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Transplant immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148608/criteria-to-define-interruption-of-transmission-of-human-cytomegalovirus-from-organ-donor-to-recipient
#1
REVIEW
Ilona Anna Baraniak, Matthew B Reeves, Paul D Griffiths
In this review article, we consider results suggesting that transmission of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) from a donor of a solid organ to an immunologically naive individual can be reduced. Two randomized controlled trials have been conducted recently, one of active immunization of recipients pretransplant and another of passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies specific for HCMV given at the time of transplant. Although the available data are encouraging-providing evidence of a reduction in the incidence of HCMV viraemia-they fall short of what would be required to prove definitively that transmission has been completely prevented...
November 17, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147612/low-dose-post-transplant-cyclophosphamide-can-mitigate-gvhd-and-enhance-the-g-csf-atg-induced-gvhd-protective-activity-and-improve-haploidentical-transplant-outcomes
#2
Yu Wang, Ying-Jun Chang, Lu Chen, Lan-Ping Xu, Zhi-Lei Bian, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Chen-Hua Yan, Kai-Yan Liu, Xiao-Jun Huang
Use of high-dose, post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) results in low rates of graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) and favorable immune reconstitution, although with higher rates of relapse and somewhat high rates of graft failure. We hypothesized that permissible dose reduction of PTCy might be feasible. The current study attempts to establish a murine model and focus on regulatory T cells (Tregs) to clarify the immunological mechanisms for GVHD prevention by low-dose PTCy. In addition, a prospective, clinical cohort study in haploidentical, T-cell replete transplantation is initiated to support the rational...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146891/heart-transplantation-and-risk-of-cardiac-vasculopathy-development-what-factors-are-important
#3
Małgorzata Sobieszczańska-Małek, Jerzy Korewicki, Krzysztof Komuda, Małgorzata Karczmarz, Sylwia Szymańska, Alicja Cicha-Mikołajczyk, Paweł Bekta, Adam Parulski, Maciej Pronicki, Wiesława Grajkowska, Grzegorz Małek, Przemysław Leszek, Maria Kaczorowska, Mariusz Kuśmierczyk, Tomasz Zieliński
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to find the main risk factors for development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), especially factors identified before the surgical procedure and factors related to the recipient profile and the medical history of the donor. MATERIAL AND METHODS There were 147 patients who had heart transplantation (HT) included in this study: mean age was 45.8±15.3 years. All study patients had coronary angiography after HT. Analyzed risk factors were: non-immunologic recipient risk factors (age of transplantation, smoking, hypertension, lipids, diabetes, obesity and weight gain after HT), immunologic recipient risk factors (acute cellular rejection (ACR), acute humoral rejection (AMR), cytomegalovirus (CMV) episodes), and donor-related risk factors (age, sex, catecholamine usage, ischemic time, compatibility of sex and blood groups, cause of death, cardiac arrest)...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145515/male-kidney-allograft-recipients-at-risk-for-urinary-tract-infection
#4
Gerold Thölking, Katharina Schuette-Nuetgen, Thomas Vogl, Ulrich Dobrindt, Barbara C Kahl, Marcus Brand, Hermann Pavenstädt, Barbara Suwelack, Raphael Koch, Stefan Reuter
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection after renal transplantation (RTx). Although female sex is a well-known risk factor for the development of UTI after RTx, the role of the donor sex in this context remains unclear. METHODS: In this case control study 6,763 RTx cases were screened for UTI when presenting at our transplant outpatient clinics. 102 different RTx patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were compared to 102 controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143761/antibody-cross-reactivity-between-porcine-cytomegalovirus-pcmv-and-human-herpesvirus-6-hhv-6
#5
Uwe Fiebig, Angela Holzer, Daniel Ivanusic, Elena Plotzki, Hartmut Hengel, Frank Neipel, Joachim Denner
Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) infection is widely prevalent among pigs, and PCMV is one of the viruses which may be transmitted during xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues, or organs. While human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major risk factor for allotransplantation, it is still unclear whether PCMV is able to infect human cells or pose a risk for xenotransplantation. Previously, it was shown that transmission of PCMV after pig kidney to non-human primate transplantations resulted in a significantly reduced survival time of the transplanted organ...
