ankit Sharma, Anne M Durkan
BACKGROUND: Transplantation is the preferred modality for renal replacement therapy in children. With increasing rates of re-transplantation within the paediatric population, there are more sensitised children on waiting lists. One issue with developing strategies to treat these children is the number of different definitions of sensitisation. and we would therefore recommend an immunological risk stratification approach. METHODS: We discuss methods of sensitisation prevention, assessment and management, including paired exchange programmes and desensitisation protocols...
January 13, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331269/clinical-benefits-of-autologous-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-type-1-diabetes-patients
#2
B Gu, H Miao, J Zhang, J Hu, W Zhou, W Gu, W Wang, G Ning
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by severe damage to pancreas islet function through immunological attack; therefore, it is also called 'insulin-dependent diabetes'. The present study aimed to evaluate the safety and clinical efficacy of autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) in adolescent patients with newly diagnosed T1D. A phase-II prospective, parallel-assignment, non-randomized trial was conducted from March 2008 to December 2011 with 40 T1D patients, of whom 20 received AHSCT therapy and 20 were treated only with insulin injections...
December 22, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323725/serum-igg-antibodies-from-healthy-subjects-up-to-100-years-old-react-to-jc-polyomavirus
#3
Ilaria Bononi, Elisa Mazzoni, Silvia Pietrobon, Marco Manfredini, Elena Trregiani, Marika Rossini, Francesca Lotito, Giovanni Guerra, Paola Rizzo, Fernanda Martini, Mauro Tognon
JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) was identified in 1971 in the brain tissue of a patient (J.C.) affected by the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCPyV encodes for the oncoproteins large T antigen (Tag) and small t-antigen (tag). These oncoproteins are responsible of the cell transformation and tumorigenesis in experimental animals. JCPyV is ubiquitous in human populations. After the primary infection, which is usually asymptomatic, JCPyV remains lifelong in the host in a latent phase. Its reactivation may occur in heathy subjects and immunocompromised patients...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322327/combined-and-sequential-liver-kidney-transplantation-in-children
#4
Ryszard Grenda, Piotr Kaliciński
Combined and sequential liver-kidney transplantation (CLKT and SLKT) is a definitive treatment in children with end-stage organ failure. There are two major indications: - terminal insufficiency of both organs, or - need for transplanting new liver as a source of lacking enzyme or specific regulator of the immune system in a patient with renal failure. A third (uncommon) option is secondary end-stage renal failure in liver transplant recipients. These three clinical settings use distinct qualification algorithms...
January 10, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320806/experiences-of-living-kidney-donors-during-the-donation-process
#5
Hanne Agerskov, Claus Bistrup, Mette S Ludvigsen, Birthe D Pedersen
BACKGROUND: The shortage of organs from deceased donors has led to more living donation. Furthermore, immunological developments have made it possible to perform kidney transplantation despite preformed antibodies against the donor organ. This has led to a broader recruitment base of living donors. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate experiences and considerations on becoming, and during the process of being, a living kidney donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Interviews and participant observation were conducted before, during and after the donation...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Renal Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319572/vascularized-composite-allotransplantation-of-the-elbow-joint-a-cadaveric-study
#6
Mitchell A Pet, Angelo B Lipira, Yusha Liu, Dennis Kao, Jason H Ko
BACKGROUND: Surgical options for the unreconstructable elbow are limited to arthrodesis, total arthroplasty, or osteoarticular allograft reconstruction. Each of these options is limited by severe functional impairment and/or high complication rates. Vascularized allotransplantation of the elbow joint has the potential to mitigate these complications. In this study, we describe our technique for harvesting the elbow for vascularized joint transplantation and demonstrate the flap's vascularity using contrast angiography...
January 9, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314558/neutrophil-derived-csf1-induces-macrophage-polarization-and-promotes-transplantation-tolerance
#7
Mounia S Braza, Patricia Conde, Mercedes Garcia, Isabel Cortegano, Manisha Brahmachary, Venu Pothula, Francois Fay, Peter Boros, Sherry A Werner, Florent Ginhoux, Willem J M Mulder, Jordi Ochando
The colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) regulates the differentiation and function of tissue macrophages and determines the outcome of the immune response. The molecular mechanisms behind CSF1-mediated macrophage development remain to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that neutrophil-derived CSF1 controls macrophage polarization and proliferation, which is necessary for the induction of tolerance. Inhibiting neutrophil production of CSF1 or preventing macrophage proliferation, using targeted nanoparticles loaded with the cell cycle inhibitor simvastatin, abrogates the induction of tolerance...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312863/human-leukocyte-antigen-typing-and-crossmatch-a-comprehensive-review
#8
REVIEW
Mohammed Mahdi Althaf, Mohsen El Kossi, Jon Kim Jin, Ajay Sharma, Ahmed Mostafa Halawa
Renal transplantation remains the best option for patients suffering from end stage renal disease (ESRD). Given the worldwide shortage of organs and growing population of patients with ESRD, those waitlisted for a transplant is ever expanding. Contemporary crossmatch methods and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing play a pivotal role in improving organ allocation and afford better matches to recipients. Understanding crossmatch as well as HLA typing for renal transplantation and applying it in clinical practice is the key step to achieve a successful outcome...
