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Laboratory data prediction models

Baek Gyu Jun, Woong Cheul Lee, Jae Young Jang, Soung Won Jeong, Young Don Kim, Gab Jin Cheon, Yun Nah Lee, Sang Gyune Kim, Young Seok Kim, Young Sin Cho, Sae Hwan Lee, Hong Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is one of the severe complications of liver cirrhosis. Early detection of high-risk patients is essential for prognostic improvement. The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive factors related to in-hospital mortality in patients with SBP. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 233 SBP patients (181 males, 52 females) who were admitted to four tertiary referral hospitals between August 2002 and February 2013...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Tiffany G Munzer, Alison L Miller, Karen E Peterson, Holly E Brophy-Herb, Mildred A Horodynski, Dawn Contreras, Julie Sturza, Julie C Lumeng, Jenny Radesky
OBJECTIVE: Excessive screen media exposure in childhood is associated with parent-reported self-regulation difficulties. No studies have used laboratory-based or teacher-reported measures of child self-regulatory behaviors. This study examines cross-sectional associations between preschooler screen media exposure and multiple measures of self-regulatory behaviors. METHODS: Preintervention data were used from 541 preschoolers in the Growing Healthy study, an obesity prevention trial (2011-2015)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Ayse Selcan Koc, Ferıde Fatma Gorgulu, Yurdaer Donmez, Yahya Kemal Icen
PURPOSE: There are limited data about increased aortic intima-media thickness (A-IMT) in the presence of subclinical target organ damage in hypertensive (HT) patients. In this study, we aimed to determine the frequency of increased A-IMT, the parameters determining increased A-IMT, and the relationship between increased A-IMT and other vascular IMT measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively included 265 patients (mean age 54.1 ± 10.6 years, male/female 91/174) with essential HT...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
O El-Sherif, Z G Jiang, E B Tapper, K C Huang, A Zhong, A Osinusi, M Charlton, M Manns, N H Afdhal, K Mukamal, J McHutchison, D M Brainard, N Terrault, M P Curry
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Treatment with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents can reduce model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Pugh-Turcotte (CPT) scores in patients with decompensated cirrhosis caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, many of these patients still die or require liver transplantation. We collected data on baseline features of patients and aimed to develop a scoring system to predict response to DAA therapy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 4 trials of the effects of sofosbuvir-based therapy in patients with HCV-associated decompensated cirrhosis (502 of CPT class B and 120 of CPT class C)...
March 10, 2018: Gastroenterology
Khansoudaphone Phakhounthong, Pimwadee Chaovalit, Podjanee Jittamala, Stuart D Blacksell, Michael J Carter, Paul Turner, Kheng Chheng, Soeung Sona, Varun Kumar, Nicholas P J Day, Lisa J White, Wirichada Pan-Ngum
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever is a re-emerging viral disease commonly occurring in tropical and subtropical areas. The clinical features and abnormal laboratory test results of dengue infection are similar to those of other febrile illnesses; hence, its accurate and timely diagnosis for providing appropriate treatment is difficult. Delayed diagnosis may be associated with inappropriate treatment and higher risk of death. Early and correct diagnosis can help improve case management and optimise the use of resources such as hospital staff, beds, and intensive care equipment...
March 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Amine Charfi, Eunyoung Park, Muhammad Aslam, Jeonghwan Kim
The study presents a mathematical model developed to better understand and control membrane fouling in a single-staged, anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (AFMBR) using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) beads as scouring media. The model was based on combining the anaerobic biological model AM2b and a fouling model applied in membrane filtration. The presented model was validated using experimental data obtained by a laboratory scaled AFMBR reactor run during 250 d under various operational conditions...
