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Laboratory data prediction models

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806445/use-of-laboratory-markers-in-addition-to-symptoms-for-diagnosis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-children-a-meta-analysis-of-individual-patient-data
#1
Gea A Holtman, Yvonne Lisman-van Leeuwen, Andrew S Day, Ulrika L Fagerberg, Paul Henderson, Stevan T Leach, Gøri Perminow, David Mack, Patrick F van Rheenen, Els van de Vijver, David C Wilson, Johannes B Reitsma, Marjolein Y Berger
Importance: Blood markers and fecal calprotectin are used in the diagnostic workup for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in pediatric patients. Any added diagnostic value of these laboratory markers remains unclear. Objective: To determine whether adding laboratory markers to evaluation of signs and symptoms improves accuracy when diagnosing pediatric IBD. Data Sources: A literature search of MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception through September 26, 2016...
August 14, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806193/speech-perception-in-noise-and-listening-effort-of-older-adults-with-nonlinear-frequency-compression-hearing-aids
#2
James Shehorn, Nicole Marrone, Thomas Muller
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this laboratory-based study was to compare the efficacy of two hearing aid fittings with and without nonlinear frequency compression, implemented within commercially available hearing aids. Previous research regarding the utility of nonlinear frequency compression has revealed conflicting results for speech recognition, marked by high individual variability. Individual differences in auditory function and cognitive abilities, specifically hearing loss slope and working memory, may contribute to aided performance...
August 10, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804505/an-etiologic-prediction-model-incorporating-biomarkers-to-predict-the-bladder-cancer-risk-associated-with-occupational-exposure-to-aromatic-amines-a-pilot-study
#3
Giuseppe Mastrangelo, Angela Carta, Cecilia Arici, Sofia Pavanello, Stefano Porru
BACKGROUND: No etiological prediction model incorporating biomarkers is available to predict bladder cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to aromatic amines. METHODS: Cases were 199 bladder cancer patients. Clinical, laboratory and genetic data were predictors in logistic regression models (full and short) in which the dependent variable was 1 for 15 patients with aromatic amines related bladder cancer and 0 otherwise. The receiver operating characteristics approach was adopted; the area under the curve was used to evaluate discriminatory ability of models...
2017: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799369/a-physically-constrained-classical-description-of-the-homogeneous-nucleation-of-ice-in-water
#4
Thomas Koop, Benjamin J Murray
Liquid water can persist in a supercooled state to below 238 K in the Earth's atmosphere, a temperature range where homogeneous nucleation becomes increasingly probable. However, the rate of homogeneous ice nucleation in supercooled water is poorly constrained, in part, because supercooled water eludes experimental scrutiny in the region of the homogeneous nucleation regime where it can exist only fleetingly. Here we present a new parameterization of the rate of homogeneous ice nucleation based on classical nucleation theory...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772344/territory-size-decreases-minimally-with-increasing-food-abundance-in-stream-salmonids-implications-for-population-regulation
#5
James W A Grant, Laura K Weir, Stefan Ó Steingrímsson
How the local density of territorial animals responds to changes in food abundance will depend on the flexibility of territory size. Quantitative estimates of territory size over a broad range of food abundance are relatively rare because of the difficulty of measuring food abundance in the wild. Stream salmonids are an ideal model system for investigating flexibility in territory size, because food abundance can be quantified in the field and manipulated in the laboratory. We conducted a meta-analysis to test whether territory size decreases with increasing food abundance, and a mixed model analysis to test among three competing predictions: with increasing food abundance, territory size will be (1) fixed - the slope of a regression of log territory size vs...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771487/cardiorespiratory-dynamics-measured-from-continuous-ecg-monitoring-improves-detection-of-deterioration-in-acute-care-patients-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Travis J Moss, Matthew T Clark, James Forrest Calland, Kyle B Enfield, John D Voss, Douglas E Lake, J Randall Moorman
