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R M Coleman, G Ojeda-Torres, W Bragg, D Fearey, P McKinney, L Castrodale, D Verbrugge, K Stryker, E DeHart, M Cooper, E Hamelin, J Thomas, R C Johnson
A case of an elderly female with suspected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is presented. The patient shared a meal of recreationally-harvested shellfish with her family and soon began to experience nausea and weakness. She was taken to the local emergency department and then transported to a larger hospital in Anchorage where she was admitted to the intensive care unit with respiratory depression and shock. Her condition improved, and she was discharged from the hospital 6 days later. No others who shared the meal reported symptoms of PSP...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Mete Yilmaz, Amanda J Foss, Andrew I Selwood, Mihriban Özen, Michael Boundy
Aphanizomenon gracile is one of the most widespread Paralytic Shellfish Toxin (PST) producing cyanobacteria in freshwater bodies in the Northern Hemisphere. It has been shown to produce various PST congeners, including saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (NEO), decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX) and gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5) in Europe, North America and Asia. Three cyanobacteria strains were isolated in Lake Iznik in northwestern Turkey. Morphological characterization of these strains suggested all three strains conformed to classical taxonomic identification of A...
June 15, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Xiao-Min Xu, Bai-Fen Huang, Jiao-Jiao Xu, Zeng-Xuan Cai, Jing Zhang, Qing Chen, Jian-Long Han
Saxitoxin (STX) and neosaxitoxin (NEO) are water-soluble toxins and their cleanup in bio-matrix is a hot topic but difficult problem. A fast and quantitative determination method for STX and NEO in urine was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) based on the cleanup of solid phase extraction (SPE) with hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) mechanism. Acetonitrile/methanol/water mixture was used to extract the toxins in urine. Polyamide (PA) was used as HILIC SPE material to clean the toxins in sample matrix...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Gricel Riquelme, Joaquín M Sepúlveda, Zaki Al Ghumgham, Miguel Del Campo, Cecilia Montero, Nestor Lagos
Local anesthesia is an effective method to control pain. Neosaxitoxin is a phycotoxin whose molecular mechanism includes a reversible inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels at the axonal level, impeding nerve impulse propagation. The present study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Neosaxitoxin as a local long-acting pain blocker in horse bucked shins, and it was found to effectively control pain. While Neosaxitoxin and Gonyautoxin, another Paralytic Shellfish Poison (PSP) toxin, have been successfully used in humans as long-lasting pain blockers, this finding marks the first time a PSP has been shown to have an established effect in veterinary medicine...
January 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
P Eangoor, A S Indapurkar, M Vakkalanka, J S Yeh, J S Knaack
Paralytic shellfish poisoning is caused by a group of paralytic shellfish toxins that are produced by dinoflagellates. Toxins in this group include saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin and gonyautoxins. A rapid diagnostic test to identify poisoning by these toxins can be helpful in guiding the appropriate treatment of victims. Additionally, quick receipt of diagnostic results can provide timely proof that shellfish harvesting should be stopped in a given area, thereby preventing additional exposures. We have developed and validated a rapid urinary enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based screening test to diagnose exposure to several major paralytic shellfish toxins...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Alison R Turnbull, Jessica Y C Tan, Sarah C Ugalde, Gustaaf M Hallegraeff, Katrina Campbell, D Tim Harwood, Juan José Dorantes-Aranda
Detection of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in bivalve shellfish by analytical methods is complicated and costly, requiring specific expertise and equipment. Following extensive blooms of Alexandrium tamarense Group 1 in Tasmania, Australia, an investigation was made into commercially available screening test kits suitable for use with the toxin profiles found in affected bivalves. The qualitative Neogen rapid test kit, with a modified protocol to convert gonyautoxins GTX1&4 and GTX2&3 into neosaxitoxin and saxitoxin (STX), respectively, with higher cross-reactivities, was the best fit-for-purpose...
