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"anatomical noise"

Margarete B McGuigan, Henry F Duncan, Keith Horner
The potential of high resolution, three-dimensional (3D) images which overcome limitations such as superimposition and anatomical noise of two-dimensional (2D) conventional imaging, has made cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) an increasingly popular imaging modality in many dental applications. It is in light of the increasingly prevalent use of CBCT, particularly in a primary dental care setting, that the goal of this review is to investigate what evidence-based guidance is available to the clinician to justify and reduce radiation risk of this higher dose imaging modality while maintaining diagnostically acceptable images...
March 28, 2018: Swiss Dental Journal
John W Garrett, Yinsheng Li, Ke Li, Guang-Hong Chen
PURPOSE: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been shown to somewhat alleviate the breast tissue overlapping issues of two dimensional (2D) mammography.However, the improvement in current DBT systems over mammography is still limited.Statistical image reconstruction (SIR) methods have the potential to reduce through-plane artifacts in DBT, and thus may be used to further reduce anatomical clutter. The purpose of this work was to study the impact of SIR on anatomical clutter in the reconstructed DBT image volumes...
March 15, 2018: Medical Physics
Gezheng Wen, Mia K Markey, Tamara Miner Haygood, Subok Park
Model observers are widely used in task-based assessments of medical image quality. The presence of multiple abnormalities in a single set of images, such as in multifocal multicentric breast cancer (MFMC), has an immense clinical impact on treatment planning and survival outcomes. Detecting multiple breast tumors is challenging as MFMC is relatively uncommon, and human observers do not know the number or locations of tumors a priori. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), in which an x-ray beam sweeps over a limited angular range across the breast, has the potential to improve the detection of multiple tumors...
February 16, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Gezheng Wen, Mia K Markey, Subok Park
As psychophysical studies are resource-intensive to conduct, model observers are commonly used to assess and optimize medical imaging quality. Model observers are typically designed to detect at most one signal. However, in clinical practice, there may be multiple abnormalities in a single image set (e.g. multifocal multicentric (MFMC) breast cancer), which can impact treatment planning. Prevalence of signals can be different across anatomical regions, and human observers do not know the number or location of signals a priori...
February 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
G Wen, M Markey, S Park
PURPOSE: We employed a novel model observer to assess the impact of local anatomic variations on the detection of multiple breast tumors depicted on mammograms. We expect the study to be valuable for future task-based assessments and optimizations of x-ray based breast imaging techniques (e.g., digital breast tomosynthesis for diagnosis of multifocal multicentric breast cancer (MMBC)). METHODS: Regions of interest (ROIs) from four different sets of clustered lumpy background simulations were extracted as the image background...
June 2016: Medical Physics
S Vedantham, S Shrestha, L Shi, G Vijayaraghavan, A Karellas
PURPOSE: To optimize the cesium iodide (CsI:Tl) scintillator thickness in a complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based detector for use in dedicated cone-beam breast CT. METHODS: The imaging task considered was the detection of a microcalcification cluster comprising six 220µm diameter calcium carbonate spheres, arranged in the form of a regular pentagon with 2 mm spacing on its sides and a central calcification, similar to that in ACR-recommended mammography accreditation phantom, at a mean glandular dose of 4...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Justin Solomon, Alexandre Ba, François Bochud, Ehsan Samei
PURPOSE: To use novel voxel-based 3D printed textured phantoms in order to compare low-contrast detectability between two reconstruction algorithms, FBP (filtered-backprojection) and SAFIRE (sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction) and determine what impact background texture (i.e., anatomical noise) has on estimating the dose reduction potential of SAFIRE. METHODS: Liver volumes were segmented from 23 abdominal CT cases. The volumes were characterized in terms of texture features from gray-level co-occurrence and run-length matrices...
December 2016: Medical Physics
Minah Han, Subok Park, Jongduk Baek
We investigate the effect of anatomical noise on the detectability of cone beam CT (CBCT) images with different slice directions, slice thicknesses, and volume glandular fractions (VGFs). Anatomical noise is generated using a power law spectrum of breast anatomy, and spherical objects with diameters from 1mm to 11mm are used as breast masses. CBCT projection images are simulated and reconstructed using the FDK algorithm. A channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) with Laguerre-Gauss (LG) channels is used to evaluate detectability for the signal-known-exactly (SKE) binary detection task...
August 22, 2016: Optics Express
Georg Pelzer, Gisela Anton, Florian Horn, Jens Rieger, André Ritter, Johannes Wandner, Thomas Weber, Thilo Michel
PURPOSE: X-ray dark-field imaging promises information on the small angle scattering properties even of large samples. However, the dark-field image is correlated with the object's attenuation and phase-shift if a polychromatic x-ray spectrum is used. A method to remove part of these correlations is proposed. METHODS: The experimental setup for image acquisition was modeled in a wave-field simulation to quantify the dark-field signals originating solely from a material's attenuation and phase-shift...
June 2016: Medical Physics
James G Mainprize, Olivier Alonzo-Proulx, Roberta A Jong, Martin J Yaffe
PURPOSE: High mammographic density is known to be associated with decreased sensitivity of mammography. Recent changes in the BI-RADS density assessment address the effect of masking by densities, but the BI-RADS assessment remains qualitative and achieves only moderate agreement between radiologists. An automated, quantitative algorithm that estimates the likelihood of masking of simulated masses in a mammogram by dense tissue has been developed. The algorithm considers both the effects of loss of contrast due to density and the distracting texture or appearance of dense tissue...