October 28, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142307/genetic-polymorphism-related-to-monocyte-macrophage-function-is-associated-with-graft-versus-host-disease
#6
Kati Hyvärinen, Jarmo Ritari, Satu Koskela, Riitta Niittyvuopio, Anne Nihtinen, Liisa Volin, David Gallardo, Jukka Partanen
Despite detailed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching and modern immunosuppressive therapy, severe graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) remains a major hurdle for successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). As the genetic diversity in GvHD complicates the systematic discovery of associated variants across populations, we studied 122 GvHD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 492 HLA-matched sibling HSCT donor-recipient pairs from Finland and Spain. The association between these candidate SNPs and grade III-IV acute GvHD and extensive chronic GvHD was assessed...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141886/pd-l1-genetic-overexpression-or-pharmacological-restoration-in-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-reverses-autoimmune-diabetes
#7
Moufida Ben Nasr, Sara Tezza, Francesca D'Addio, Chiara Mameli, Vera Usuelli, Anna Maestroni, Domenico Corradi, Silvana Belletti, Luca Albarello, Gabriella Becchi, Gian Paolo Fadini, Christian Schuetz, James Markmann, Clive Wasserfall, Leonard Zon, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Paolo Fiorina
Immunologically based clinical trials performed thus far have failed to cure type 1 diabetes (T1D), in part because these approaches were nonspecific. Because the disease is driven by autoreactive CD4 T cells, which destroy β cells, transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) has been recently offered as a therapy for T1D. Our transcriptomic profiling of HSPCs revealed that these cells are deficient in programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), an important immune checkpoint, in the T1D nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model...
November 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140828/biomimetic-nanoparticles-for-transplantation-tolerance
#8
Silvia Minardi, Sahil Shah, Xunrong Luo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review aims to provide a current landscape and future trends of biomimetic nanoparticles which have the potential to revolutionize the field of transplantation in the next decade. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, the inability to safely induce robust donor-specific immunological tolerance makes it difficult to achieve immunosuppression-free graft survival. Despite progresses in the development of nanotherapeutics for antigen-specific immunomodulation in autoimmune diseases and in cancer treatments, few have been proposed and tested in transplantation with success...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138892/-partial-and-complete-joint-transplantation-with-fresh-osteochondral-allografts-the-flocsat-concept
#9
REVIEW
C Krettek, J-D Clausen, N Bruns, C Neunaber
Cartilage defects in adult patients do not heal well. Fresh osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation is based on mature, living, mechanically sound hyaline cartilage attached to a bone interface, which is brought into an osteochondral defect, where it becomes osseointegrated. According to current knowledge, intact hyaline cartilage tissue is immune privileged and does not, in contrast to bone, meniscus or ligaments, cause an immune reaction. The technique has the unique advantage of transplanting viable, mature and mechanically stable hyaline cartilage into the affected area...
November 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137591/surgical-anatomy-and-microvascular-surgical-technique-relevant-to-experimental-renal-transplant-in-rat-employing-aortic-and-inferior-venacaval-conduits
#10
Badri Man Shrestha, John Haylor
OBJECTIVES: Rat models of renal transplant are used to investigate immunologic processes and responses to therapeutic agents before their translation into routine clinical practice. In this study, we have described details of rat surgical anatomy and our experiences with the microvascular surgical technique relevant to renal transplant by employing donor inferior vena cava and aortic conduits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this study, 175 rats (151 Lewis and 24 Fisher) were used to establish the Fisher-Lewis rat model of chronic allograft injury at our institution...
November 15, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135830/tissue-resident-lymphocytes-in-solid-organ-transplantation-innocent-passengers-or-the-key-to-organ-transplant-survival
#11
Amy C Prosser, Axel Kallies, Michaela Lucas
Short-term outcomes of solid organ transplantation have improved dramatically over the past several decades; however, long-term survival has remained static over the same time period, and chronic rejection remains a major cause of graft failure. The importance of donor, or 'passenger', lymphocytes to the induction of tolerance to allografts was recognized in the 1990s; however, their precise contribution to graft acceptance or rejection has not been elucidated. Recently, specialized populations of tissue-resident lymphocytes in nonlymphoid organs have been described...
November 14, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132233/prospects-for-modulating-the-cd40-cd40l-pathway-in-the-therapy-of-the-hyper-igm-syndrome
#12
Xiangxue Meng, Bin Yang, Wen-Chen Suen
The critical role of the CD40/CD40L pathway in B-cell proliferation, immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype switching and germinal center formation has been studied and described extensively in previous literature. Interruption of the CD40/CD40L signal causes hyper-IgM (HIGM) syndrome, which has been classified and recognized as a group of rare inherited immune deficiency disorders. Defects in CD40 and CD40L interactions or in downstream signaling molecules, including activation-induced cytidine deaminase, uracyl-DNA-glycosylase, NF-κB and DNA repair enzymes, result in an increased level of serum IgM and a significantly decreased or absent level of IgA, IgG and IgE that is accompanied by severe recurrent infections and autoimmune diseases...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131413/the-effect-of-epitope-based-ligation-of-icam-1-on-survival-and-retransplantation-of-pig-islets-in-nonhuman-primates
#13
Jae-Il Lee, Jiyeon Kim, Yun-Jung Choi, Hi-Jung Park, Hye-Jin Park, Hae Joo Wi, Sunok Yoon, Jun-Seop Shin, Jin Kyun Park, Kyeong Cheon Jung, Eun Bong Lee, Hee Jung Kang, Eung Soo Hwang, Sang-Joon Kim, Chung-Gyu Park, Seong Hoe Park
BACKGROUND: Pig islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to allogeneic transplantation. However, the wide immunologic barrier between pigs and primates limits the long-term survival of the graft. MD-3, a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognizes a particular epitope of human ICAM-1, can render T cells tolerant to a xenograft by arresting dendritic cell maturation. We report the long-term survival of adult wild-type pig islets and successful retransplantation in nonhuman primates using a protocol comprising induction with MD-3 mAb and maintenance with anti-CD154 mAb and sirolimus...