March 1, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Xianli Yang, Lei Zhou, Yanglan Tan, Xizhi Shi, Zhiyong Zhao, Dongxia Nie, Changyan Zhou, Hong Liu
In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of eight paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins, including saxitoxin (STX), neosaxitoxin (NEO), gonyautoxins (GTX1-4) and the N -sulfo carbamoyl toxins C1 and C2, in sea shellfish. The samples were extracted by acetonitrile/water (80:20, v / v ) with 0.1% formic and purified by dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) with C18 silica and acidic alumina. Qualitative and quantitative detection for the target toxins were conducted under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode by using the positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode after chromatographic separation on a TSK-gel Amide-80 HILIC column with water and acetonitrile...
June 29, 2017: Toxins
Javiera Oyaneder Terrazas, Héctor R Contreras, Carlos García
The saxitoxin-group (STX-group) corresponds to toxic metabolites produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates of the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium , and Pyrodinium . Over the last decade, it has been possible to extrapolate the areas contaminated with the STX-group worldwide, including Chile, a phenomenon that has affected ≈35% of the Southern Pacific coast territory, generating a high economic impact. The objective of this research was to study the toxicity of the STX-group in all aquatic organisms (bivalves, algae, echinoderms, crustaceans, tunicates, cephalopods, gastropods, and fish) present in areas with a variable presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs)...
June 12, 2017: Toxins
Andrew I Selwood, Craig Waugh, David T Harwood, Lesley L Rhodes, John Reeve, Jim Sim, Rex Munday
Paralytic shellfish poisoning results from consumption of seafood naturally contaminated by saxitoxin and its congeners, the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). The levels of such toxins are regulated internationally, and maximum permitted concentrations in seafood have been established in many countries. A mouse bioassay is an approved method for estimating the levels of PSTs in seafood, but this is now being superseded in many countries by instrumental methods of analysis. Such analyses provide data on the levels of many PSTs in seafood, but for risk assessment, knowledge of the relative toxicities of the congeners is required...
February 21, 2017: Toxins
Andreas Ballot, Leonardo Cerasino, Vladyslava Hostyeva, Samuel Cirés
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin production has been detected worldwide in the cyanobacterial genera Anabaena, Lyngbya, Scytonema, Cuspidothrix and Aphanizomenon. In Europe Aphanizomenon gracile and Cuspidothrix issatschenkoi are the only known producers of PSP toxins and are found in Southwest and Central European freshwater bodies. In this study the PSP toxin producing Aphanizomenon sp. strain NIVA-CYA 851 was isolated from the Norwegian Lake Hillestadvannet. In a polyphasic approach NIVA-CYA 851 was morphologically and phylogenetically classified, and investigated for toxin production...
2016: PloS One
Roy W A Peake, Victoria Y Zhang, Nina Azcue, Christina E Hartigan, Aida Shkreta, Jasmina Prabhakara, Charles B Berde, Mark D Kellogg
Neosaxitoxin, a member of the saxitoxin family of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, has shown potential as an effective, long-acting, anesthetic. We describe the development and validation of a highly sensitive method for measurement of neosaxitoxin in human plasma using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and provide evidence for its use in a human pharmacokinetic study. Samples were prepared using cation exchange solid phase extraction followed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and MS/MS detection in positive electrospray ionization mode...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Delu Zhang, Siyi Liu, Jing Zhang, Jian Kong Zhang, Chunxiang Hu, Yongding Liu
Aphantoxins, neurotoxins or paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) generated by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, are a threat to environmental safety and human health in eutrophic waters worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of neurotoxin function have been studied; however, the effects of these neurotoxins on oxidative stress, ion transport, gas exchange, and branchial ultrastructure in fish gills are not fully understood. Aphantoxins extracted from A. flos-aquae DC-1 were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography...
August 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
De Lu Zhang, Si Yi Liu, Jing Zhang, Jian Kun Zhang, Chun Xiang Hu, Yong Ding Liu
Aphantoxins from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae are frequently identified in eutrophic waterbodies worldwide. These toxins severely endanger environmental safety and human health due to the production of paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs). Although the molecular mechanisms of aphantoxin neurotoxicity have been studied, many questions remain to be resolved such as in vivo alterations in branchial histology and neurotransmitter inactivation induced by these neurotoxins. Aphantoxins extracted from a naturally isolated strain of A...
