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Laboratory data prediction models

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522924/use-of-the-4kscore-test-to-predict-the-risk-of-aggressive-prostate-cancer-prior-to-prostate-biopsy-overall-cost-savings-and-improved-quality-of-care-to-the-us-healthcare-system
#1
Jeffrey D Voigt, Yan Dong, Vincent Linder, Stephen Zappala
The 4Kscore® Test (BioReference Laboratories, Elmwood Park, NJ) is a blood test that accurately determines the risk of aggressive prostate cancer and significantly reduces prostate biopsies and associated overdiagnosis and overtreatment of indolent cancer. A budget impact model was developed to test the hypothesis that the 4Kscore Test can improve quality of care and deliver cost savings for patients who are suspected of having prostate cancer and would otherwise undergo prostate biopsy under the current standard of care (SOC) in the United States...
2017: Reviews in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521616/a-10-gene-classifier-for-indeterminate-thyroid-nodules-development-and-multicenter-accuracy-study
#2
Hernan E Gonzalez, Jose R Martínez, Sergio Vargas, Antonieta Solar, Loreto Pamela Véliz, Francisco Cruz, Tatiana Arias, Soledad Loyola, Eleonora Horvath, Hernán Tala, Eufrosina Traipe, Manuel Meneses, Luis Marin, Nelson Wohllk, Rene Eduardo Diaz, Jesús Véliz, Pedro Pineda, Patricia Arroyo, Natalia Mena, Milagros Bracamonte, Giovanna Miranda, Elsa Bruce, Soledad Urra
BACKGROUND: In most of the world, diagnostic surgery remains as the most frequent approach for indeterminate thyroid cytology. Although several molecular tests are available for central-lab testing in the US, there are no available kits for local laboratory testing. The aim of this study was to develop a prototype in-vitro diagnostic (IVD) gene classifier for diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid cytology. METHODS: In a first stage, the expression of 18 genes was determined by qPCR in a broad histopathological spectrum of fresh tissue biopsies (114)...
May 18, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511939/droplet-and-bubble-formation-of-combined-oil-and-gas-releases-in-subsea-blowouts
#3
Lin Zhao, Michel C Boufadel, Thomas King, Brian Robinson, Feng Gao, Scott A Socolofsky, Kenneth Lee
Underwater blowouts from gas and oil operations often involve the simultaneous release of oil and gas. Presence of gas bubbles in jets/plumes could greatly influence oil droplet formation. With the aim of understanding and quantifying the droplet formation from Deepwater Horizon blowout (DWH) we developed a new formulation for gas-oil interaction with jets/plumes. We used the jet-droplet formation model VDROP-J with the new module and the updated model was validated against laboratory and field experimental data...
May 13, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508538/prognostic-value-of-predialysis-indices-for-technique-failure-and-mortality-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients
#4
Masaru Matsui, Yasuhiro Akai, Ken-Ichi Samejima, Hideo Tsushima, Kaori Tanabe, Katsuhiko Morimoto, Miho Tagawa, Yoshihiko Saito
Technique failure remains a frequent cause of peritoneal dialysis (PD) withdrawal. Many post-commencement predictors of PD technique failure have been identified, while predialysis predictors have remained unclear. The aim of this study was to identify predialysis indices for technique failure in PD patients. We recruited 206 consecutive PD patients who were treated at Nara Medical University Hospital between 1 April 1997 and 31 December 2012. Forty-eight patients were excluded because of transition from hemodialysis (HD) or withdrawal from PD within 3 months, leaving 158 patients for analysis...
May 15, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505151/mixture-models-reveal-multiple-positional-bias-types-in-rna-seq-data-and-lead-to-accurate-transcript-concentration-estimates
#5
Andreas Tuerk, Gregor Wiktorin, Serhat Güler
Accuracy of transcript quantification with RNA-Seq is negatively affected by positional fragment bias. This article introduces Mix2 (rd. "mixquare"), a transcript quantification method which uses a mixture of probability distributions to model and thereby neutralize the effects of positional fragment bias. The parameters of Mix2 are trained by Expectation Maximization resulting in simultaneous transcript abundance and bias estimates. We compare Mix2 to Cufflinks, RSEM, eXpress and PennSeq; state-of-the-art quantification methods implementing some form of bias correction...