March 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Steven J Holochwost, Vanessa V Volpe, Noa Gueron-Sela, Cathi B Propper, W Roger Mills-Koonce
BACKGROUND: Deficits of inhibitory control in early childhood are linked to externalizing behaviors and attention problems. While environmental factors and physiological processes are associated with its etiology, few studies have examined how these factors jointly predict inhibitory control. This study examined whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) functioned as a mediator or moderator of both cumulative sociodemographic risk and parenting behaviors on inhibitory control during early childhood...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Nestoras Nicolas Mathioudakis, Estelle Everett, Shuvodra Routh, Peter J Pronovost, Hsin-Chieh Yeh, Sherita Hill Golden, Suchi Saria
Objective: To develop and validate a multivariable prediction model for insulin-associated hypoglycemia in non-critically ill hospitalized adults. Research design and methods: We collected pharmacologic, demographic, laboratory, and diagnostic data from 128 657 inpatient days in which at least 1 unit of subcutaneous insulin was administered in the absence of intravenous insulin, total parenteral nutrition, or insulin pump use (index days). These data were used to develop multivariable prediction models for biochemical and clinically significant hypoglycemia (blood glucose (BG) of ≤70 mg/dL and <54 mg/dL, respectively) occurring within 24 hours of the index day...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Jesse Tanguay, Ian A Cunningham
PURPOSE: Single-photon-counting (SPC) and spectroscopic x-ray detectors are under development in academic and industry laboratories for medical imaging applications. The spatial resolution of SPC and spectroscopic x-ray detectors is an important design criterion. The purpose of this article is to extend the cascaded systems approach to include a description of the spatial resolution of SPC and spectroscopic x-ray imaging detectors. METHODS: A cascaded systems approach was used to model reabsorption of characteristic x rays Coulomb repulsion, and diffusion in SPC and spectroscopic x-ray detectors...
March 11, 2018: Medical Physics
P D S N Somarathna, Budiman Minasny, Brendan P Malone, Uta Stockmann, Alex B McBratney
Spatial modelling of environmental data commonly only considers spatial variability as the single source of uncertainty. In reality however, the measurement errors should also be accounted for. In recent years, infrared spectroscopy has been shown to offer low cost, yet invaluable information needed for digital soil mapping at meaningful spatial scales for land management. However, spectrally inferred soil carbon data are known to be less accurate compared to laboratory analysed measurements. This study establishes a methodology to filter out the measurement error variability by incorporating the measurement error variance in the spatial covariance structure of the model...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jingwei Xu, Qiang He, Hong Li, Chun Yang, Yinliang Wang, Hainan Ai
Sewer system is an important source of methane formation and emission. Although some models were developed to predict methane production in sewers, the impact of microorganism amount was indicated indirectly. Here, seven laboratory scale sewers with varied wall-shear stresses were established. The biofilm thickness, microorganism amount, DO distribution, microorganism community in the biofilms and methane production in the sewers were measured. Based on experimental data, an empirical model was developed to directly describe the relationship between methane production, microorganism amount and wall-shear stress...
March 7, 2018: AMB Express
Bin Yang, Tianhong Yang, Zenghe Xu, Honglei Liu, Wenhao Shi, Xin Yang
Groundwater is an important factor of slope stability, and 90% of slope failures are related to the influence of groundwater. In the past, free surface calculations and the prediction of water inflow were based on Darcy's law. However, Darcy's law for steady fluid flow is a special case of non-Darcy flow, and many types of non-Darcy flows occur in practical engineering applications. In this paper, based on the experimental results of laboratory water seepage tests, the seepage state of each soil layer in the open-pit slope of the Yanshan Iron Mine, China, were determined, and the seepage parameters were obtained...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Luca Basile, Manuel Oviedo de la Fuente, Nuria Torner, Ana Martínez, Mireia Jané
Influenza surveillance is critical to monitoring the situation during epidemic seasons and predictive mathematic models may aid the early detection of epidemic patterns. The objective of this study was to design a real-time spatial predictive model of ILI (Influenza Like Illness) incidence rate in Catalonia using one- and two-week forecasts. The available data sources used to select explanatory variables to include in the model were the statutory reporting disease system and the sentinel surveillance system in Catalonia for influenza incidence rates, the official climate service in Catalonia for meteorological data, laboratory data and Google Flu Trend...