March 2016: Medical Physics
Lars Olsson, Mats Nilsson, Björn Svenson, Kristina Hellén-Halme
OBJECTIVES: Radiographic images suffer from varying amounts of noise. The most studied and discussed of these is random noise. However, recent research has shown that the projected anatomy contributes substantially to noise, especially when detecting low-contrast objects in the images. Our aim, therefore, was to evaluate the extent to which overprojected anatomical noise affects the detection of low-contrast objects in intra-oral images. METHODS: Our study used four common sensor models...
2016: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
Anando Sen, Howard C Gifford
Model observers intended to predict the diagnostic performance of human observers should account for the effects of both quantum and anatomical noise. We compared the abilities of several visual-search (VS) and scanning Hotelling-type models to account for anatomical noise in a localization receiver operating characteristic (LROC) study involving simulated nuclear medicine images. Our VS observer invoked a two-stage process of search and analysis. The images featured lesions in the prostate and pelvic lymph nodes...
January 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
Polad M Shikhaliev
The purpose of this work was experimental investigation of photon counting spectroscopic CT (PCS-CT) imaging of anatomical soft tissue with clinically relevant size. The imaging experiments were performed using a spectroscopic CT system based on CdZnTe photon counting detector with two rows of pixels, 256 pixels in each row, 1  ×  1 mm(2) pixel size, and 25.6 cm detector length. The detector could split the x-ray energy spectrum to 5 regions (energy bins), and acquire 5 multi-energy (spectroscopic) CT images in a single CT scan...
March 21, 2015: Physics in Medicine and Biology
C S Moore, T J Wood, G Avery, S Balcam, L Needler, A Smith, J R Saunderson, A W Beavis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate via simulation a proposed change to clinical practice for chest radiography. The validity of using a scatter rejection grid across the diagnostic energy range (60-125 kVp), in conjunction with appropriate tube current-time product (mAs) for imaging with a computed radiography (CR) system was investigated. METHODS: A digitally reconstructed radiograph algorithm was used, which was capable of simulating CR chest radiographs with various tube voltages, receptor doses and scatter rejection methods...
March 2015: British Journal of Radiology
Björn Cederström, Erik Fredenberg
PURPOSE: Beam-quality optimization in digital mammography traditionally considers detection of a target obscured by quantum noise in a homogeneous background. This does not correspond well to the clinical imaging task because real mammographic images contain a complex superposition of anatomical structures, resulting in anatomical noise that may dominate over quantum noise. The purpose of this paper is to assess the influence on optimal beam quality in mammography when anatomical noise is taken into account...
December 2014: Medical Physics
Digna M A Kamalski, Rudolf M Verdaasdonk, Tjeerd de Boorder, Robert Vincent, Huib Versnel, Wilko Grolman
HYPOTHESIS: The mechanical and acoustic effects that occur during laser-assisted stapedotomy differ among KTP, CO2, and thulium lasers. BACKGROUND: Making a fenestration in stapedotomy with a laser minimizes the risk of a floating footplate caused by mechanical forces. Theoretically, the lasers used in stapedotomy could inflict mechanical trauma because of absorption in the perilymph, causing vaporization bubbles. These bubbles can generate a shock wave, when imploding...
August 2014: Otology & Neurotology
C S Moore, T J Wood, G Avery, S Balcam, L Needler, A W Beavis, J R Saunderson
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of three physical image quality metrics in the calibration of an automatic exposure control (AEC) device for chest radiography with a computed radiography (CR) imaging system. The metrics assessed were signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean effective noise equivalent quanta (eNEQm), all measured using a uniform chest phantom. Subsequent calibration curves were derived to ensure each metric was held constant across the tube voltage range...
May 7, 2014: Physics in Medicine and Biology
S Schalekamp, B van Ginneken, N Karssemeijer, C M Schaefer-Prokop
Digital chest radiography is still the most common radiological examination. With the upcoming three-dimensional (3D) acquisition techniques the value of radiography seems to diminish. But because radiography is inexpensive, readily available, and requires very little dose, it is still being used for the first-line detection of many cardiothoracic diseases. In the last decades major technical developments of this 2D technique are being achieved. First, hardware developments of digital radiography have improved the contrast to noise, dose efficacy, throughput, and workflow...
February 2014: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Ke Li, John Garrett, Guang-Hong Chen
PURPOSE: With the recently expanding interest and developments in x-ray differential phase contrast CT (DPC-CT), the evaluation of its task-specific detection performance and comparison with the corresponding absorption CT under a given radiation dose constraint become increasingly important. Mathematical model observers are often used to quantify the performance of imaging systems, but their correlations with actual human observers need to be confirmed for each new imaging method. This work is an investigation of the effects of stochastic DPC-CT noise on the correlation of detection performance between model and human observers with signal-known-exactly (SKE) detection tasks...
November 2013: Medical Physics
G J Gang, J Lee, J W Stayman, D J Tward, W Zbijewski, J L Prince, J H Siewerdsen
PURPOSE: In the early development of new imaging modalities - such as tomosynthesis and cone-beam CT (CBCT) - an accurate predictive model for imaging performance is particularly valuable in identifying the physical factors that govern image quality and guiding system optimization. In this work, a task-based cascaded systems model for detectability index is proposed that describes not only the signal and noise propagation in the 2D (projection) and 3D (reconstruction) imaging chain but also the influence of background anatomical noise...
March 22, 2010: Proceedings of SPIE
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