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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918148/mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-and-ubiquitin-proteasome-related-gene-expression-in-3-different-skeletal-muscles-of-colostrum-versus-formula-fed-calves
#1
H Sadri, J Steinhoff-Wagner, Harald M Hammon, R M Bruckmaier, S Görs, H Sauerwein
The rates of protein turnover are higher during the neonatal period than at any other time in postnatal life. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the ubiquitin-proteasome system are key pathways regulating cellular protein turnover. The objectives of this study were (1) to elucidate the effect of feeding colostrum versus milk-based formula on the mRNA abundance of key components of the mTOR pathway and of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in skeletal muscle of neonatal calves and (2) to compare different muscles...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915265/the-accessory-parotid-gland-and-facial-process-of-the-parotid-gland-on-computed-tomography
#2
Dongbin Ahn, Chang Ki Yeo, Soon Yong Han, Jeong Kyu Kim
The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of an anterior extension of the parotid gland, such as an accessory parotid gland (APG) or facial process (FP) and to evaluate its characteristics on computed tomography (CT) scans. We reviewed CT scans of 1,600 parotid glands from 800 patients. An APG on CT was defined as a soft-tissue mass of the same density as the main parotid gland, located at the anterior part of the main parotid gland, and completely separate from the main parotid gland. An FP was defined as a lobe of the parotid gland protruding anteriorly over the anterior edge of the ramus of the mandible on CT and showing continuity with the main gland...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912943/assessment-of-low-level-laser-therapy-effects-after-extraction-of-impacted-lower-third-molar-surgery
#3
Shahrokh Raiesian, Mehdi Khani, Kazem Khiabani, Ershad Hemmati, Mohammad Pouretezad
Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on pain, swelling and maximum mouth opening in patients undergoing third molar surgery. Methods: A prospective, randomized double-blind study was undertaken on 44 patients at the Dental School, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, in 2015. A low-level laser was randomly applied on one of the two sides after surgery of 15 patients. The experimental side received 18 J/cm(2) of energy density, wavelength of 980 nm, and output power of 1...
2017: Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904310/efficacy-of-botulinum-toxin-therapy-in-treatment-of-myofascial-pain
#4
Jorge Chaurand, Laura Pacheco-Ruíz, Hector Orozco-Saldívar, Julio López-Valdés
The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of using botulinum toxin (BTX) in temporomandibular joint disorders, particularly pertaining to myofascial pain from masseter and temporal muscles. The study included 11 patients who were diagnosed with masseter and temporalis myofascial pain. Visual analog scale for pain and pressure algometry were conducted initially, after 1 month of conservative therapy (control group), and after 1 month of BTX type A injections (study group). Data were statistically analyzed (analysis of variance and Wilcoxon's test) to determine intergroup differences...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895181/simultaneous-double-free-radial-forearm-flaps-combined-with-coronoidectomy-and-myotomy-to-release-bilateral-severe-trismus-a-case-report
#5
Chieh Chou, Chien-Chang Chen, Chung-Sheng Lai, Sin-Daw Lin, Yur-Ren Kuo
Oral cancers associated with submucosal fibrosis-induced trismus are common. They may affect the patients' quality of life, cause nutritional deficits, and interfere with postoperative cancer surveillance. In such cases, locating desirable recipient vessels in the head and neck can be difficult. This report presents a 47-year-old man with severe trismus caused by recurrent head and neck cancer, who had received multiple free-flap reconstructions after cancer ablation. Reconstruction was successfully achieved for the bilateral defects and releasing the trismus by using simultaneous double free radial forearm flaps as a chained flow-through pattern with one residual recipient vessel combined with the bilateral myotomy of the medial pterygoid and masseter muscles, and coronoidectomy...
