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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354364/phylogeny-novel-bacterial-lineage-and-enzymatic-potential-of-haloalkaliphilic-bacteria-from-the-saline-coastal-desert-of-little-rann-of-kutch-gujarat-india
#1
Hitarth B Bhatt, Sangeeta D Gohel, Satya P Singh
This report describes cultivation-dependent diversity, phylogeny and enzymatic potential of the haloalkaliphilic bacteria isolated from the unvegetated desert soil of yet unexplored, saline desert of Little Rann of Kutch (LRK), India. The LRK is a unique ecosystem displaying a combination of Dry Rann and Wet Rann. A total of 25 bacteria were isolated and characterized on the basis of colony morphology, biochemical profile, sugar utilization, secretion of the extracellular enzymes and antibiotic sensitivity...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353377/highly-synergistic-activity-of-melittin-with-imipenem-and-colistin-in-biofilm-inhibition-against-multidrug-resistant-strong-biofilm-producer-strains-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#2
Ali Mohammadi Bardbari, Mohammad Reza Arabestani, Manoochehr Karami, Fariba Keramat, Hossein Aghazadeh, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani, Kamran Pooshang Bagheri
The rapid increase of drug resistance and failure of available antibiotics to treat biofilm-associated infections is of great health concern. Accordingly, our study aimed to evaluate the synergistic antibacterial, biofilm inhibitory, and biofilm removal activities of melittin in combination with colistin, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin against multidrug-resistant (MDR) strong biofilm producer Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. The kinetics of biofilm formation were evaluated for the isolates for 144 h. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs), and biofilm removal activities for melittin and combinations with antibiotics were determined...
January 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351789/prevention-of-severe-infectious-complications-after-colorectal-surgery-using-preoperative-orally-administered-antibiotic-prophylaxis-precaution-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Tessa Mulder, Marjolein F Q Kluytmans-van den Bergh, Anne Marie G A de Smet, Nils E van 't Veer, Daphne Roos, Stavros Nikolakopoulos, Marc J M Bonten, Jan A J W Kluytmans
BACKGROUND: Colorectal surgery is frequently complicated by surgical site infections (SSIs). The most important consequences of SSIs are prolonged hospitalization, an increased risk of surgical reintervention and an increase in mortality. Perioperative intravenously administered antibiotic prophylaxis is the standard of care to reduce the risk of SSIs. In the last few decades, preoperative orally administered antibiotics have been suggested as additional prophylaxis to further reduce the risk of infection, but are currently not part of routine practice in most hospitals...
January 19, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343542/clinical-validation-of-the-sensitest%C3%A2-colistin-a-broth-microdilution-based-method-to-evaluate-colistin-mics
#4
Edoardo Carretto, Flavia Brovarone, Giuseppe Russello, Paola Nardini, Maisra El-Bouseary, Ali Aboklaish, Timothy R Walsh, Jonathan M Tyrrell
The global spread of multi-drug resistant Gram negative has led to the return of colistin for treating severe infections. Recently, different plasmid-mediated genes conferring resistance to this drug were described and reported worldwide. International committees (EUCAST/CLSI) re-evaluated inconsistencies surrounding colistin antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), concluding that broth microdilution (BMD) should serve as the reference method for AST. The development of an accurate, reproducible commercial test based on BMD is therefore highly desirable...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340602/emergence-of-blactx-m-55-associated-with-fosa-rmtb-and-mcr-gene-variants-in-escherichia-coli-from-various-animal-species-in-france
#5
Agnese Lupo, Estelle Saras, Jean-Yves Madec, Marisa Haenni
Objectives: In Asian countries, blaCTX-M-55 is the second most common ESBL-encoding gene. blaCTX-M-55 frequently co-localizes with fosA and rmtB genes on epidemic plasmids, which remain sporadic outside Asia. During 2010-13, we investigated CTX-M-55-producing Escherichia coli isolates and their co-resistance to fosfomycin, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones and colistin as part of a global survey of ESBLs in animals in France. Methods: blaCTX-M-55, fosA, rmtB and plasmidic quinolone and colistin resistance genes were characterized by PCR, sequencing and hybridization experiments...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339296/silent-transmission-of-an-is1294b-deactivated-mcr-1-gene-with-inducible-colistin-resistance
#6
Kai Zhou, Qixia Luo, Qin Wang, Chen Huang, Haifeng Lu, Rossen W A John, Yonghong Xiao, Lanjuan Li
The global dissemination of the mobile colistin resistance mcr-1 is of special concern, as colistin is one of the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of severe infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we characterized an inactive form of mcr-1 in a fluoroquinolone-resistant and colistin-susceptible uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolate (ECO3347). The mcr-1 gene was deactivated by the insertion of a 1.7-Kb IS1294b element flanked by two tetramers (GTTC), and located on a 62-Kb pHNSHP45-like plasmid (p3347-mcr-1)...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337862/therapeutic-management-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bloodstream-infection-non-susceptible-to-carbapenems-but-susceptible-to-old-cephalosporins-and-or-to-penicillins
#7
Ronit Zaidenstein, Asaf Miller, Ruthy Tal-Jasper, Hadas Ofer-Friedman, Menachem Sklarz, David E Katz, Tsillia Lazarovitch, Paul R Lephart, Bethlehem Mengesha, Oran Tzuman, Mor Dadon, Chen Daniel, Jacob Moran-Gilad, Dror Marchaim
It is unknown as to whether other beta-lactams can be used for bloodstream infections (BSI) resulting from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) which are non-susceptible to one or more carbapenem. We conducted a retrospective cohort study at the Assaf Harofeh Medical Center (AHMC) from January 2010 to August 2014. Adult patients with PA-BSI non-susceptible to a group 2 carbapenem but susceptible to ceftazidime or piperacillin (with or without tazobactam), were enrolled. We compared the outcomes of patients who received an appropriate beta-lactam antibiotic ("cases") to those who received an appropriate non-beta-lactam antibiotic ("controls")...
