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artificial kidney

Hongqin Song, Dandan Liu, Jinjun Xu, Lili Wu, Yabin Dai, Mei Liu, Jianping Tao
Twenty-one, 25-day-old, artificially reared, coccidia-free goslings (Anser cygnoides var. domestica) were inoculated orally with 0.5 × 10(4), 1 × 10(4), or 100 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria anseris and sacrificed at intervals from 24 to 216 h post-inoculation (HPI). Nine uninfected goslings served as negative controls. Parts of the visceral organs from goslings, including the intestines, kidneys, and liver, were fixed, sectioned, and observed microscopically. The results revealed that two generations of meronts occurred in the life cycle of E...
October 22, 2016: Parasitology Research
Walter H Reinhart
The hematocrit (Hct) determines the oxygen carrying capacity of blood, but also increases blood viscosity and thus flow resistance. From this dual role the concept of an optimum Hct for tissue oxygenation has been derived. Viscometric studies using the ratio Hct/blood viscosity at high shear rate showed an optimum Hct of 50-60% for red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in plasma. For the perfusion of an artificial microvascular network with 5-70μm channels the optimum Hct was 60-70% for high driving pressures. With lower shear rates or driving pressures the optimum Hct shifted towards lower values...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Céline Pasian, Raymond Azar, Denis Fouque
Protein energy wasting (PEW) is an independent factor associated with morbi-mortality in chronic kidney disease. Wasting is particularly common in chronic diseases of organs such as kidney disease with a major impact at the stage of dialysis. It covers 20 to 70% of patients diagnosed with chronic kidney disease according to the degree of evolution of the disease and the diagnostic method used patients. Mechanisms of PEW are based mainly on anorexia and metabolic abnormalities caused by kidney disease. Nutritional treatment differs depending on the stage of the kidney disease acute or chronic treated whether or not by dialysis...
October 17, 2016: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Darko Ivanović, Aleksandar Kupusinac, Edita Stokić, Rade Doroslovački, Dragan Ivetić
The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has a leading role in the early prevention of chronic disease, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancers and chronic kidney disease. It would be very greatful that MetS diagnosis can be predicted in everyday clinical practice. This paper presents artificial neural network (ANN) prediction of the diagnosis of MetS that includes solely non-invasive, low-cost and easily-obtained diagnostic methods. This solution can extract the risky persons and suggests complete tests only on them by saving money and time...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
Hang Feng, Xiangyi Fang, Dageng Huang, Chengcheng Yu, Songchuan Zhao, Dingjun Hao
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Cervical disc arthroplasty has been gradually adopted as an alternative for the treatment of cervical degenerative disease. However, there is a large discrepancy between footprints of currently available cervical disc prostheses and anatomic dimensions of cervical end plates. PURPOSE: This study aimed to accurately and comprehensively quantify the three-dimensional (3D) anatomic morphology of the cervical vertebral end plate and provide a theoretical basis for designing appropriate disc prostheses...
October 3, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Le Zhang, Siyi He, Fan Yang, Hua Yu, Wei Xie, Qian Dai, Di Zhang, Xiaoqin Liu, Shiwen Zhou, Kebin Zhang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of hyperoside (Hyp) on glomerulosclerosis in diabetic nephropathy and its underlying mechanisms. Blood glucose, kidney mass, and renal function of mice were measured. Renal morphology was observed using hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid - Schiff's, and Masson's trichrome stain. Fibronectin (FN) and collagen IV (COL IV) in kidney were determined by Western blot and immunohistochemical studies. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in renal tissues were detected on both the mRNA and protein levels...
July 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
M-O Timsit, J Branchereau, R Thuret, F Kleinclauss
OBJECTIVES: To report major findings that may build the future of kidney transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Relevant publications were identified through Medline ( and Embase ( database from 1960 to 2016 using the following keywords, in association, "bio-engineering; heterotransplantation; immunomodulation; kidney; regenerative medicine; xenotransplantation". Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance...