September 12, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875081/the-jaw-is-a-second-class-lever-in-pedetes-capensis-rodentia-pedetidae
#6
Philip G Cox
The mammalian jaw is often modelled as a third-class lever for the purposes of biomechanical analyses, owing to the position of the resultant muscle force between the jaw joint and the teeth. However, it has been proposed that in some rodents the jaws operate as a second-class lever during distal molar bites, owing to the rostral position of the masticatory musculature. In particular, the infraorbital portion of the zygomatico-mandibularis (IOZM) has been suggested to be of major importance in converting the masticatory system from a third-class to a second-class lever...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857246/sleep-deprivation-induces-pathological-changes-in-rat-masticatory-muscles-role-of-toll-like-signaling-pathway-and-atrophy
#7
Veronica Quispe Yujra, Hanna Karen Moreira Antunes, Marcos Mônico-Neto, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani, Aline Boveto Santamarina, Hannaniah Tardivo Quintana, Flavia de Oliveira, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama Oshima, Daniel Araki Ribeiro
The aim of this study was to evaluate the toll like signaling pathway and atrophy after sleep deprivation (SD) in rat masticatory muscles: masseter and temporal. A total of twenty-four animals was distributed into three groups: Control group (CTL, n = 8), subjected to SD for 96 hours (SD96, n = 8) and subjected to SD for 96 hours more 96 hours of sleep recovery (SD96 + R, n = 8). Histopathological analysis revealed the presence of acute inflammatory cells, congested vessels, fibrosis and high cellularity in the skeletal muscle fibers from masseter and temporal submitted to SD...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853169/effect-of-body-posture-on-chewing-behaviors-in-healthy-volunteers
#8
Tomoko Iizumi, Jin Magara, Takanori Tsujimura, Makoto Inoue
Mastication is essential to the eating process, and forms an important part of feeding behavior. Many factors related to the food bolus, such as bolus texture and size, are known to influence mastication. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of body posture on (1) chewing duration prior to the first swallow and (2) patterns of mastication-related EMG activity. We asked 10 healthy adults to chew 8 g of steamed rice with barium sulfate while we recorded masseter, suprahyoid, and infrahyoid muscle activity and simultaneously collected videofluorographic images...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843404/morphometric-analysis-of-temporomandibular-joint-elements
#9
Audrey E Paglio, Aaron P Bradley, R Shane Tubbs, Marios Loukas, Piotr B Kozlowski, Anthony C Dilandro, Yujiro Sakamoto, Joe Iwanaga, Cameron Schmidt, Anthony V D'Antoni
PURPOSE: To study the morphology of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) elements and examine the feasibility of a novel biofidelic articular disc casting technique. METHODS: 18 formalin-fixed cadavers (77.8% female, 22.2% male) with mean (SD) death age of 71.9 (13.7) years were used for this study. In each specimen the masseter muscle, mandibular ramus, and articular disc were dissected bilaterally and measured for length, width, and thickness. All anatomic measurements were made using a digital slide caliper (Hawk Inc...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841604/facial-assessment-and-injection-guide-for-botulinum-toxin-and-injectable-hyaluronic-acid-fillers-focus-on-the-lower-face
#10
Maurício de Maio, Woffles T L Wu, Greg J Goodman, Gary Monheit
This third article of a three-part series addresses techniques and recommendations for aesthetic treatment of the lower face. The lower face is considered an advanced area for facial aesthetic treatment. In this region, soft-tissue fillers play a more important role than neuromodulators and should be used first to provide structure and support before neuromodulators are considered for treatment of dynamic lines. Treatment of the lip, perioral region, and chin, in addition to maintaining balance of the lower face with the face overall, is challenging...
September 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828155/effects-of-the-functional-orthopaedic-therapy-on-masticatory-muscles-activity
#11
Elena Di Palma, Michele Tepedino, Claudio Chimenti, Gianluca M Tartaglia, Chiarella Sforza
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of masticatory muscles before and after functional orthopaedic therapy with Sander appliance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten adolescents (5 girls, 5 boys) with an Angle Class II, division I malocclusion, 9-13 years old, were submitted to sEMG before and after functional orthopaedic therapy. To verify the neuromuscular equilibrium, the standardized EMG activities of right and left masseter and anterior temporal muscles were recorded during maximum voluntary clench, and analysed calculating: POC (index of the symmetric distribution of the muscular activity determined by the occlusion); TC (index of presence of mandibular torque) and Ac (index suggesting the position of occlusal barycentre)...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813570/experimental-and-numerical-characterization-of-the-mechanical-masseter-muscle-response-during-mastication
#12
Johannes Weickenmeier, Mahmood Jabareen, Benjamin J D Le Révérend, Marco Ramaioli, Edoardo Mazza
Predictive simulations of the mastication system would significantly improve our understanding of temporomandibular joint disorders and the planning of cranio-maxillofacial surgery procedures. Respective computational models must be validated by experimental data from in-vivo characterization of the mastication system's mechanical response. The present work introduces a combined experimental and numerical procedure for the validation of a computer model of the masseter muscle during biting. The proposed experimental setup enables simultaneous bite force measurements and ultrasound-based visualization of masseter deformation for the direct comparison with the numerically predicted masseter response...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807305/evaluation-of-the-priocheck%C3%A2-trichinella-aad-kit-for-the-digestion-and-recovery-of-larvae-in-pork-horse-meat-and-wild-meat
#13
Kelly Konecsni, Cheryl Scheller, Brad Scandrett, Patrik Buholzer, Alvin Gajadhar
The artificial digestion magnetic stirrer method using pepsin protease and hydrochloric acid is the standard assay for the detection of Trichinella larvae in muscle of infected animals. Recently, an alternative enzyme, serine protease, was employed in the development of a commercially available digestion kit (PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit). This assay requires a higher digestion temperature of 60°C which kills the larvae during the digestion process, mitigating the risk of environmental contamination from the parasite...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805903/chronic-activation-of-amp-activated-protein-kinase-increases-monocarboxylate-transporter-2-and-4-expression-in-skeletal-muscle
#14
E M England, H Shi, S K Matarneh, E M Oliver, E T Helm, T L Scheffler, E Puolanne, D E Gerrard
Acute activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) increases monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) expression in skeletal muscle. However, the impact of chronic activation of AMPK on MCT expression in skeletal muscle is unknown. To investigate, MCT1, MCT2, and MCT4 mRNA expression and protein abundance were measured in the longissimus lumborum (glycolytic), masseter (oxidative), and heart from wild-type (control) and AMPK γ3 pigs. The AMPK γ3 gain in function mutation results in AMPK being constitutively active in glycolytic skeletal muscle and increases energy producing pathways...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791820/evaluation-of-articular-disc-loading-in-the-temporomandibular-joints-after-prosthetic-and-pharmacological-treatment-in-model-studies
#15
Małgorzata E Pihut, Jerzy Margielewicz, Edward Kijak, Grażyna Wiśniewska
BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular joint dysfunction is often related to excessive load in the stomatognathic system. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the model tests, using numeric calculations, was to assess the articular disc loads in the temporomandibular joints after prosthetic and pharmacological treatment of functional disorders of the masticatory organ. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 10 patients, aged 21-48 years, of both sexes, randomly selected from a group of 120 patients treated with relaxation occlusal splints (60 patients, group I) and intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A (60 patients, group II), suffering from temporomandibular joint dysfunction with the dominant muscle component...