BACKGROUND: Charted vital signs and laboratory results represent intermittent samples of a patient's dynamic physiologic state and have been used to calculate early warning scores to identify patients at risk of clinical deterioration. We hypothesized that the addition of cardiorespiratory dynamics measured from continuous electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring to intermittently sampled data improves the predictive validity of models trained to detect clinical deterioration prior to intensive care unit (ICU) transfer or unanticipated death...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768682/quantitative-characterization-of-major-hepatic-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-ugt-enzymes-in-human-liver-microsomes-comparison-of-two-proteomic-methods-and-correlation-with-catalytic-activity
#7
Brahim Achour, Alyssa Dantonio, Mark Niosi, Jonathan J Novak, John K Fallon, Jill Barber, Philip C Smith, Amin Rostami-Hodjegan, Theunis C Goosen
Quantitative characterization of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes is valuable in glucuronidation reaction phenotyping, predicting metabolic clearance and drug-drug interactions using extrapolation exercises based on pharmacokinetic modeling. Different quantitative proteomic workflows have been employed to quantify UGT enzymes in various systems, with reports indicating large variability in expression, which cannot be explained by inter-individual variability alone. To evaluate the effect of methodological differences on end-point UGT abundance quantification, eight UGT enzymes were quantified in 24 matched liver microsomal samples by two laboratories using stable isotope-labeled (SIL) peptides or quantitative concatemer (QconCAT) standard, and measurements were assessed against catalytic activity in seven enzymes (n=59)...
August 2, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768519/synthetic-hematocrit-derived-from-the-longitudinal-relaxation-of-blood-can-lead-to-clinically-significant-errors-in-measurement-of-extracellular-volume-fraction-in-pediatric-and-young-adult-patients
#8
Frank J Raucci, David A Parra, Jason T Christensen, Lazaro E Hernandez, Larry W Markham, Meng Xu, James C Slaughter, Jonathan H Soslow
BACKGROUND: Extracellular volume fraction (ECV) is altered in pathological cardiac remodeling and predicts death and arrhythmia. ECV can be quantified using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 mapping but calculation requires a measured hematocrit (Hct). The longitudinal relaxation of blood has been used in adults to generate a synthetic Hct (estimate of true Hct) but has not been validated in pediatric populations. METHODS: One hundred fourteen children and young adults underwent a total of 163 CMRs with T1 mapping...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758571/experimental-simulation-and-fuzzy-modelling-of-landfill-biogas-production-from-low-biodegradable-mbt-waste-under-leachate-recirculation
#9
Martina Di Addario, Bernardo Ruggeri
In the perspective of a sustainable waste management, the amount of biodegradable municipal solid waste destined to landfilling should be reduced. In such context, new technologies have been developed in recent years with the aim of a more rapid stabilization of the waste. In this work, the combination of waste pretreatments and leachate recirculation was studied. A lab-scale experimental approach and a fuzzy-modelling approach were chosen to predict cumulative methane production from low biodegradable waste under leachate recirculation...
July 31, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755715/mathematical-modeling-of-microcystis-aeruginosa-growth-and-d-leu-1-microcystin-lr-production-in-culture-media-at-different-temperatures
#10
Crettaz Minaglia Melina Celeste, Rosso Lorena, Aranda Jorge Oswaldo, Goñi Sandro, Sedan Daniela, Andrinolo Dario, Giannuzzi Leda
The effect of temperature (26°C, 28°C, 30°C and 35°C) on the growth of native CAAT-3-2005 Microcystis aeruginosa and the production of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) were examined through laboratory studies. Kinetic parameters such as specific growth rate (μ), lag phase duration (LPD) and maximum population density (MPD) were determined by fitting the modified Gompertz equation to the M. aeruginosa strain cell count (cellsmL(-1)). A 4.8-fold increase in μ values and a 10.8-fold decrease in the LPD values were found for M...