January 16, 2018: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334366/modified-colistin-regimen-for-critically-ill-patients-with-acute-renal-impairment-and-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#8
Pierantonio Menna, Emanuela Salvatorelli, Alessia Mattei, Dario Cappiello, Giorgio Minotti, Massimiliano Carassiti
Colistin is a last resort antibiotic to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria infections. Colistin is administered intravenously in the form of its inactive prodrug colistin methanesulfonate (CMS). For patients with acute kidney impairment and continuous renal replacement therapy high extracorporeal clearance may cause a substantial removal of active colistin from the bloodstream, eventually decreasing its antibacterial efficacy. Currently recommended doses of CMS may therefore be inadequate for these patients...
December 22, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331890/deep-sequence-analysis-reveals-the-ovine-rumen-as-a-reservoir-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#9
Thomas C A Hitch, Ben J Thomas, Jessica C A Friedersdorff, Helen Ougham, Christopher J Creevey
Antibiotic resistance is an increasingly important environmental pollutant with direct consequences for human health. Identification of environmental sources of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) makes it possible to follow their evolution and prevent their entry into the clinical setting. ARGs have been found in environmental sources exogenous to the original source and previous studies have shown that these genes are capable of being transferred from livestock to humans. Due to the nature of farming and the slaughter of ruminants for food, humans interact with these animals in close proximity, and for this reason it is important to consider the risks to human health...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331006/outbreak-of-extensively-drug-resistant-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-in-burn-unit
#10
Usman Ali, Shahid Ahmad Abbasi, Fatima Kaleem, Irum Aftab, Tariq Butt
Stenotrophomonas maltophiliais an emerging cause of nosocomial infections. We report an outbreak of XDR-Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection from burn unit of a tertiary care hospital in July 2016. The strain isolated was resistant to all antimicrobials tested but colistin. Outbreak investigation was carried out which subsided after timely intervention. Patients were treated adequately by Colistin.
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329840/determination-of-colistin-in-animal-tissues-egg-milk-and-feed-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#11
Qin Fu, Xiaowei Li, Kangni Zheng, Yuebin Ke, Yingyu Wang, Lina Wang, Fugen Yu, Xi Xia
A confirmatory method for the determination of colistin in animal tissues, egg, milk, and feed was developed and validated. Colistin A and colistin B were extracted from samples with the mixture of 10% trichloroacetic acid-acetonitrile and isolated with mixed-mode weak cation exchange cartridge. Analytes were separated from matrix components using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, and detected with electrospray ionization on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Mean recoveries ranged from 78.0% to 115...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329393/tgf-%C3%AE-mediated-nadph-oxidase-4-dependent-oxidative-stress-promotes-colistin-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#12
Bo Young Jeong, Se-Ra Park, Sungkwon Cho, Seong-Lan Yu, Hoi Young Lee, Chang Gyo Park, Jaeku Kang, Da-Young Jung, Moon Hyang Park, Won-Min Hwang, Sung-Ro Yun, Ju-Young Jung, Se-Hee Yoon
Background: Colistin (polymyxin E) is an important constituent of the polymyxin class of cationic polypeptide antibiotics. Intrarenal oxidative stress can contribute to colistin-induced nephrotoxicity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 3-phosphate oxidases (Noxs) are important sources of reactive oxygen species. Among the various types of Noxs, Nox4 is predominantly expressed in the kidney. Objectives: We investigated the role of Nox4 and benefit of Nox4 inhibition in colistin-induced acute kidney injury using in vivo and in vitro models...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325326/-investigation-of-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-in-gut-bacteria-from-patients-with-acute-diarrheal
#13
Y Li, W J Yan, S Q Liu
Objective: To investigate the presence of colistin resistance gene mcr in gut bacteria from patients with acute diarrhea. Methods: Fresh stool samples were collected from 150 outpatients with acute diarrhea in the intestinal clinic of Henan Provincial People's Hospital, and were directly detected for the presence of mcr by PCR after enrichment in the broth.The mcr-producing bacteria were further isolated and identified by MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker Biotyper). Antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates was conducted by micro-broth dilution method...
