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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747988/no-speed-dating-please-patterns-of-social-preference-in-male-and-female-house-mice
#1
Miriam Linnenbrink, Sophie von Merten
BACKGROUND: In many animal species, interactions between individuals of different sex often occur in the context of courtship and mating. During these interactions, a specific mating partner can be chosen. By discriminating potential mates according to specific characteristics, individuals can increase their evolutionary fitness in terms of reproduction and offspring survival. In this study, we monitored the partner preference behaviour of female and male wild house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) from populations in Germany (G) and France (F) in a controlled cage setup for 5 days and six nights...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746768/de-extinction-and-the-community-of-being
#2
Curt Meine
Extinction deeply colors the way we think about conservation and the role of humans in nature. It is easy to overlook how recently, in fact, it has entered our consciousness. Only in the last two centuries has science sought to critically study life's origins, development, and diversification. Only in the last several generations have we identified and calibrated life's five major extinction events and speculated on their causes and effects. And only in recent decades have we come to appreciate the still-unfolding fate of life's diversity under the increasing influence of humanity...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746761/de-extinction-and-conservation
#3
Gregory E Kaebnick, Bruce Jennings
We are living in what is widely considered the sixth major extinction. Most ecologists believe that biodiversity is disappearing at an alarming rate, with up to 150 species going extinct per day according to scientists working with the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Part of the reason the loss signified by biological extinction feels painful is that it seems irremediable. These creatures are gone, and there's nothing to be done about it. In recent years, however, the possibility has been broached that, just possibly, something can be done, in at least some cases...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746387/psychometric-properties-of-the-dresden-body-image-questionnaire-a-multiple-group-confirmatory-factor-analysis-across-sex-and-age-in-a-dutch-non-clinical-sample
#4
Mia Scheffers, Marijtje A J van Duijn, Ruud J Bosscher, Durk Wiersma, Robert A Schoevers, Jooske T van Busschbach
BACKGROUND: Body image has implications for psychosocial functioning and quality of life and its disturbance is reported in a broad range of psychiatric disorders. In view of the lack of instruments in Dutch measuring body image as a broad concept, we set out to make an instrument available that reflects the multidimensional character of this construct by including more dimensions than physical appearance. The Dresden Körperbildfragebogen (DBIQ, Dresden Body Image Questionnaire) particularly served this purpose...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746163/the-potential-contribution-of-dietary-factors-to-breast-cancer-prevention
#5
Niva Shapira
Breast cancer (BC), the leading cancer in women, is increasing in prevalence worldwide, concurrent with western metabolic epidemics, that is, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes, and shares major risk factors with these diseases. The corresponding potential for nutritional contributions toward BC prevention is reviewed and related to critical stages in the life cycle and their implications for carcinogenic and pathometabolic trajectories. BC initiation potentially involves diet-related pro-oxidative, inflammatory, and procarcinogenic processes, that interact through combined lipid/fatty acid peroxidation, estrogen metabolism, and related DNA-adduct/depurination/mutation formation...
July 25, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745072/assessment-of-somatization-and-medically-unexplained-symptoms-in-later-life
#6
T J W van Driel, P H Hilderink, D J C Hanssen, P de Boer, J G M Rosmalen, R C Oude Voshaar
The assessment of medically unexplained symptoms and "somatic symptom disorders" in older adults is challenging due to somatic multimorbidity, which threatens the validity of somatization questionnaires. In a systematic review study, the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) and the somatization subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90-item version (SCL-90 SOM) are recommended out of 40 questionnaires for usage in large-scale studies. While both scales measure physical symptoms which in younger persons often refer to unexplained symptoms, in older persons, these symptoms may originate from somatic diseases...
July 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745003/an-evolutionary-perspective-on-the-systems-of-adaptive-immunity
#7
Viktor Müller, Rob J de Boer, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, Eörs Szathmáry
We propose an evolutionary perspective to classify and characterize the diverse systems of adaptive immunity that have been discovered across all major domains of life. We put forward a new function-based classification according to the way information is acquired by the immune systems: Darwinian immunity (currently known from, but not necessarily limited to, vertebrates) relies on the Darwinian process of clonal selection to 'learn' by cumulative trial-and-error feedback; Lamarckian immunity uses templated targeting (guided adaptation) to internalize heritable information on potential threats; finally, shotgun immunity operates through somatic mechanisms of variable targeting without feedback...