September 21, 2016: Progrès en Urologie
Peter Seizer, Michaela Rockenstiehl, Suzanne Fateh-Moghadam, Susanne Haen, Ferruh Artunc, Martin R Müller, Azadeh Ebrahimi, Reimer Riessen, Meinrad Gawaz, Falko Fend, Michael Haap
HISTORY AND ADMISSION FINDINGS: A 55-year old man suffers from progressive, distinctive dyspnoea and physical weakness since 5 days. Due to ST-segment changes in the ECG and a positive troponin-test, the primary care physician initiates an hospitalization. INVESTIGATIONS: After admission, the laboratory tests confirm the elevated troponin-values, and show additionally elevated pro-brain-natriuric-peptide-values. The coronary angiography presents a highly reduced left ventricular function, an aortic insufficiency III° and a coronary heart disease...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
T Smektala, A Goląb, M Królikowski, M Slojewski
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this brief report was to present and evaluate workflow of preparation of lowcost individual silicone replicas of kidneys for laparoscopic training and surgical simulation of difficult nephron sparing surgeries. METHODS: The work flow consists of four steps: 1.Image segmentation; 2.Casting mould designing; 3.Manufacturing of casting mould; 4.Silicone replica casting. To evaluate the cost and time required to execute the presented method, authors prepared 5 silicone models for 5 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic kidney tumorectomy due to renal cell cancer...
September 2016: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Shinji Sasaki, Kiyotoshi Hasegawa, Tomoko Higashi, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Yasuaki Yasuda, Yoshikazu Sugimoto
BACKGROUND: Hydrallantois is the excessive accumulation of fluid within the allantoic cavity in pregnant animals and is associated with fetal mortality. Although the incidence of hydrallantois is very low in artificial insemination breeding programs in cattle, recently 38 cows with the phenotypic appearance of hydrallantois were reported in a local subpopulation of Japanese Black cattle. Of these, 33 were traced back to the same sire; however, both their parents were reported healthy, suggesting that hydrallantois is a recessive inherited disorder...
2016: BMC Genomics
Kenji Kokura, Yasushi Kuromi, Takeshi Endo, Naohiko Anzai, Yasuhiro Kazuki, Mitsuo Oshimura, Tetsuya Ohbayashi
BACKGROUND: Kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) has been validated as a urinary biomarker for acute and chronic renal damage. The expression of Kim-1 mRNA is also activated by acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin in rodents and humans. To date, the measurement of Kim-1 expression has not fully allowed the detection of in vitro cisplatin nephrotoxicity in immortalized culture cells such as human kidney-2 cells and immortalized proximal tubular epithelial cells. METHODS: We measured the augmentation of Kim-1 mRNA expression after cisplatin addition using immortalized S3 cells established from the kidneys of transgenic mice harboring temperature-sensitive large T antigen from Simian virus 40...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Gene Medicine
Astgik Petrosyan, Stefano Da Sacco, Nikita Tripuraneni, Ursula Kreuser, Maria Lavarreda-Pearce, Riccardo Tamburrini, Roger E De Filippo, Giuseppe Orlando, Paolo Cravedi, Laura Perin
The outcome of tissue engineered organ transplants depends on the capacity of the biomaterial to promote a pro-healing response once implanted in vivo. Multiple studies, including ours, have demonstrated the possibility of using the extracellular matrix (ECM) of animal organs as platform for tissue engineering and more recently, discarded human organs have also been proposed as scaffold source. In contrast to artificial biomaterials, natural ECM has the advantage of undergoing continuous remodeling which allows adaptation to diverse conditions...
August 26, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Naoji Mita, Shinji Kawahito, Tomohiro Soga, Kazumi Takaishi, Hiroshi Kitahata, Munehide Matsuhisa, Mitsuo Shimada, Hiroyuki Kinoshita, Yasuo M Tsutsumi, Katsuya Tanaka
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of a closed-loop system (STG-55; Nikkiso, Tokyo, Japan), a type of artificial endocrine pancreas for the continuous monitoring and control of intraoperative blood glucose, for preventing postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing hepatectomy. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in this study. Glucose concentrations were controlled with either a manual injection of insulin based on a commonly used sliding scale (manual insulin group, n = 19) or the programmed infusion of insulin determined by the control algorithm of the artificial endocrine pancreas (programmed insulin group, n = 19)...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
J Pluta, B Nicińska, M Grzeszczyk, M Kołacz, L Jureczko, A Kwiatkowski, M Durlik, J Trzebicki
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease is one of the medical conditions that affect hemostasis. Patients undergoing hemodialysis present both hemorrhagic and prothrombotic tendencies. Platelet adhesion to the artificial surface of the dialyzer's membrane, blood vessel endothelial wall disruption, and quantitative and qualitative changes in clothing factors are thought to be causative agents of the above-mentioned conditions. Thromboelastometry and impedance aggregometry enable precise assessment of clot formation and platelet function abnormalities, including changes related to chronic renal failure in patients undergoing renal replacement therapy...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Li Wang, Xueying Li, Hongchun Shen, Nan Mao, Honglian Wang, Luke Cui, Yuan Cheng, Junming Fan
Mesangial deposition of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 (agIgA1) and its immune complexes is a key pathogenic mechanism of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, treatment of IgAN remains ineffective. We report here that bacteria-derived IgA proteases are capable of degrading these pathogenic agIgA1 and derived immune complexes in vitro and in vivo. By screening 14 different bacterial strains (6 species), we found that 4 bacterial IgA proteases from H. influenzae, N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis exhibited high cleaving activities on serum agIgA1 and artificial galactose-depleted IgA1 in vitro and the deposited agIgA1-containing immune complexes in the mesangium of renal biopsy from IgAN patients and in a passive mouse model of IgAN in vitro...