December 19, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318460/nebulization-of-antimicrobial-agents-in-mechanically-ventilated-adults-in-2017-an-international-cross-sectional-survey
#14
Joana Alves, Emine Alp, Despoina Koulenti, Zhongheng Zhang, Stephan Ehrmann, Stijn Blot, Matteo Bassetti, Andrew Conway-Morris, Rosa Reina, Enrique Teran, Candela Sole-Lleonart, Maria Ruiz-Rodríguez, Jordi Rello
2017 ESCMID practice guidelines reported safety concerns and weak evidence of benefit supporting use of aerosolized antibiotics in mechanically ventilated patients. Our primary goal was to assess current patterns of aerosolized antibiotic prescription in mechanically ventilated patients. A sequential global survey was performed prior to the release of the ESCMID guidelines, from the 1st of February to the 30th of April 2017, using an electronic platform. Responses were analyzed comparing geographical regions...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314285/modulation-of-broilers-caecal-microflora-and-metabolites-in-response-to-a-potential-probiotic-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens
#15
G T Cao, X A Zhan, L L Zhang, X F Zeng, A G Chen, C M Yang
Studies have found that a dietary supplement of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens improved the growth performance, increased the nutrient digestibility of hosts and modulated the intestinal microflora. A total of 360 1-day-old Ross broilers were randomly divided into three treatments: a control group with a basal diet, an antibiotic group with a basal diet and added colistin sulphate, and a probiotics group with a basal diet and added Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The HiSeq high-throughput sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA was used to investigate the differences in birds' caecal microflora, and metabolomics was used to analyse changes in caecal metabolites...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305957/isolation-of-an-incp-1-plasmid-with-mcr-1-from-a-chicken-isolate-of-citrobacter-braakii-in-china
#16
Jinxin Liu, Yanxian Yang, Yunxia Li, Dan Liu, Hongmei Tuo, Hongning Wang, Douglas R Call, Margaret Davis, Anyun Zhang
The plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has been found worldwide, but the diversity of organisms harboring this gene is unknown. In this study, twelve colistin-resistant Citrobacter spp. isolates were obtained from diseased or dead chickens in China, and PCR analysis indicated that five were positive for mcr-1. One Citrobacter braakii strain (SCC4) with a multidrug resistance phenotype was chosen for further analysis. SCC4 was resistant to ten tested antibiotics and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to colistin was >4 µg/mL...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305956/pharmacokinetics-of-colistin-methanesulfonate-cms-in-healthy-chinese-subjects-after-single-and-multiple-intravenous-doses
#17
Miao Zhao, Xiao-Jie Wu, Ya-Xin Fan, Ying-Yuan Zhang, Bei-Ning Guo, Ji-Cheng Yu, Guo-Ying Cao, Yuan-Cheng Chen, Ju-Fang Wu, Yao-Guo Shi, Jian Li, Jing Zhang
High prevalence of extensive-drug resistance (XDR) gram-negative pathogens has forced clinicians to use colistin as the last-line therapy. Our knowledge on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS, an inactive prodrug) and colistin has increased substantially; however, the PK in Chinese population is still unknown due to the lack of a CMS product. This study aimed to evaluate the PK of a new CMS product developed in China for optimizing the dosing regimens. Twenty-four healthy subjects (12 female, 12 male) were enrolled in single- and multiple-dose PK studies...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305954/clinical-use-of-the-polymyxins-the-tale-of-the-fox-and-the-cat
#18
Eric Wenzler, Kristen L Bunnell, Larry H Danziger
BACKGROUND: There is a need to identify practice patterns of polymyxin use, quantify gaps in knowledge, and recognize areas of persistent confusion. METHODS: A structured electronic survey was distributed to physicians, pharmacists, and microbiologists. Demographic information was obtained along with data regarding the availability, stewardship principles, therapeutic usage, dosing, microbiological testing, and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding the polymyxins...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302147/current-trends-of-drug-resistance-patterns-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-infection-in-blood-transfusion-dependent-thalassemia-patients
#19
Suhail Ahmed Almani, Ali Naseer, Sanjay Kumar Maheshwari, Pir Maroof, Raza Naseer, Haji Khan Khoharo
Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the current trends of drug resistance patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii infection in blood transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients. Study Design: This study was a cross sectional study, conducted at the Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro/Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan from October 2014 to January 2016. Subjects and Methods: Of 921 blood samples, A. baumannii strains were isolated from 100 blood samples...
October 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301193/antibiotic-resistance-of-acinetobacter-spp-isolates-from-the-river-danube-susceptibility-stays-high
#20
Clemens Kittinger, Alexander Kirschner, Michaela Lipp, Rita Baumert, Franz Mascher, Andreas H Farnleitner, Gernot E Zarfel
Acinetobacter spp. occur naturally in many different habitats, including food, soil, and surface waters. In clinical settings, Acinetobacter poses an increasing health problem, causing infections with limited to no antibiotic therapeutic options left. The presence of human generated multidrug resistant strains is well documented but the extent to how widely they are distributed within the Acinetobacter population is unknown. In this study, Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from water samples at 14 sites of the whole course of the river Danube...
December 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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