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Transplant immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917620/normothermic-ex-vivo-lung-perfusion-in-brain-dead-donors-reduces-inflammatory-cytokines-and-toll-like-receptor-expression
#1
Shadi Shafaghi, Esmaeil Mortaz, Azizollah Abbasi Dezfuli, Hoda Godarzi, Kambiz Sheikhy, Zahra Ansari Aval, Behrooz Farzanegan, Habib Emami, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini-Baharanchi, Katayoun Najafizadeh
Inflammatory responses and innate immunologic reactions play an important role in the respiratory system. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is considered a novel method in the evaluation and reconditioning of donor lungs prior to transplantation. However, EVLP's effect on inflammatory and metabolic markers of human lung tissue is unknown.  This study investigated how the performance of EVLP on brain-dead (BD) donor lungs affects the production and release of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-a), inflammatory cells and toll-like receptors (TLR) -2, 4...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915965/systematic-review-on-role-of-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-inhibitors-as-an-alternative-to-calcineurin-inhibitors-in-renal-transplant-challenges-and-window-to-excel
#2
Jayant Kumar, Julie M Bridson, Ajay Sharma, Ahmed Halawa
OBJECTIVES: This review focuses on the current limited evidence of graft function and graft survival in various immunosuppressive regimens involving mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors with or without calcineurin inhibitors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the current literature for describing the role of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors as an alternative to calcineurin inhibitors by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Crossref, and Scopus databases using medical subject heading terms...
December 2, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914916/-cytotoxicity-of-natural-anti-hla-antibodies-in-moroccan-patients-awaiting-for-kidney-transplantation
#3
Nadia Benseffaj, Sanae Ouadghiri, Asmaa Drissi Bourhanbour, Asmae Noor Zerrouki, Malika Essakalli
: The presence of anti-HLA antibodies in the serum of a patient result from an immune response produced during an immunizing event as transfusion, pregnancy or graft. These antibodies can be cytotoxic by activating the complement pathway via C1q and may cause organ rejection during the transplant. Some male patients awaiting kidney transplantation are seropositive for anti-HLA antibodies when they have no immunizing antecedent event. These antibodies are qualified as natural antibodies...
November 30, 2016: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914107/non-paraneoplastic-autoimmune-subepidermal-bullous-disease-associated-with-fatal-bronchiolitis-obliterans
#4
Mari Orime, Katsuhiro Tomiyama, Hideki Hashidate, Satoru Yoshida, Satoshi Hokari, Akiko Tsuda, Hisashi Yokoyama, Jun-Ichi Narita, Youhei Uchida, Takuro Kanekura, Riichiro Abe, Norito Ishii, Takashi Hashimoto, Kazuhiro Kawai
Bronchiolitis obliterans is a small-airway obstructive lung disease for which immunologically mediated pathogenesis is supposed. Frequent association of bronchiolitis obliterans with paraneoplastic pemphigus is well known, but its association with other autoimmune bullous diseases has not been reported except for a case of anti-laminin-332-type mucous membrane pemphigoid in a patient with chronic graft-versus-host disease. We report a case of non-paraneoplastic autoimmune subepidermal bullous disease associated with fatal bronchiolitis obliterans in a patient without transplantation...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914026/limbal-stem-cell-and-oral-mucosal-epithelial-transplantation-from-ex-vivo-cultivation-in-lscd-induced-rabbits-histology-and-immunologic-study-of-the-transplant-epithelial-sheet
#5
Napaporn Tananuvat, Kanokkan Bumroongkit, Chainarong Tocharusa, Umnat Mevatee, Aphisek Kongkaew, Somsanguan Ausayakhun
PURPOSE: To evaluate the results of cultivated limbal epithelial and oral mucosal epithelial transplantation (CLET and COMET) in limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD)-induced rabbit model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups of three rabbits each. Limbal tissue was harvested from the first group, and oral mucosal biopsy was obtained from the second group. The tissues were cultured using an explant technique with amniotic membrane as a substrate and co-culture with the 3T3 fibroblast and air-lifting method...