May 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780385/relationships-between-chewing-rate-occlusion-cephalometric-anatomy-muscle-activity-and-masticatory-performance
#16
Brent A Fulks, Kathryn X Callaghan, Claire D Tewksbury, Geoffrey E Gerstner
OBJECTIVE: Mastication consists of rhythmic jaw openings and closings. Recent studies suggest that muscle mechanical properties determine the rhythmic rate; however, speed-accuracy tradeoffs may also play a role. This study evaluated how variation in chewing rate affected chewing performance, how masticatory muscle activity varied with chewing rate, and whether morphology and demographics contributed to performance. DESIGN: Chewing performance and muscle activity were sampled in 23 healthy, fully-dentate adults, who chewed a standardized test food to a metronome set at 0...
July 29, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770162/squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-buccal-mucosa-involving-the-masticator-space-a-case-report
#17
Il-Hyung Kim, Hoon Myoung
Squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa has an aggressive nature, as it grows rapidly and penetrates well with a high recurrence rate. If cancers originating from the buccal mucosa invade adjacent anatomical structures, surgical tumor resection becomes more challenging, thus raising specific considerations for reconstruction relative to the extent of resection. The present case describes the surgical management of a 58-year-old man who presented with persistent ulceration of the mucosal membrane and a mouth-opening limitation of 11 mm...
June 2017: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762259/congenital-muscle-dystrophy-and-diet-consistency-affect-mouse-skull-shape-differently
#18
Alexander Spassov, Viviana Toro-Ibacache, Mirjam Krautwald, Heinrich Brinkmeier, Kornelius Kupczik
The bones of the mammalian skull respond plastically to changes in masticatory function. However, the extent to which muscle function affects the growth and development of the skull, whose regions have different maturity patterns, remains unclear. Using muscle dissection and 3D landmark-based geometric morphometrics we investigated the effect of changes in muscle function established either before or after weaning, on skull shape and muscle mass in adult mice. We compared temporalis and masseter mass and skull shape in mice with a congenital muscle dystrophy (mdx) and wild type (wt) mice fed on either a hard or a soft diet...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757802/the-evaluation-of-the-clinical-effects-of-botulinum-toxin-on-nocturnal-bruxism
#19
Fatih Asutay, Yusuf Atalay, Hilal Asutay, Ahmet Hüseyin Acar
OBJECTIVES: Nocturnal bruxism can be managed by botulinum toxin (Botox®) in patients who have not responded to conservative treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of botulinum toxin A (BTXA) in the treatment of nocturnal bruxism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The retrospective study comprised 25 female patients, aged 23-55 years (mean 35.84 ± 8.41 years). All patients received a single injection of BTXA in the right and left masseters. Evaluation was made by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) values, complaint duration, onset of effect, and duration of effectiveness...
2017: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730748/extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-activation-in-the-spinal-cord-contributes-to-visceral-hypersensitivity-induced-by-craniofacial-injury-followed-by-stress
#20
Y-J Zhao, J-H Li, B Hu, Y Wang, X-F Chang, R J Traub, D-Y Cao
BACKGROUND: We previously developed an animal model to examine mechanisms that underlie the emergence of visceral hypersensitivity modeling pain characteristics of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients with comorbid irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In ovariectomized (OVx) rats with estradiol (E2) replacement, visceral hypersensitivity developed subsequent to masseter muscle inflammation followed by repeated forced swim (FS) stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the spinal cord contributes to visceral hypersensitivity in this overlapping pain model...
July 21, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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