2018: PloS One
P Scott Pine, Steven P Lund, Jerod R Parsons, Lindsay K Vang, Ashish A Mahabal, Luca Cinquini, Sean C Kelly, Heather Kincaid, Daniel J Crichton, Avrum Spira, Gang Liu, Adam C Gower, Harvey I Pass, Chandra Goparaju, Steven M Dubinett, Kostyantyn Krysan, Sanford A Stass, Debra Kukuruga, Kendall Van Keuren-Jensen, Amanda Courtright-Lim, Karol L Thompson, Barry A Rosenzweig, Lynn Sorbara, Sudhir Srivastava, Marc L Salit
BACKGROUND: The potential utility of microRNA as biomarkers for early detection of cancer and other diseases is being investigated with genome-scale profiling of differentially expressed microRNA. Processes for measurement assurance are critical components of genome-scale measurements. Here, we evaluated the utility of a set of total RNA samples, designed with between-sample differences in the relative abundance of miRNAs, as process controls. RESULTS: Three pure total human RNA samples (brain, liver, and placenta) and two different mixtures of these components were evaluated as measurement assurance control samples on multiple measurement systems at multiple sites and over multiple rounds...
March 6, 2018: BMC Genomics
Daniel Carson, Sangyeol Lee, Elsinore Alexander, Xin Wei, Shinwook Lee
Purpose: Multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) can be associated with unwanted visual phenomena, including halos. Predicting potential for halos is desirable when designing new multifocal IOLs. Halo images from 6 IOL models were compared using the Optikos modulation transfer function bench system and a new high dynamic range (HDR) system. Materials and methods: One monofocal, 1 extended depth of focus, and 4 multifocal IOLs were evaluated. An off-the-shelf optical bench was used to simulate a distant (>50 m) car headlight and record images...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Matthew D Putnam, Julie E Adams, Paul Lender, Ann E Van Heest, Janet R Shanedling, David J Nuckley, Joan E Bechtold
OBJECTIVES: Primary: Assess the ability of faculty graders to predict the objectively measured strength of distal radius fracture fixation. Secondary: Compare resident skill variation and retention related to other knowable training data. DESIGN: Residents were allowed 60 minutes to stabilize a standardized distal radius fracture using an assigned fixed-angle volar plate. Faculty observed and subjectively graded the residents without providing real-time feedback...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Kerstin Reisinger, Veronika Blatz, Joep Brinkmann, Thomas R Downs, Anja Fischer, Frank Henkler, Sebastian Hoffmann, Cyrille Krul, Manfred Liebsch, Andreas Luch, Ralph Pirow, Astrid A Reus, Markus Schulz, Stefan Pfuhler
Recently revised OECD Testing Guidelines highlight the importance of considering the first site-of-contact when investigating the genotoxic hazard. Thus far, only in vivo approaches are available to address the dermal route of exposure. The 3D Skin Comet and Reconstructed Skin Micronucleus (RSMN) assays intend to close this gap in the in vitro genotoxicity toolbox by investigating DNA damage after topical application. This represents the most relevant route of exposure for a variety of compounds found in household products, cosmetics, and industrial chemicals...
March 2018: Mutation Research
Álvaro Chiner-Oms, Fernando González-Candelas, Iñaki Comas
Every year, species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) kill more people than any other infectious disease caused by a single agent. As a consequence of its global distribution and parallel evolution with the human host the bacteria is not genetically homogeneous. The observed genetic heterogeneity has relevance at different phenotypic levels, from gene expression to epidemiological dynamics. However, current systems biology datasets have focused on the laboratory reference strain H37Rv. By using large expression datasets testing the role of almost two hundred transcription factors, we have constructed computational models to grab the expression dynamics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv genes...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joseph Cormier, Lisa Gwin, Lars Reinhart, Rawson Wood, Charles Bain
STUDY DESIGN: This study combined all prior research involving human volunteers in low-speed rear-end impacts and performed a comparative analysis of real-world crashes using the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the rates of neck pain between volunteer and real-world collisions as well as the likelihood of an injury beyond symptoms as a function of impact severity and occupant characteristics in real-world collisions...
February 27, 2018: Spine
Yulang Chi, Huanteng Zhang, Qiansheng Huang, Yi Lin, Guozhu Ye, Huimin Zhu, Sijun Dong
Environmental risks of organic chemicals have been greatly determined by their persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity (PBT) and physicochemical properties. Major regulations in different countries and regions identify chemicals according to their bioconcentration factor (BCF) and octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow), which frequently displays a substantial correlation with the sediment sorption coefficient (Koc). Half-life or degradability is crucial for the persistence evaluation of chemicals. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) estimation models are indispensable for predicting environmental fate and health effects in the absence of field- or laboratory-based data...
February 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
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