December 2, 2016: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913524/cellular-and-vaccine-immunotherapy-for-multiple-myeloma
#6
Alfred L Garfall, Edward A Stadtmauer
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation and donor lymphocyte infusion for multiple myeloma (MM) can induce graft-versus-myeloma immunity and long-term survivorship, but limited efficacy and associated toxicities have prevented its widespread use. Cellular immunotherapies and vaccines seek to induce more specific, reliable, and potent antimyeloma immune responses with less treatment-related risk than is possible with allogeneic transplantation. Advances in molecular biology, and basic and applied immunology, have led to promising approaches such as genetically engineered T cells with chimeric antigen receptors and T-cell receptors targeting myeloma-specific epitopes, vaccine primed ex vivo expanded autologous T cells, expanded marrow-infiltrating lymphocytes, and plasma cell/dendritic cell fusion vaccines...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911488/hepatocellular-carcinoma-as-an-emerging-morbidity-in-the-thalassemia-syndromes-a-comprehensive-review
#7
REVIEW
Hassan M Moukhadder, Racha Halawi, Maria Domenica Cappellini, Ali T Taher
The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with thalassemia is on the rise. The 2 well recognized HCC risk factors in thalassemia are iron overload and chronic viral infection with hepatitis C. The carcinogenicity of iron is related to its induction of oxidative damage, which results in genotoxicity, and to immunologic dysregulation, which attenuates cancer immune surveillance. Chronic hepatitis B and C infections lead to necroinflammation, which can prompt progression to HCC, but an independent role of hepatitis B virus in hepatic carcinogenesis among patients with thalassemia has not been demonstrated...
December 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906830/heterotopic-abdominal-rat-heart-transplantation-as-a-model-to-investigate-volume-dependency-of-myocardial-remodeling
#8
Kálmán Benke, Alex Ali Sayour, Csaba Mátyás, Bence Ágg, Balázs Tamás Németh, Attila Oláh, Mihály Ruppert, István Hartyánszky, Zoltán Szabolcs, Tamás Radovits, Béla Merkely, Gábor Szabó
Heterotopic abdominal rat heart transplantation has been extensively used to investigate ischemic/reperfusion injury, immunological consequences during heart transplantations and also to study remodeling of the myocardium due to volume unloading. We provide a unique review on the latter and present a summary of the experimental studies on rat heart transplantation to illustrate changes that occur to the myocardium due to volume unloading. We divided the literature based on whether normal or failing rat heart models were used...
December 1, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905000/decidual-natural-killer-cells-and-the-immune-microenvironment-at-the-maternal-fetal-interface
#9
REVIEW
Binqing Fu, Haiming Wei
During early pregnancy, an orchestrated evolutionary maternal adaption toward tolerance of the semiallogeneic fetus is required to ensure decidualization and early embryo development. Remodeling of the immune system involves natural killer cells (NKs), macrophages, T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) altering the microenvironment in the deciduas. In particular, a unique population of NK cells with a CD56(bright)CD16(-) phenotype in the decidua has been proposed to play a key role in the maternal adaptation to pregnancy...
November 29, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904501/human-amniotic-epithelial-cells-combined-with-silk-fibroin-scaffold-in-the-repair-of-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Ting-Gang Wang, Jie Xu, Ai-Hua Zhu, Hua Lu, Zong-Ning Miao, Peng Zhao, Guo-Zhen Hui, Wei-Jiang Wu
Treatment and functional reconstruction after central nervous system injury is a major medical and social challenge. An increasing number of researchers are attempting to use neural stem cells combined with artificial scaffold materials, such as fibroin, for nerve repair. However, such approaches are challenged by ethical and practical issues. Amniotic tissue, a clinical waste product, is abundant, and amniotic epithelial cells are pluripotent, have low immunogenicity, and are not the subject of ethical debate...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899803/novel-targets-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease
#11
REVIEW
A Im, F T Hakim, S Z Pavletic
Despite advances that have improved survival after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT), chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a leading cause of late morbidity and mortality after transplant. Current treatment options show limited efficacy in steroid-refractory disease, and there exists a paucity of robust data to guide management decisions. Lack of United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved agents in GVHD underscore the importance of developing novel therapies...