December 24, 2017: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312858/de-novo-glomerular-diseases-after-renal-transplantation-how-is-it-different-from-recurrent-glomerular-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Fedaey Abbas, Mohsen El Kossi, Jon Kim Jin, Ajay Sharma, Ahmed Halawa
The glomerular diseases after renal transplantation can occur de novo, i.e., with no relation to the native kidney disease, or more frequently occur as a recurrence of the original disease in the native kidney. There may not be any difference in clinical features and histological pattern between de novo glomerular disease and recurrence of original glomerular disease. However, structural alterations in transplanted kidney add to dilemma in diagnosis. These changes in architecture of histopathology can happen due to: (1) exposure to the immunosuppression specifically the calcineurin inhibitors (CNI); (2) in vascular and tubulointerstitial alterations as a result of antibody mediated or cell-mediated immunological onslaught; (3) post-transplant viral infections; (4) ischemia-reperfusion injury; and (5) hyperfiltration injury...
December 24, 2017: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305888/comparative-immunological-study-of-penetrating-and-anterior-lamellar-keratoplasty-in-a-murine-model
#10
Hyun Soo Lee, Ji Young Kwon, Choun-Ki Joo
In lamellar keratoplasty, the diseased part of a cornea is replaced while the healthy tissue remains. lamellar keratoplasty has the advantage of better graft survival compared to penetrating keratoplasty (PK). We compared the immunological responses to PK and anterior lamellar keratoplasty (ALK) in a murine model. PK or ALK was performed using C57BL/6 donor grafts and BALB/c recipients, and graft opacity was assessed to evaluate graft rejection up to 8 weeks. We evaluated the immunological responses in both groups, which were not clinically considered as graft failure on postoperative day 21...
January 3, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298428/although-abundant-in-tumor-tissue-mast-cells-have-no-effect-on-immunological-micro-milieu-or-growth-of-hpv-induced-or-transplanted-tumors
#11
Shanawaz Mohammed Ghouse, Anastasia Polikarpova, Lina Muhandes, Jan Dudeck, Iliana Tantcheva-Poór, Karin Hartmann, Matthias Lesche, Andreas Dahl, Sabine Eming, Werner Müller, Rayk Behrendt, Axel Roers
High numbers of mast cells populate the stroma of many types of neoplasms, including human papilloma virus-induced benign and malignant tumors in man and mouse. Equipped with numerous pattern recognition receptors and capable of executing important pro-inflammatory responses, mast cells are considered innate sentinels that significantly impact tumor biology. Mast cells were reported to promote human papilloma virus (HPV)-induced epithelial hyperproliferation and neo-angiogenesis in an HPV-driven mouse model of skin cancer...
January 2, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296858/successful-desensitization-with-proteasome-inhibition-and-costimulation-blockade-in-sensitized-nonhuman-primates
#12
Jean Kwun, Christopher Burghuber, Miriam Manook, Brian Ezekian, Jaeberm Park, Janghoon Yoon, John S Yi, Neal Iwakoshi, Adriana Gibby, Jung Joo Hong, Alton B Farris, Allan D Kirk, Stuart J Knechtle
The detrimental effects of donor-directed antibodies in sensitized transplant patients remain a difficult immunologic barrier to successful organ transplantation. Antibody removal is often followed by rebound. Proteasome inhibitors (PIs) deplete antibody-producing plasma cells (PCs) but have shown marginal benefit for desensitization. In an allosensitized nonhuman primate (NHP) model, we observed increased germinal center (GC) formation after PI monotherapy, suggesting a compensatory PC repopulation mediated via GC activation...
November 14, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283908/have-haploidentical-transplants-replaced-umbilical-cord-transplants-for-acute-leukemias
#13
Jia Hau Liu, Christopher G Kanakry, Leo Luznik
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Haploidentical stem cell transplantation (Haplo SCT) and umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation (UCB SCT) have emerged over the past two to three decades as viable sources of alternative donor SCT when a human leukocyte antigen matched donor is not available. However, which of these two donor types is optimal for patients with leukemia in need of allografting is unknown. RECENT FINDINGS: For patients with acute leukemia, results of UCB SCT have been improved by the use of double umbilical cord units and emerging ex vivo expansion technologies...
