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Laboratory data prediction models

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943863/determination-of-geochemical-bio-signatures-in-mars-like-basaltic-environments
#1
Karen Olsson-Francis, Victoria K Pearson, Elisabeth D Steer, Susanne P Schwenzer
Bio-signatures play a central role in determining whether life existed on early Mars. Using a terrestrial basalt as a compositional analog for the martian surface, we applied a combination of experimental microbiology and thermochemical modeling techniques to identify potential geochemical bio-signatures for life on early Mars. Laboratory experiments were used to determine the short-term effects of biota on the dissolution of terrestrial basalt, and the formation of secondary alteration minerals. The chemoorganoheterotrophic bacterium, Burkholderia sp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942872/association-of-sst2-and-hs-crp-levels-with-new-onset-atrial-fibrillation-in-coronary-artery-disease
#2
Santeri Nortamo, Olavi Ukkola, Samuli Lepojärvi, Tuomas Kenttä, Antti Kiviniemi, Juhani Junttila, Heikki Huikuri, Juha Perkiömäki
BACKGROUND: The data on biomarkers as predictors of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) are limited. METHODS: A total of 1946 patients with CAD were recruited to the ARTEMIS study. At baseline, the study patients underwent clinical and echocardiographic examinations and had laboratory tests. The patients (n=1710) with the information about the occurrence of new-onset AF during the follow-up were included in the present analysis...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941130/quality-of-life-as-a-prognostic-factor-for-survival-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#3
Malin Sternby Eilard, Hannes Hagström, Kim Erlend Mortensen, Tom Wilsgaard, Ola Magne Vagnildhaug, Olav Dajani, Per Stål, Magnus Rizell
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Prognostication in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is demanding. Not only tumor extent and performance status are to be considered, but also liver function, which is often limiting for both survival itself and for treatment possibilities. This study was conducted to assess if patient-reported questionnaires containing general and liver specific questions could improve prognostication of survival. METHODS: 185 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Norway and Sweden were prospectively included...
September 20, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937593/a-new-proxy-measurement-algorithm-with-application-to-the-estimation-of-vertical-ground-reaction-forces-using-wearable-sensors
#4
Yuzhu Guo, Fabio Storm, Yifan Zhao, Stephen A Billings, Aleksandar Pavic, Claudia Mazzà, Ling-Zhong Guo
Measurement of the ground reaction forces (GRF) during walking is typically limited to laboratory settings, and only short observations using wearable pressure insoles have been reported so far. In this study, a new proxy measurement method is proposed to estimate the vertical component of the GRF (vGRF) from wearable accelerometer signals. The accelerations are used as the proxy variable. An orthogonal forward regression algorithm (OFR) is employed to identify the dynamic relationships between the proxy variables and the measured vGRF using pressure-sensing insoles...
September 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934274/desert-soil-clay-content-estimation-using-reflectance-spectroscopy-preprocessed-by-fractional-derivative
#5
Jingzhe Wang, Tashpolat Tiyip, Jianli Ding, Dong Zhang, Wei Liu, Fei Wang, Nigara Tashpolat
Effective pretreatment of spectral reflectance is vital to model accuracy in soil parameter estimation. However, the classic integer derivative has some disadvantages, including spectral information loss and the introduction of high-frequency noise. In this paper, the fractional order derivative algorithm was applied to the pretreatment and partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to assess the clay content of desert soils. Overall, 103 soil samples were collected from the Ebinur Lake basin in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of China, and used as data sets for calibration and validation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931729/colour-and-luminance-contrasts-predict-the-human-detection-of-natural-stimuli-in-complex-visual-environments
#6
Thomas E White, Bibiana Rojas, Johanna Mappes, Petri Rautiala, Darrell J Kemp
Much of what we know about human colour perception has come from psychophysical studies conducted in tightly-controlled laboratory settings. An enduring challenge, however, lies in extrapolating this knowledge to the noisy conditions that characterize our actual visual experience. Here we combine statistical models of visual perception with empirical data to explore how chromatic (hue/saturation) and achromatic (luminant) information underpins the detection and classification of stimuli in a complex forest environment...
September 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918191/development-and-validation-of-a-chronic-pancreatitis-prognosis-score-in-2-independent-cohorts
#7
Georg Beyer, Ujjwal M Mahajan, Christoph Budde, Thomas J Bulla, Thomas Kohlmann, Louise Kuhlmann, Kerstin Schütte, Ali A Aghdassi, Eckhard Weber, Ulrich Weiss, Asbjørn M Drewes, Søren S Olesen, Markus M Lerch, Julia Mayerle
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The clinical course of chronic pancreatitis is unpredictable. There is no model to assess disease severity or progression or predict patient outcomes. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 91 patients with chronic pancreatitis; data were collected from patients seen at academic centers in Europe, from January 2011 through April 2014. We analyzed correlations between clinical, laboratory, and imaging data with number of hospital readmissions and in-hospital days over the next 12 months; the parameters with the highest degree of correlation were to develop 3-stage chronic pancreatitis prognosis score (COPPS)...