July 26, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744703/pathways-of-intergenerational-transmission-of-advantages-during-adolescence-social-background-cognitive-ability-and-educational-attainment
#8
Wiebke Schulz, Reinhard Schunck, Martin Diewald, Wendy Johnson
Educational attainment in adolescence is of paramount importance for attaining higher education and for shaping subsequent life chances. Sociological accounts focus on the role of differences in socioeconomic resources in intergenerational reproduction of educational inequalities. These often disregard the intergenerational transmission of cognitive ability and the importance of children's cognitive ability to educational attainment. Psychological perspectives stress the importance of cognitive ability for educational attainment but underemphasize potentially different roles of specific socioeconomic resources in shaping educational outcomes, as well as individual differences in cognitive ability...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743098/giant-fibro-epithelial-polyp-in-a-young-girl-a-rare-case-report
#9
Anil Kumar, Nadia Hasin, Amit Kumar Sinha, Subhash Kumar, Punam Bhadani
INTRODUCTION: Fibro epithelial Polyp (FEP) is a polypoid outgrowth of epidermis and dermal fibro vascular tissue. This polyp is most commonly found in oral cavity, neck and axilla, though any skin fold may be affected like groin. These polyps are usually less than 5cm in size and rarely occur before 4th decade of life. Excision is the treatment of choice for such lesion. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 20year old female patient presented with a large pedunculated mass originating from the left groin area extending up to the left knee joint...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742847/mining-of-high-utility-probability-sequential-patterns-from-uncertain-databases
#10
Binbin Zhang, Jerry Chun-Wei Lin, Philippe Fournier-Viger, Ting Li
High-utility sequential pattern mining (HUSPM) has become an important issue in the field of data mining. Several HUSPM algorithms have been designed to mine high-utility sequential patterns (HUPSPs). They have been applied in several real-life situations such as for consumer behavior analysis and event detection in sensor networks. Nonetheless, most studies on HUSPM have focused on mining HUPSPs in precise data. But in real-life, uncertainty is an important factor as data is collected using various types of sensors that are more or less accurate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742824/how-do-rehomed-laboratory-beagles-behave-in-everyday-situations-results-from-an-observational-test-and-a-survey-of-new-owners
#11
Dorothea Döring, Ophelia Nick, Alexander Bauer, Helmut Küchenhoff, Michael H Erhard
When laboratory dogs are rehomed into private households, they experience an extreme change in their life situation. They leave their familiar, limited environment in the research facility and encounter a multitude of animate and inanimate stimuli in their new home. Although literature reports have described the experiences with rehoming as being mostly positive, scientific observations of the dogs in everyday situations have not been done. Hence, we conducted an observational test with 74 laboratory beagles 6 weeks after adoption in their new homes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742812/broad-range-lytic-bacteriophages-that-kill-staphylococcus-aureus-local-field-strains
#12
Virginia Abatángelo, Natalia Peressutti Bacci, Carina A Boncompain, Ariel A Amadio, Soledad Carrasco, Cristian A Suárez, Héctor R Morbidoni
Staphylococcus aureus is a very successful opportunistic pathogen capable of causing a variety of diseases ranging from mild skin infections to life-threatening sepsis, meningitis and pneumonia. Its ability to display numerous virulence mechanisms matches its skill to display resistance to several antibiotics, including β-lactams, underscoring the fact that new anti-S. aureus drugs are urgently required. In this scenario, the utilization of lytic bacteriophages that kill bacteria in a genus -or even species- specific way, has become an attractive field of study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741379/tiny-rnas-and-their-voyage-via-extracellular-vesicles-secretion-of-bacterial-small-rna-and-eukaryotic-microrna
#13
Ji-Woong Choi, Jee-Hyun Um, Jin-Hyun Cho, Heon-Jin Lee
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that bind to the 3'-untranslated region of target mRNAs and have transcriptional or translational inhibitory function in eukaryotes. Before microRNAs were widely known, bacterial non-coding small RNAs around 50-200 nt in length were discovered whose mechanism of action resembled that of microRNAs. Recently, RNAs that are of similar size to or smaller than microRNAs have been discovered in bacteria and indeed, this class of small RNAs have been found throughout all domains of life...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739433/pain-management-the-rising-role-of-interventional-oncology
#14
D Filippiadis, S Tutton, A Kelekis
Patients with early or metastatic cancer may suffer from pain of different origins. The vast majority of these patients are not adequately treated by means of systemic analgesia and radiotherapy. Percutaneous neurolysis is performed using chemical agents or thermal energy upon sympathetic nervous system plexus for pain reduction and life quality improvement. Ablation and vertebral augmentation are included in clinical guidelines for metastatic disease. As far as the peripheral skeleton is concerned bone augmentation and stabilization can be performed by means of cement injection either solely performed or in combination to cannulated screws or other metallic or peek implants...