December 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261677/increased-soluble-il-7-receptor-concentrations-associate-with-improved-il-7-therapy-outcomes-in-siv-infected-art-treated-rhesus-macaques
#14
Amanda K Steele, Lorna Carrasco-Medina, Donald L Sodora, Angela M Crawley
The use of interleukin-7 (IL-7) as an immunorestorative therapeutic has proven effective in HIV infection, cancer and bone marrow transplantation. Mediating its activity through membrane-bound IL-7 receptor α (mCD127), IL-7 therapy increases T-cell numbers and survival. A soluble form, sCD127, is found in plasma, and we have previously identified increased plasma sCD127 concentrations in HIV infection. Furthermore, patients with high sCD127 exhibited the best viral control, implicating a role for IL-7 or sCD127 directly in improved virologic/immunologic outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258420/renal-allograft-rejection-lymphocyte-infiltration-and-de-novo-donor-specific-antibodies-in-a-novel-model-of-non-adherence-to-immunosuppressive-therapy
#15
Louisa Kühne, Bettina Jung, Helen Poth, Antonia Schuster, Simone Wurm, Petra Ruemmele, Bernhard Banas, Tobias Bergler
BACKGROUND: Non-adherence has been associated with reduced graft survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological mechanisms underlying chronic renal allograft rejection using a model of non-adherence to immunosuppressive therapy. We used a MHC (major histocompatibility complex) -mismatched rat model of renal transplantation (Brown Norway to Lewis), in which rats received daily oral cyclosporine A. In analogy to non-adherence to therapy, one group received cyclosporine A on alternating days only...
December 19, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250687/lymphoproliferative-disorder-in-a-twin-female-teenager-post-kidney-transplantation
#16
Raluca Isac, Rodica Costa, Dorela CodruŢa Lăzureanu, Cristina Ioana Olariu, Adriana Milena Muntean, Cornel Olimpiu Aldea, Gabriela Simona Doroş, Mihai Gafencu
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is defined as a heterogeneous group of lymphoid and plasmocytic proliferations with variable malignant potential. They often arise in immunocompromised post solid organ transplant (SOT) patients linked with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Clinical manifestations include fever, lymphadenopathy and organ involvement. Diagnosis of PTLD requires morphopathological tissue examination. Treatment of EBV-related PTLD in SOT patients includes immunosuppressive (IS) agents' reduction, use of antiviral medication, anti-B-lymphocyte antibodies and chemotherapy for high-risk patients...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250057/update-on-dendritic-cell-induced-immunological-and-clinical-tolerance
#17
REVIEW
Carolina Obregon, Rajesh Kumar, Manuel Antonio Pascual, Giuseppe Vassalli, Déla Golshayan
Dendritic cells (DCs) as highly efficient antigen-presenting cells are at the interface of innate and adaptive immunity. As such, they are key mediators of immunity and antigen-specific immune tolerance. Due to their functional specialization, research efforts have focused on the characterization of DCs subsets involved in the initiation of immunogenic responses and in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs)-based therapies have been designed as promising strategies to prevent and control autoimmune diseases as well as allograft rejection after solid organ transplantation (SOT)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241731/efficacy-of-lentiviral-mediated-gene-therapy-in-an-omenn-syndrome-rag2-mouse-model-is-not-hindered-by-inflammation-and-immune-dysregulation
#18
Valentina Capo, Maria Carmina Castiello, Elena Fontana, Sara Penna, Marita Bosticardo, Elena Draghici, Luigi P Poliani, Lucia Sergi Sergi, Rosita Rigoni, Barbara Cassani, Monica Zanussi, Paola Carrera, Paolo Uva, Kerry Dobbs, Nicolò Sacchetti, Luigi D Notarangelo, Niek P van Til, Gerard Wagemaker, Anna Villa
BACKGROUND: Omenn syndrome (OS) is a rare severe combined immunodeficiency associated with autoimmunity, caused by defects of the lymphoid-specific V(D)J recombination. Most patients carry hypomorphic mutations in recombination activating genes (RAG) 1 or 2. Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is the standard treatment, however gene therapy (GT) may represent a valid alternative, especially for patients lacking a matched donor. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of lentiviral vector (LV) mediated GT in the murine model of OS (Rag2R229Q/R229Q) in correcting immunodeficiency and autoimmunity...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238731/porcine-to-human-heart-transplantation-is-clinical-application-now-appropriate
#19
REVIEW
Christopher G A McGregor, Guerard W Byrne
Cardiac xenotransplantation (CXTx) is a promising solution to the chronic shortage of donor hearts. Recent advancements in immune suppression have greatly improved the survival of heterotopic CXTx, now extended beyond 2 years, and life-supporting kidney XTx. Advances in donor genetic modification (B4GALNT2 and CMAH mutations) with proven Gal-deficient donors expressing human complement regulatory protein(s) have also accelerated, reducing donor pig organ antigenicity. These advances can now be combined and tested in life-supporting orthotopic preclinical studies in nonhuman primates and immunologically appropriate models confirming their efficacy and safety for a clinical CXTx program...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238707/drug-repurposing-for-the-treatment-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#20
REVIEW
Vibeke Andresen, Bjørn T Gjertsen
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by the accumulation of immature myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow, compromising of normal blood cell production and ultimately resulting in bone marrow failure. With a 20% overall survival rate at 5 years and 50% in the 18- to 65-year-old age group, new medicines are needed. It is proposed that development of repurposed drugs may be a part of the new therapy needed. AML is subdivided into recurrent molecular entities based on molecular genetics increasingly accessible for precision medicine...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
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