September 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914640/machine-learning-novel-bioinformatics-approaches-for-combating-antimicrobial-resistance
#8
Nenad Macesic, Fernanda Polubriaginof, Nicholas P Tatonetti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a threat to global health and new approaches to combating AMR are needed. Use of machine learning in addressing AMR is in its infancy but has made promising steps. We reviewed the current literature on the use of machine learning for studying bacterial AMR. RECENT FINDINGS: The advent of large-scale data sets provided by next-generation sequencing and electronic health records make applying machine learning to the study and treatment of AMR possible...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904358/monitoring-osteoarthritis-progression-using-near-infrared-nir-spectroscopy
#9
Isaac O Afara, Indira Prasadam, Zohreh Arabshahi, Yin Xiao, Adekunle Oloyede
We demonstrate in this study the potential of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a tool for monitoring progression of cartilage degeneration in an animal model. Osteoarthritic degeneration was artificially induced in one joint in laboratory rats, and the animals were sacrificed at four time points: 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks (3 animals/week). NIR spectra were acquired from both (injured and intact) knees. Subsequently, the joint samples were subjected to histological evaluation and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content analysis, to assess disease severity based on the Mankin scoring system and to determine proteoglycan loss, respectively...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902188/reproductive-interference-and-fecundity-affect-competitive-interactions-of-sibling-species-with-low-mating-barriers-experimental-and-theoretical-evidence
#10
M Gebiola, S E Kelly, L Velten, R Zug, P Hammerstein, M Giorgini, M S Hunter
When allopatric species with incomplete prezygotic isolation come into secondary contact, the outcome of their interaction is not easily predicted. The parasitoid wasp Encarsia suzannae (iES), infected by Cardinium inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), and its sibling species E. gennaroi (EG), not infected by bacterial endosymbionts, may have diverged because of the complementary action of CI and asymmetric hybrid incompatibilities. Whereas postzygotic isolation is now complete because of sterility of F1 hybrid progeny, prezygotic isolation is still incipient...
September 13, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887944/a-calculation-of-the-radiation-environment-on-the-martian-surface
#11
Wouter C de Wet, Lawrence W Townsend
In this work, the radiation environment on the Martian surface, as produced by galactic cosmic radiation incident on the atmosphere, is modeled using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code, High Energy Transport Code-Human Exploration and Development in Space (HETC-HEDS). This work is performed in participation of the 2016 Mars Space Radiation Modeling Workshop held in Boulder, CO, and is part of a larger collaborative effort to study the radiation environment on the surface of Mars. Calculated fluxes for neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, helions, alpha particles, and heavier ions up to Fe are compared with measurements taken by Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) instrument aboard the Mars Science Laboratory over a period of 2 months...
August 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884559/artificial-neural-network-predicts-hemorrhagic-contusions-following-decompressive-craniotomy-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Jian-Li Wang, Guo-Liang Jin, Zi-Gang Yuan
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore relevant factors of hemorrhagic contusions following decompressive craniotomy (DC) in traumatic brain injury (TBI), and create an artificial neural network (ANN) prediction model of the risk factors of hemorrhagic contusions. METHODS: This study analyzed 425 patients with TBI who underwent DC in the Neurosurgery Department of Shaoxing People's Hospital between 2009 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups according to the first postoperative CT scans: hemorrhage group and non-hemorrhage group...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877186/proof-of-concept-of-a-45-second-cardiorespiratory-fitness-self-test-for-coronary-artery-disease-patients-based-on-accelerometry
#13
Gabriele Papini, Alberto G Bonomi, Wim Stut, Jos J Kraal, Hareld M C Kemps, Francesco Sartor
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) provides important diagnostic and prognostic information. It is measured directly via laboratory maximal testing or indirectly via submaximal protocols making use of predictor parameters such as submaximal [Formula: see text], heart rate, workload, and perceived exertion. We have established an innovative methodology, which can provide CRF prediction based only on body motion during a periodic movement. Thirty healthy subjects (40% females, 31.3 ± 7.8 yrs, 25.1 ± 3.2 BMI) and eighteen male coronary artery disease (CAD) (56...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869843/flexing-dual-systems-models-how-variable-cognitive-control-in-children-informs-our-understanding-of-risk-taking-across-development
#14
REVIEW
Rosa Li
Prevailing models of the development of decision-making propose that peak risk-taking occurs in adolescence due to a neural imbalance between two processes: gradual, linearly developing cognitive control and rapid, non-linearly developing reward-processing. Though many studies have found neural evidence supporting this dual-systems imbalance model, its behavioral predictions have been surprisingly difficult to document. Most laboratory studies have not found adolescents to exhibit greater risk-taking than children, and public health data show everyday risk-taking to peak in late adolescence/early adulthood...