November 12, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126914/targeting-immuno-metabolism-to-improve-anti-cancer-therapies
#14
Kevin Beezhold, Craig A Byersdorfer
The immunology community has made significant strides in recent years in using the immune system to target and eliminate cancer. Therapies such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are the standard of care treatment for several malignancies, while therapies incorporating chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells or checkpoint molecule blockade have been revolutionary. However, these approaches are not optimal for all cancers and in some cases, have failed outright. The greatest obstacle to making these therapies more effective may be rooted in one of the most basic concepts of cell biology, metabolism...
November 7, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123385/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-elderly-an-update-on-management
#15
REVIEW
Tomefa E Asempa, David P Nicolau
The burden of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is profound and growing. CDI now represents a common cause of health care-associated diarrhea, and is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. CDI disproportionally affects the elderly, possibly explained by the following risk factors: age-related impairment of the immune system, increasing antibiotic utilization, and frequent health care exposure. In the USA, recent epidemiological studies estimate that two out of every three health care-associated CDIs occur in patients 65 years or older...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110797/pre-anaesthetic-evaluation-of-the-patient-with-end-stage-lung-disease
#16
REVIEW
Mahesh Prabhu, Kamen Valchanov
Lung transplantation is a viable alternative for end-stage lung diseases, which offers good quality of life and survival outcomes for recipients. The aims of pre-assessment for potential lung transplant recipients are to assess fitness for surgery, optimise co-morbidities, commence interventions or investigations, weigh risk-benefit ratio, plan appropriate analgesia and obtain informed consent. The assessment information is gathered from the medical record, patient interview, physical examination and pre-operative tests...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108855/hiv-patients-healthy-aging-and-transplant-recipients-can-reveal-the-hidden-footprints-of-cmv
#17
REVIEW
Shelley Waters, Emily Brook, Silvia Lee, Riwanti Estiasari, Ibnu Ariyanto, Patricia Price
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a β-herpesvirus. Latent infections are common in all populations. However age-associated increases in levels of CMV-reactive antibody are testament to a repeated reactivations and periods of viral replication. CMV has been associated with several diseases of aging, including vasculopathy and neurocognitive impairment. These conditions occur at a younger age in persons with particularly high burdens of CMV - transplant recipients and people living with HIV. Here we define the "clinical footprints" as immunopathologies triggered by CMV that develop over many years...
November 3, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108517/inferior-long-term-outcomes-for-kidney-transplant-recipients-with-an-immunologically-mediated-primary-renal-disease
#18
Evaldo Favi, José Alberto Rodrigues Pedroso, Maria Paola Salerno, Gionata Spagnoletti, Jacopo Romagnoli, Franco Citterio
OBJECTIVES: Recurrent glomerulonephritis can negatively affect kidney allograft survival. However, how primary renal disease affects transplant outcomes in the new era of immunosuppression remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We categorized 426 kidney transplant recipients (performed from 1996 to 2007) into 4 disease groups: (1) 99 recipients with biopsy-proven immunologically mediated kidney disease, (2) 40 recipients with urologic disease, (3) 67 recipients with polycystic kidney disease, and (4) 220 recipients with other causes of terminal renal failure/uncertain kidney disease...
October 31, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105189/cyclophosphamide-induced-tolerance-in-kidney-transplantation-avoids-long-term-immunosuppressive-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Ario Takeuchi, Koji Kato, Koichi Akashi, Masatoshi Eto
There has recently been remarkable progress in immunosuppressive agents, such as tacrolimus and cyclosporine. Therefore, the rate of organ establishment has improved in transplantation. However, immunosuppressive agents generally suppress the function of T cells. Thus, opportunistic infections, such as cytomegalovirus infection, are still a major problem in kidney transplantation. Induction of specific tolerance to avoid immunosuppressive drug therapy after kidney transplantation is considered as the ultimate goal of transplantation...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103079/effectiveness-of-kidney-transplantation-in-hiv-infected-recipients-under-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-a-single-cohort-experience-brescia-northern-italy
#20
Ilaria Izzo, Salvatore Casari, Nicola Bossini, Maria Antonia Forleo, Silvio Sandrini, Emanuele Focà, Nigritella Brianese, Giulia Zambolin, Claudia Chirico, Giovanni Cancarini, Francesco Castelli
PURPOSE: Kidney transplantation was recently introduced for the treatment of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in HIV-infected patients. We report the results of the first 28 procedures at our centre. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on HIV-infected patients evaluated for kidney transplantation between January 2005 and October 2016. Patients were selected and monitored by the kidney transplantation and infectious diseases teams, according to the national protocol...
November 4, 2017: Infection
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