November 30, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899275/immunological-consequences-of-immunization-with-tumor-lysate-vaccine-and-propranolol-as-an-adjuvant-a-study-on-cytokine-profiles-in-breast-tumor-microenvironment
#12
Somayeh Ashrafi, Reza Shapouri, Mehdi Mahdavi
In this study, we sought out to study the anti-cancer effects of propranolol (Pro) in combination with tumor lysate vaccine on lymphocyte proliferation activities as well as on IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17 and IFN-γ cytokine concentration in the tumor microenvironment (TME). A tumor model was established in inbred Balb/C mice using transplantation of tumor to the flank of native mice. Tumor-bearing mice were immunized with lysate tumor cells (vaccine), a combination of Pro/Vaccine (Vac). Control groups consisted of tumor-bearing mice receiving only propranolol or PBS three times with one week interval via subcutaneous (s...
November 27, 2016: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899225/humoral-and-cellular-response-after-varicella-vaccination-in-vzv-igg-seronegative-kidney-transplant-candidates
#13
Marcia M L Kho, Joke M Zuijderwijk, Annemiek A van der Eijk, Ronella de Kuiper, Marieken J Boer-Verschragen, Willem Weimar, Nicole M van Besouw
BACKGROUND: In immunocompromised patients, primary infection with VZV may have a disastrous clinical course. Vaccination of VZV-seronegative patients on the waiting list for renal transplantation may prevent severe disease. However, the immunologic response of end-stage renal disease patients to peptide vaccines is far from optimal. Our question was whether end-stage renal disease patients with undetectable VZV-IgG levels were able to mount an adequate humoral and cellular response to a live attenuated varicella vaccine...
November 26, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893617/differential-role-of-b-cells-and-il-17-versus-ifn-%C3%AE-during-early-and-late-rejection-of-pig-islet-xenografts-in-mice
#14
Hee Kap Kang, Shusen Wang, Anil Dangi, Xiaomin Zhang, Amar Singh, Lei Zhang, James M Rosati, Wilma Suarez-Pinzon, Xuelian Deng, Xiaoyan Chen, Edward B Thorp, Bernhard J Hering, Stephen D Miller, Xunrong Luo
BACKGROUND: Xenogeneic islet transplantation is an emerging therapeutic option for diabetic patients. However, immunological tolerance to xenogeneic islets remains a challenge. METHODS: The current study used a pig-to-mouse discordant xenogeneic islet transplant model to examine anti-donor xenogeneic immune responses during early and late rejection, and to determine experimental therapeutic interventions that promote durable pig islet xenograft survival. RESULTS: We found that during early acute rejection of pig islet xenografts, the rejecting hosts exhibited a heavy graft infiltration with B220 B cells and a robust anti-pig antibody production...
November 23, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893612/the-influence-of-timing-and-frequency-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-on-immunomodulation-outcomes-after-vascularized-composite-allotransplantation
#15
Jan A Plock, Jonas T Schnider, Riccardo Schweizer, Wensheng Zhang, Wakako Tsuji, Matthias Waldner, Mario G Solari, Kacey G Marra, J Peter Rubin, Vijay S Gorantla
BACKGROUND: Cellular therapies for immunomodulation in vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) have gained importance due to their potential minimization of immunosuppression. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) especially have shown encouraging potential. We investigated the influence of timing and frequency of AD-MSC-treatment on immunologic and graft survival as well as graft vasculopathy (GV) outcomes after VCA. METHODS: Lewis (LEW) rats received full-mismatched Brown Norway (BN) rat hindlimb transplants...