July 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
D P Rubio, L G Roa, D A Soto, F J Velasquez, N A Gregorcic, J A Soto, M C Martinez, A M Kalergis, A E Vasquez
In the current communication we describe an innovative method to purify saxitoxin (STX), a toxin presents in contaminated muscle of Mylitus chilensis extracted in the southern part of Chile, using a liquid chromatographic methodology based on ionic pairs. The STX was extracted using HCl and treated with ammonium sulfate following a treatment with trichloroacetic acid and hexane/diethyl ether (97/3). The samples were analyzed by a semi-preparative HPLC in order to collect pure fractions of STX and these fractions were eluted in solid-phase cationic interchange SCX extraction columns...
December 15, 2015: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
James P Rathmell, Gary Strichartz, Jonathan Wanderer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Anesthesiology
José Patricio Casanova, Carlos Madrid, Marco Contreras, María Rodríguez, Mónica Vasquez, Fernando Torrealba
A growing body of evidence suggests that learned fear may be related to the function of the interoceptive insular cortex. Using an auditory fear conditioning paradigm in rats, we show that the inactivation of the posterior insular cortex (pIC), the target of the interoceptive thalamus, prior to training produced a marked reduction in fear expression tested 24h later. Accordingly, post-training anisomycin infused immediately, but not 6h after, also reduced fear expression tested the following day, supporting a role for the pIC in consolidation of fear memory...
January 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Jay S Templin, Matthew C Wylie, Joseph D Kim, Katherine E Kurgansky, Grzegorz Gorski, John Kheir, David Zurakowski, Gabriel Corfas, Charles Berde
BACKGROUND: Neosaxitoxin (NeoSTX) is a site-1 sodium channel blocker undergoing clinical trials as a prolonged-duration local anesthetic. Rat sciatic block and intravenous infusion models were used to assess efficacy and local and systemic toxicities for NeoSTX in saline (NeoSTX-Saline), bupivacaine (Bup), and their combination (NeoSTX-Bup). Exploratory studies evaluated the effects of addition of epinephrine to NeoSTX-Bup (NeoSTX-Bup-Epi). METHODS: Rats received percutaneous sciatic blocks with escalating doses of NeoSTX-Saline or NeoSTX-Bup...
October 2015: Anesthesiology
Laura A Lahaye, John F Butterworth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Anesthesiology
Kimberly Lobo, Carolina Donado, Laura Cornelissen, Joseph Kim, Rebeca Ortiz, Roy W A Peake, Mark Kellogg, Mark E Alexander, David Zurakowski, Katherine E Kurgansky, James Peyton, Aykut Bilge, Karen Boretsky, Mary Ellen McCann, Charles B Berde, Joseph Cravero
BACKGROUND: Neosaxitoxin (NeoSTX) is a site-1 sodium channel blocker that produces prolonged local anesthesia in animals and humans. Under a Food and Drug Administration-approved phase 1 Investigational New Drug trial, the authors evaluated safety and efficacy of NeoSTX alone and combined with 0.2% bupivacaine (Bup) with and without epinephrine. METHODS: The authors conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial involving healthy male volunteers aged 18 to 35 yr receiving two 10-ml subcutaneous injections...
October 2015: Anesthesiology
Andrew D Turner, Paul S McNabb, D Tim Harwood, Andrew I Selwood, Michael J Boundy
A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for the hydrophilic interaction-LC-MS/MS analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) in bivalve shellfish. The method was developed as an alternative to the precolumn oxidation AOAC 2005.06 and postcolumn oxidation AOAC 2011.02 LC with fluorescence detection methods, receptor binding assay AOAC 2011.27, as well as the mouse bioassay AOAC 959.08. PSTs assessed were saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, deoxydecarbamoylsaxitoxin, decarbamoylsaxitoxin, decarbamoylneosaxitoxin, gonyautoxins 1-6, decarbamoylgonyautoxins 2-3, and N-sulfocarbamoyl gonyautoxins 2&3...
May 2015: Journal of AOAC International
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