May 15, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502430/screening-of-unapproved-drugs-using-portable-raman-spectroscopy
#6
Chaitanya Tondepu, Roxana Toth, Chelliah V Navin, Latevi S Lawson, Jason D Rodriguez
We present a four-step screening approach for unapproved drugs. The screening approach is both qualitative and quantitative in design in order to determine if the sample under study contains the correct and acceptable amount of the declared active pharmaceutical ingredient. Four commercially-available unapproved antibiotic and antiviral drugs were used in this study. Out of the 40 individual samples tested, 100% of the samples matched for the declared active pharmaceutical ingredient with no false positives...
June 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499358/can-we-predict-functional-decline-in-hospitalized-older-people-admitted-through-the-emergency-department-reanalysis-of-a-predictive-tool-ten-years-after-its-conception
#7
Isabelle De Brauwer, Pascale Cornette, Benoît Boland, Franck Verschuren, William D'Hoore
BACKGROUND: In the Emergency Department (ED), early and rapid identification of older people at risk of adverse outcomes, who could best benefit from complex geriatric intervention, would avoid wasting time, especially in terms of prevention of adverse outcomes, and ensure optimal orientation of vulnerable patients. We wanted to test the predictive ability of a screening tool assessing risk of functional decline (FD), named SHERPA, 10 years after its conception, and to assess the added value of other clinical or biological factors associated with FD...
May 12, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498944/assessment-of-standard-laboratory-tests-and-rotational-thromboelastometry-for-the-prediction-of-postoperative-bleeding-in-liver-transplantation
#8
T M Dötsch, D Dirkmann, D Bezinover, M Hartmann, J W Treckmann, A Paul, F H Saner
Background.: Perioperative bleeding remains a major challenge in liver transplantation. We aimed to compare standard laboratory tests with thromboelastometry (ROTEM ® ) with regard to their ability to predict postoperative non-surgical bleeding. Methods.: Data from 243 adult liver transplant recipients from January 2012 to May 2014 were evaluated retrospectively. Upon admission to the intensive care unit, coagulation status was assessed using standard laboratory tests [prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen concentration, and platelet count] and ROTEM ® whole blood coagulation assays...
May 12, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497259/safety-and-tolerability-of-intravenous-valproic-acid-in-healthy-subjects-a-phase-i-dose-escalation-trial
#9
Patrick E Georgoff, Vahagn C Nikolian, Tess Bonham, Manjunath P Pai, Celia Tafatia, Ihab Halaweish, Kathleen To, Kuanwong Watcharotone, Aishwarya Parameswaran, Ruijuan Luo, Duxin Sun, Hasan B Alam
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, has beneficial effects in the setting of cancer, neurologic diseases, and traumatic injuries. In animal models of traumatic injury, a single dose of valproic acid has been shown to reduce mortality. The purpose of this trial was to determine the maximum tolerated single dose of intravenous valproic acid in healthy humans. METHODS: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial design was used to identify dose-limiting toxicities in healthy subjects who received a single dose of intravenous valproic acid...
May 11, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493871/ileus-in-children-presenting-with-diarrhea-and-severe-acute-malnutrition-a-chart-review
#10
Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Abu Smsb Shahid, K M Shahunja, Pradip Kumar Bardhan, Abu Syeed Golam Faruque, Lubaba Shahrin, Sumon Kumar Das, Dipesh Kumar Barua, Md Iqbal Hossain, Tahmeed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Severely malnourished children aged under five years requiring hospital admission for diarrheal illness frequently develop ileus during hospitalization with often fatal outcomes. However, there is no data on risk factors and outcome of ileus in such children. We intended to evaluate predictive factors for ileus during hospitalization and their outcomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was a retrospective chart review that enrolled severely malnourished children under five years old with diarrhea, admitted to the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh between April 2011 and August 2012...