November 23, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890719/casting-a-smaller-net-into-a-bigger-donor-pool-a-single-center-s-experience-with-the-new-kidney-allocation-system
#16
Julie A Houp, Karl P Schillinger, Andrew J Eckstein, Renato M Vega, Niraj M Desai, Bonnie E Lonze, Annette M Jackson
The new kidney allocation system (KAS) provides additional allocation points for candidates with broad HLA sensitization in an effort to increase transplant rates for this underserved population. Following the implementation of KAS, our center lowered the HLA antibody threshold for listing unacceptable antigens from a cytotoxicity crossmatch level to a flow cytometric crossmatch level increasing Calculated Panel Reactive Antibody (CPRA) values and allocation points, yet restricting acceptable donor HLA phenotypes...
November 24, 2016: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890707/novel-mutation-in-dock8-hies-with-severe-phenotype-and-successful-transplantation
#17
Latifa Al Shekaili, Farrukh Sheikh, Sulaiman Al Gazlan, Hasan Al Dhekri, Hamoud Al Mousa, Abdulaziz Al Ghonaium, Bander Al Saud, Saleh Al Mohsen, Agha M Rehan Khaliq, Safiah Al Sumayli, Mufarreh Al Zahrani, Anas Dababo, Ammar AlKawi, Abbas Hawwari, Rand Arnaout
BACKGROUND: Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) due to DOCK8 deficiency is an autosomal recessive (AR) primary combined immunodeficiency which results in significant morbidity and mortality at a young age. Different mutations in the DOCK8 gene can lead to variable severity of the disease. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the genetic mutations in three related patients with severe clinical manifestations suggestive of AR HIES. We also explored whether treatment with stem cell transplantation could lead to complete disease resolution...
November 23, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889299/safety-and-efficacy-outcomes-3-years-after-switching-to-belatacept-from-a-calcineurin-inhibitor-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-results-from-a-phase-2-randomized-trial
#18
Josep M Grinyó, Maria Del Carmen Rial, Josefina Alberu, Steven M Steinberg, Roberto C Manfro, Georgy Nainan, Flavio Vincenti, Charlotte Jones-Burton, Nassim Kamar
BACKGROUND: In a phase 2 study, kidney transplant recipients of low immunologic risk who switched from a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) to belatacept had improved kidney function at 12 months postconversion versus those continuing CNI therapy, with a low rate of acute rejection and no transplant loss. STUDY DESIGN: 36-month follow-up of the intention-to-treat population. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: CNI-treated adult kidney transplant recipients with stable transplant function (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], 35-75mL/min/1...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888576/total-recall-can-we-reshape-t-cell-memory-by-lymphoablation
#19
Michael Nicosia, Anna Valujskikh
Despite recent advances in immunosuppression, donor-reactive memory T cells remain a serious threat to successful organ transplantation. To alleviate damaging effects of preexisting immunologic memory, lymphoablative induction therapies are used as a part of standard care in sensitized recipients. However, there is accumulating evidence that memory T cells have advantages over their naïve counterparts in surviving depletion and expanding under lymphopenic conditions. This may at least partially explain the inability of existing lymphoablative strategies to improve long term allograft outcome in sensitized recipients, despite well-documented decrease in the frequency of early acute rejection episodes...
November 26, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888331/the-origin-of-dcs-and-capacity-for-immunologic-tolerance-in-central-and-peripheral-tissues
#20
REVIEW
K Sanjana P Devi, Niroshana Anandasabapathy
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized immune sentinels that play key role in maintaining immune homeostasis by efficiently regulating the delicate balance between protective immunity and tolerance to self. Although DCs respond to maturation signals present in the surrounding milieu, multiple layers of suppression also co-exist that reduce the infringement of tolerance against self-antigens. These tolerance inducing properties of DCs are governed by their origin and a range of other factors including distribution, cytokines, growth factors, and transcriptional programing, that collectively impart suppressive functions to these cells...
November 25, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
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