July 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751201/the-role-of-mucus-in-cell-based-models-used-to-screen-mucosal-drug-delivery
#11
REVIEW
Anna Lechanteur, José das Neves, Bruno Sarmento
The increasing interest in developing tools to predict drug absorption through mucosal surfaces is fostering the establishment of epithelial cell-based models. Cell-based in vitro techniques for drug permeability assessment are less laborious, cheaper and address the concerns of using laboratory animals. Simultaneously, in vitro barrier models that thoroughly simulate human epithelia or mucosae may provide useful data to speed up the entrance of new drugs and new drug products into the clinics. Nevertheless, standard cell-based in vitro models that intend to reproduce epithelial surfaces often discard the role of mucus in influencing drug permeation/absorption...
July 24, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751174/an-equivalent-time-lines-model-for-municipal-solid-waste-based-on-its-compression-characteristics
#12
Wu Gao, Xuecheng Bian, Wenjie Xu, Yunmin Chen
Municipal solid waste (MSW) demonstrates a noticeable time-dependent stress-strain behavior, which contributes greatly to the settlement of landfills and therefore influences both the storage capacity of landfills and the integrity of internal structures. The long-term compression tests for MSW under different biodegradation conditions were analyzed. It showed that the primary compression can affect the secondary compression due to the biodegradation and mechanical creep. Based on the time-lines model for clays and the compression characteristics of MSW, relationships between MSW's viscous strain rate and equivalent time were established, and then the viscous strain functions of MSW under different biodegradation conditions were deduced, and an equivalent-time-lines model for MSW settlement for two biodegradation conditions was developed, including the Type I model for the enhanced biodegradation condition and the Type II model for the normal biodegradation condition...
July 24, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741195/comparison-of-prognostic-abilities-among-preoperative-laboratory-data-indices-in-patients-with-resectable-gastric-and-esophagogastric-junction-adenocarcinoma
#13
Masayuki Urabe, Hiroharu Yamashita, Toshiaki Watanabe, Yasuyuki Seto
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS) and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) are simple indices determined employing laboratory data alone and have been used to predict the clinical outcomes of patients with esophagogastric tumors. However, prior results were generally based on analyzing dichotomous data with arbitrary cutoff values. This retrospective study aims to assess prognostic utilities of preoperative NLR, PLR, LMR, mGPS and PNI, as continuous variables, in gastric cancer (GC) and adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEG)...
July 24, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739784/assessment-of-bactericidal-drug-activity-and-treatment-outcome-in-a-mouse-tuberculosis-model-using-a-clinical-beijing-strain
#14
Bas C Mourik, Gerjo J de Knegt, Annelies Verbon, Johan W Mouton, Hannelore I Bax, Jurriaan E M de Steenwinkel
Objectives:Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strains are associated with lower treatment success rates in tuberculosis patients. In contrast, laboratory strains such as H37Rv are often used in preclinical tuberculosis models. Therefore, we explored the impact of using a clinical Beijing strain on treatment outcome in our mouse tuberculosis model. Additionally, the predictive value of bactericidal activity on treatment outcome was assessed.Methods: BALB/c mice were infected with a Beijing strain and treated with one of ten different combinations of conventional anti-TB drugs...
July 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737658/regulation-of-clinical-xenotransplantation-time-for-a-reappraisal
#15
David K C Cooper, Richard N Pierson, Bernhard J Hering, Muhammad M Mohiuddin, Jay A Fishman, Joachim Denner, Curie Ahn, Agnes M Azimzadeh, Leo H Buhler, Peter J Cowan, Wayne J Hawthorne, Takaaki Kobayashi, David H Sachs
The continual critical shortage of organs and cells from deceased human donors has stimulated research in the field of cross-species transplantation (xenotransplantation), with the pig selected as the most suitable potential source of organs. Since the US Food and Drug Administration concluded a comprehensive review of xenotransplantation in 2003, considerable progress has been made in the experimental laboratory to improve cell and organ xenograft survival in several pig-to-nonhuman primate systems that offer the best available models to predict clinical outcomes...