May 11, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493866/initial-assessment-of-the-infant-with-neonatal-cholestasis-is-this-biliary-atresia
#11
Benjamin L Shneider, Jeff Moore, Nanda Kerkar, John C Magee, Wen Ye, Saul J Karpen, Binita M Kamath, Jean P Molleston, Jorge A Bezerra, Karen F Murray, Kathleen M Loomes, Peter F Whitington, Philip Rosenthal, Robert H Squires, Stephen L Guthery, Ronen Arnon, Kathleen B Schwarz, Yumirle P Turmelle, Averell H Sherker, Ronald J Sokol
INTRODUCTION: Optimizing outcome in biliary atresia (BA) requires timely diagnosis. Cholestasis is a presenting feature of BA, as well as other diagnoses (Non-BA). Identification of clinical features of neonatal cholestasis that would expedite decisions to pursue subsequent invasive testing to correctly diagnose or exclude BA would enhance outcomes. The analytical goal was to develop a predictive model for BA using data available at initial presentation. METHODS: Infants at presentation with neonatal cholestasis (direct/conjugated bilirubin >2 mg/dl [34...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489750/performance-of-the-lace-index-to-identify-elderly-patients-at-high-risk-for-hospital-readmission-in-singapore
#12
Lian Leng Low, Nan Liu, Marcus Eng Hock Ong, Eileen Yining Ng, Andrew Fu Wah Ho, Julian Thumboo, Kheng Hock Lee
Unplanned readmissions may be avoided by accurate risk prediction and appropriate resources could be allocated to high risk patients. The Length of stay, Acuity of admission, Charlson comorbidity index, Emergency department visits in past six months (LACE) index was developed to predict hospital readmissions in Canada. In this study, we assessed the performance of the LACE index in a Singaporean cohort by identifying elderly patients at high risk of 30-day readmissions. We further investigated the use of additional risk factors in improving readmission prediction performance...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488376/a-predictive-formula-of-coma-onset-and-prothrombin-time-to-distinguish-patients-who-recover-from-acute-liver-injury
#13
Keisuke Kakisaka, Yuji Suzuki, Kojiro Kataoka, Yohei Okada, Yasuhiro Miyamoto, Hidekatsu Kuroda, Yasuhiro Takikawa
BACKGROUND & AIM: Acute liver failure (ALF) is defined as acute liver injury (ALI) associated with coagulopathy. A follow-up strategy for ALI and characterization of ALI patients with a risk of progressing to ALF have never been established. To establish predictive markers for progression from ALI to ALF, we compared the clinical characteristics and laboratory data on the day of registration to data from a regional referral system of patients with ALI. METHODS: This prospective, observational study enrolled 365 consecutive patients with ALI/ALF between 2007 and 2016...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486708/withdrawal-related-changes-in-delay-discounting-predict-short-term-smoking-abstinence
#14
Rickie Miglin, Joseph W Kable, Maureen E Bowers, Rebecca L Ashare
Introduction: Impulsive decision making is associated with smoking behavior and reflects preferences for smaller, immediate rewards and intolerance of temporal delays. Nicotine withdrawal may alter impulsive decision making and time perception. However, little is known about whether withdrawal-related changes in decision making and time perception predict smoking relapse. Methods: Forty-five smokers (14 female) completed two laboratory sessions, one following 24-hour abstinence and one smoking-as-usual (order counterbalanced; biochemically verified abstinence)...
June 1, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486440/electronic-health-record-based-predictive-models-for-acute-kidney-injury-screening-in-pediatric-inpatients
#15
Li Wang, Tracy L McGregor, Deborah P Jones, Brian C Bridges, Geoffrey M Fleming, Jana Shirey-Rice, Michael F McLemore, Lixin Chen, Asli Weitkamp, Daniel W Byrne, Sara L Van Driest
BACKGROUNDAcute kidney injury (AKI) is common in pediatric inpatients and associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and length of stay. Early identification can reduce severity.METHODSTo create and validate an electronic health record (EHR)-based AKI screening tool, we generated temporally distinct development and validation cohorts using retrospective data from our tertiary care children's hospital, including children 28 days through 21 years old with sufficient serum creatinine measurements to determine AKI status...