August 16, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869538/experimental-and-numerical-investigations-on-the-mechanical-characteristics-of-carbon-fiber-sensors
#15
Salem Bashmal, Mohammed Siddiqui, Abul Fazal M Arif
Carbon fiber-based materials possess excellent mechanical properties and show linear piezoresistive behavior, which make them good candidate materials for strain measurements. They have the potential to be used as sensors for various applications such as damage detection, stress analysis and monitoring of manufacturing processes and quality. In this paper, carbon fiber sensors are prepared to perform reliable strain measurements. Both experimental and computational studies were carried out on commercially available carbon fibers in order to understand the response of the carbon fiber sensors due to changes in the axial strain...
September 4, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866737/a-frailty-index-from-common-clinical-and-laboratory-tests-predicts-increased-risk-of-death-across-the-life-course
#16
Joanna M Blodgett, Olga Theou, Susan E Howlett, Kenneth Rockwood
A frailty index (FI) based entirely on common clinical and laboratory tests might offer scientific advantages in understanding ageing and pragmatic advantages in screening. Our main objective was to compare an FI based on common laboratory tests with an FI based on self-reported data; we additionally investigated if the combination of subclinical deficits with clinical ones increased the ability of the FI to predict mortality. In this secondary analysis of the 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 8888 individuals aged 20+ were evaluated...
September 2, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865272/rhizoremediation-half-lives-of-pcbs-role-of-congener-composition-organic-carbon-forms-bioavailability-microbial-activity-plant-species-and-soil-conditions-on-the-prediction-of-fate-and-persistence-in-soil
#17
REVIEW
Elisa Terzaghi, Elisabetta Zanardini, Cristiana Morosini, Giuseppe Raspa, Sara Borin, Francesca Mapelli, Lorenzo Vergani, Antonio Di Guardo
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants widely produced and used in many countries until the increasing concern about their environmental risk lead to their ban in the 1980s. Although their emissions decreased, PCBs are nowadays still present in the environment and can be reemitted from reservoir compartments such as contaminated soils. In the last two decades, there has been a growing interest in bioremediation technologies that use plants and microorganisms (i.e. rhizoremediation) to degrade organic chemicals in contaminated sites...
August 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860356/island-biogeography-taking-the-long-view-of-nature-s-laboratories
#18
REVIEW
Robert J Whittaker, José María Fernández-Palacios, Thomas J Matthews, Michael K Borregaard, Kostas A Triantis
Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits general models to be developed and modified to account for patterns of diversity, diversification, lineage development, and trait evolution within and across island archipelagos. Emergent patterns of diversity include predictable variation in island species-area relationships, progression rule colonization from older to younger land masses, and syndromes including loss of dispersability and secondary woodiness in herbaceous plant lineages...
September 1, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859341/evaluating-the-clinical-burden-and-mortality-attributable-to-antibiotic-resistance-the-disparity-of-empirical-data-and-simple-model-estimations
#19
Cédric Abat, Jean-Marc Rolain, Grégory Dubourg, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Hervé Chaudet, Didier Raoult
Given the proliferation of cataclysmic predictions about antibiotic resistance, cases of which are estimated to amount to 12500 per year in France, we herein decided to compare the empirical clinical microbiology data from our institution with estimates and predictions from 10 major international scientific articles and reports. The analysis of 7 years of antibiotic resistance data from 10 bacterial species and genera of clinical interest from our institution identified no deaths that were directly attributable to extremely drug-resistant bacteria...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846382/rates-of-co2-mineralization-in-geological-carbon-storage
#20
Shuo Zhang, Donald J DePaolo
Geologic carbon storage (GCS) involves capture and purification of CO2 at industrial emission sources, compression into a supercritical state, and subsequent injection into geologic formations. This process reverses the flow of carbon to the atmosphere with the intention of returning the carbon to long-term geologic storage. Models suggest that most of the injected CO2 will be "trapped" in the subsurface by physical means, but the most risk-free and permanent form of carbon storage is as carbonate minerals (Ca,Mg,Fe)CO3...
August 28, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
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