August 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729857/nutrient-acquisition-and-the-metabolic-potential-of-photoferrotrophic-chlorobi
#16
Katharine J Thompson, Rachel L Simister, Aria S Hahn, Steven J Hallam, Sean A Crowe
Anoxygenic photosynthesis evolved prior to oxygenic photosynthesis and harnessed energy from sunlight to support biomass production on the early Earth. Models that consider the availability of electron donors predict that anoxygenic photosynthesis using Fe(II), known as photoferrotrophy, would have supported most global primary production before the proliferation of oxygenic phototrophs at approximately 2.3 billion years ago. These photoferrotrophs have also been implicated in the deposition of banded iron formations, the world's largest sedimentary iron ore deposits that formed mostly in late Archean and early Proterozoic Eons...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728995/a-mechanistic-model-quantifies-artemisinin-induced-parasite-growth-retardation-in-blood-stage-plasmodium-falciparum-infection
#17
Pengxing Cao, Nectarios Klonis, Sophie Zaloumis, David S Khoury, Deborah Cromer, Miles P Davenport, Leann Tilley, Julie A Simpson, James M McCaw
Falciparum malaria is a major parasitic disease causing widespread morbidity and mortality globally. Artemisinin derivatives-the most effective and widely-used antimalarials that have helped reduce the burden of malaria by 60% in some areas over the past decade-have recently been found to induce growth retardation of blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum when applied at clinically relevant concentrations. To date, no model has been designed to quantify the growth retardation effect and to predict the influence of this property on in vivo parasite killing...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712030/predictive-modelling-of-eutrophication-in-the-poz%C3%A3-n-de-la-dolores-lake-northern-spain-by-using-an-evolutionary-support-vector-machines-approach
#18
P J García-Nieto, E García-Gonzalo, J R Alonso Fernández, C Díaz Muñiz
Eutrophication is a water enrichment in nutrients (mainly phosphorus) that generally leads to symptomatic changes and deterioration of water quality and all its uses in general, when the production of algae and other aquatic vegetations are increased. In this sense, eutrophication has caused a variety of impacts, such as high levels of Chlorophyll a (Chl-a). Consequently, anticipate its presence is a matter of importance to prevent future risks. The aim of this study was to obtain a predictive model able to perform an early detection of the eutrophication in water bodies such as lakes...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709054/probing-the-relationship-between-external-and-internal-human-exposure-of-organophosphate-flame-retardants-using-pharmacokinetic-modelling
#19
Thuy T Bui, Fuchao Xu, Nele Van den Eede, Anna Palm Cousins, Adrian Covaci, Ian T Cousins
Human external exposure (i.e. intake) of organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) has recently been quantified, but no link has yet been established between external and internal exposure. In this study, we used a pharmacokinetic (PK) model to probe the relationship between external and internal exposure data for three PFRs (EHDPHP, TNBP and TPHP) available for a Norwegian cohort of 61 individuals from 61 different households. Using current literature on metabolism of PFRs, we predicted the metabolite serum/urine concentrations and compared it to measured data from the study population...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708679/transpulmonary-pressure-describes-lung-morphology-during-decremental-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-trials-in-obesity
#20
Jacopo Fumagalli, Lorenzo Berra, Changsheng Zhang, Massimiliano Pirrone, Roberta R De Santis Santiago, Susimeire Gomes, Federico Magni, Glaucia A B Dos Santos, Desmond Bennett, Vinicius Torsani, Daniel Fisher, Caio Morais, Marcelo B P Amato, Robert M Kacmarek
OBJECTIVES: Atelectasis develops in critically ill obese patients when undergoing mechanical ventilation due to increased pleural pressure. The current study aimed to determine the relationship between transpulmonary pressure, lung mechanics, and lung morphology and to quantify the benefits of a decremental positive end-expiratory pressure trial preceded by a recruitment maneuver. DESIGN: Prospective, crossover, nonrandomized interventional study. SETTING: Medical and Surgical Intensive Care Units at Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, MA) and University Animal Research Laboratory (São Paulo, Brazil)...
August 2017: Critical Care Medicine
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