May 9, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484321/flow-through-a-very-porous-obstacle-in-a-shallow-channel
#16
M J Creed, S Draper, T Nishino, A G L Borthwick
A theoretical model, informed by numerical simulations based on the shallow water equations, is developed to predict the flow passing through and around a uniform porous obstacle in a shallow channel, where background friction is important. This problem is relevant to a number of practical situations, including flow through aquatic vegetation, the performance of arrays of turbines in tidal channels and hydrodynamic forces on offshore structures. To demonstrate this relevance, the theoretical model is used to (i) reinterpret core flow velocities in existing laboratory-based data for an array of emergent cylinders in shallow water emulating aquatic vegetation and (ii) reassess the optimum arrangement of tidal turbines to generate power in a tidal channel...
April 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483558/evaluation-of-the-activpal-accelerometer-for-physical-activity-and-energy-expenditure-estimation-in-a-semi-structured-setting
#17
Alexander H K Montoye, James M Pivarnik, Lanay M Mudd, Subir Biswas, Karin A Pfeiffer
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate accuracy of the activPAL and its proprietary software for prediction of time spent in physical activity (PA) intensities (sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous) and energy expenditure (EE) and compare its accuracy to that of a machine learning model (ANN) developed from raw activPAL data. DESIGN: Semi-structured accelerometer validation in a laboratory setting. METHODS: Participants (n=41 [20 male]; age=22.0±4.2) completed a 90-min protocol performing 13 activities for 3-10min each and choosing activity order, duration, and intensity...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482933/models-solely-using-claims-based-administrative-data-are-poor-predictors-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-disease-activity
#18
Brian C Sauer, Chia-Chen Teng, Neil A Accortt, Zachary Burningham, David Collier, Mona Trivedi, Grant W Cannon
BACKGROUND: This study developed and validated a claims-based statistical model to predict rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity, measured by the 28-joint count Disease Activity Score (DAS28). METHOD: Veterans enrolled in the Veterans Affairs Rheumatoid Arthritis (VARA) registry with one year of data available for review before being assessed by the DAS28, were studied. Three models were developed based on initial selection of variables for analyses. The first model was based on clinically defined variables, the second leveraged grouping systems for high dimensional data and the third approach prescreened all possible predictors based on a significant bivariate association with the DAS28...
May 8, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481994/risk-factors-for-the-development-of-right-ventricular-failure-after-left-ventricular-assist-device-implantation-a-single-centre-retrospective-with-focus-on-deformation-imaging%C3%A2
#19
Nadia Boegershausen, Rashad Zayat, Ali Aljalloud, Giulia Musetti, Andreas Goetzenich, Lachmandath Tewarie, Ajay Moza, Andrea Amerini, Rüdiger Autschbach, Nima Hatam
OBJECTIVES: Right heart failure (RHF) after the implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) remains a dreaded postoperative complication. Using 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography, it is possible to acquire right ventricular global and regional function. The aim of our study was to assess whether speckle-tracking echocardiography values will better predict the RHF post-continuous-flow LVAD implantation. METHODS: From January 2014 to January 2016, 54 patients who underwent LVAD implantation were included and retrospectively analysed...
May 8, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477358/are-exposure-predictions-used-for-the-prioritisation-of-pharmaceuticals-in-the-environment-fit-for-purpose
#20
Emily E Burns, Jane Thomas-Oates, Dana W Kolpin, Edward T Furlong, Alistair B A Boxall
Prioritisation methodologies are often used for identifying those pharmaceuticals that pose the greatest risk to the natural environment and to focus laboratory testing or environmental monitoring towards pharmaceuticals of greatest concern. Risk-based prioritisation approaches, employing models to derive exposure concentrations, are commonly used but the reliability of these models is unclear. The present study evaluated the accuracy of exposure models commonly used for pharmaceutical prioritisation. Targeted monitoring was conducted for 95 pharmaceuticals in the Rivers Foss and Ouse in the City of York, UK...
May 6, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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