August 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bo Mi Moon, Myung-Jin Choi, Md Tipu Sultan, Jae Won Yang, Hyung Woo Ju, Jung Min Lee, Hyun Jung Park, Ye Ri Park, Soo Hyeon Kim, Dong Wook Kim, Min Chae Lee, Ju Yeon Jeong, Ok Joo Lee, Gun Yong Sung, Chan Hum Park
During the last decade, there has been a great advance in the kidney dialysis system by wearable artificial kidney (WAK) system for end-stage renal disease patients. Uremic solute removal and water regeneration system are the most prerequisite for WAK to work properly. In this study, we designed a filtering membrane system by using immobilized urease silk fibroin filter and evaluated its comparative effectiveness with a PVDF filtering system in peritoneal dialysate regeneration system by urea removal efficacy...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Victor Gura, Matthew B Rivara, Scott Bieber, Raj Munshi, Nancy Colobong Smith, Lori Linke, John Kundzins, Masoud Beizai, Carlos Ezon, Larry Kessler, Jonathan Himmelfarb
BACKGROUND: Stationary hemodialysis machines hinder mobility and limit activities of daily life during dialysis treatments. New hemodialysis technologies are needed to improve patient autonomy and enhance quality of life. METHODS: We conducted a FDA-approved human trial of a wearable artificial kidney, a miniaturized, wearable hemodialysis machine, based on dialysate-regenerating sorbent technology. We aimed to determine the efficacy of the wearable artificial kidney in achieving solute, electrolyte, and volume homeostasis in up to 10 subjects over 24 hours...
June 2, 2016: JCI Insight
Natalia Vladimirovna Chevtchik, Michele Fedecostante, Jitske Jansen, Milos Mihajlovic, Martijn Wilmer, Marieke Rüth, Rosalinde Masereeuw, Dimitrios Stamatialis
The limited removal of metabolic waste products in dialyzed kidney patients leads to high morbidity and mortality. One powerful solution for a more complete removal of those metabolites might be offered by a bioartificial kidney device (BAK), which contains a hybrid "living membrane" with functional proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTEC). These cells are supported by an artificial functionalized hollow fiber membrane (HFM) and are able to actively remove the waste products. In our earlier studies, conditionally immortalized human PTEC (ciPTEC) showed to express functional organic cationic transporter 2 (OCT2) when seeded on small size flat or hollow fiber polyethersulfone (PES) membranes...
July 6, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Hsiao-Chien Chen, Chung-Yi Cheng, Hsiu-Chen Lin, Hsi-Hsien Chen, Cheng-Hsien Chen, Chih-Ping Yang, Kai-Huei Yang, Chun-Mao Lin, Tsung-Yao Lin, Chwen-Ming Shih, Yu-Chuan Liu
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is inflammation-related. Patients with chronic renal failure who undergo hemodialysis (HD) have some acute adverse effects caused by dialysis-induced oxidative stress, protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, and activation of coagulation and inflammation. Here, resonantly illuminated gold nanoparticles-modified artificial kidney (AuNPs@AK) for achieving high efficiency accompanying therapeutic strategy for CKD during HD is proposed. The efficiency in removing uremic toxins increased obviously, especially in the presence of protein (closer to the real blood)...
August 3, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Aaron Langdon, Bernd Grohe
The protein osteopontin (OPN) plays an important role in preventing the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) kidney stones. To gain insight into these mechanisms, crystallization was induced by addition of human kidney OPN to artificial urine (ionic strength comparable to urine; without citrate), and the OPN-COM interaction studied using a combination of scanning electron (SEM) and confocal microscopy. By SEM, we found that increasing OPN concentrations formed large monoclinic penetration twins (no protein added) and, at higher concentrations (1-, 2μg/ml OPN), super and hyper twins with crystal habits not found in previous studies...
October 1, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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