July 21, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739401/a-review-of-nasal-paranasal-and-skull-base-tumors-invading-the-orbit
#15
REVIEW
Morten Jørgensen, Steffen Heegaard
Tumors that invade the orbit are uncommon. The majority are meningiomas arising from the sphenoid ridge (66 %). Others are bone and cartilage tumors arising from the surrounding bones surrounding the orbit, pituitary adenomas, and epithelial tumors arising from the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Meningiomas occur more often in females, whereas epithelial tumors have a predilection for males. Meningiomas and epithelial tumors typically present in the sixth decade of life, whereas bone tumors tend to affect individuals in their third decade of life...
July 21, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738989/membrane-curvature-and-lipid-composition-synergize-to-regulate-n-ras-anchor-recruitment
#16
Jannik B Larsen, Celeste Kennard, Søren L Pedersen, Knud J Jensen, Mark J Uline, Nikos S Hatzakis, Dimitrios Stamou
Proteins anchored to membranes through covalently linked fatty acids and/or isoprenoid groups play crucial roles in all forms of life. Sorting and trafficking of lipidated proteins has traditionally been discussed in the context of partitioning to membrane domains of different lipid composition. We recently showed that membrane shape/curvature can in itself mediate the recruitment of lipidated proteins. However, exactly how membrane curvature and composition synergize remains largely unexplored. Here we investigated how three critical structural parameters of lipids, namely acyl chain saturation, headgroup size, and acyl chain length, modulate the capacity of membrane curvature to recruit lipidated proteins...
July 21, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738409/elements-of-eoarchean-life-trapped-in-mineral-inclusions
#17
T Hassenkam, M P Andersson, K N Dalby, D M A Mackenzie, M T Rosing
Metasedimentary rocks from Isua, West Greenland (over 3,700 million years old) contain (13)C-depleted carbonaceous compounds, with isotopic ratios that are compatible with a biogenic origin. Metamorphic garnet crystals in these rocks contain trails of carbonaceous inclusions that are contiguous with carbon-rich sedimentary beds in the host rock, where carbon is fully graphitized. Previous studies have not been able to document other elements of life (mainly hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus) structurally bound to this carbonaceous material...
July 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737862/neonatal-mortality-in-argentina-situation-analysis-from-2005-to-2014
#18
Juliana Z Finkelstein, Mariana Duhau, María L Fasola, Paola Escobar
INTRODUCTION: Neonatal mortality (NM) refers to deaths occurring between birth and 27 days of life. This component of infant mortality has shown the least reduction over the past 50 years. The objective of this study was to analyze the course and characteristics of NM in Argentina. POPULATION AND METHODS: This was a descriptive, ecological study of NM in Argentina conducted between 2005 and 2014 to analyze its course, causes, and the relevance of prematurity and a low birth weight...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736736/feedback-driven-sensory-mapping-adaptation-for-robust-speech-activity-detection
#19
Ashwin Bellur, Mounya Elhilali
Parsing natural acoustic scenes using computational methodologies poses many challenges. Given the rich and complex nature of the acoustic environment, data mismatch between train and test conditions is a major hurdle in data-driven audio processing systems. In contrast, the brain exhibits a remarkable ability at segmenting acoustic scenes with relative ease. When tackling challenging listening conditions that are often faced in everyday life, the biological system relies on a number of principles that allow it to effortlessly parse its rich soundscape...
March 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736539/reviewing-the-effectiveness-of-music-interventions-in-treating-depression
#20
REVIEW
Daniel Leubner, Thilo Hinterberger
Depression is a very common mood disorder, resulting in a loss of social function, reduced quality of life and increased mortality. Music interventions have been shown to be a potential alternative for depression therapy but the number of up-to-date research literature is quite limited. We present a review of original research trials which utilize music or music therapy as intervention to treat participants with depressive symptoms. Our goal was to differentiate the impact of certain therapeutic uses of music used in the various experiments...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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