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Pediatric brain tumors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529554/novel-drugs-in-pediatric-gliomas
#1
Dongli Zhang, Xiaoming Liu, Conghai Fan, Jiao Chen
Astrocytomas (gliomas) are the most common primary brain tumors among adults and second most frequent neoplasm among children. New ideas and novel approaches are being explored world over with aim to devise better management strategeies for this deadly pathological state. We searched the electronic database PubMed for pre-clinical as well as clinical controlled trials reporting importance of various therapeutic drugs against gliomas. It was observed clearly that this approach of using therapeutic drugs is clearly evolving and has been observed to be promising future therapeutic avenue against gliomas...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526811/proteomic-analysis-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-from-children-with-central-nervous-system-tumors-identifies-candidate-proteins-relating-to-tumor-metastatic-spread
#2
Filippo Spreafico, Italia Bongarzone, Sara Pizzamiglio, Ruben Magni, Elena Taverna, Maida De Bortoli, Chiara M Ciniselli, Elena Barzanò, Veronica Biassoni, Alessandra Luchini, Lance A Liotta, Weidong Zhou, Michele Signore, Paolo Verderio, Maura Massimino
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid tumors in childhood. Since the sensitivity of combined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and radiological neuroimaging in detecting meningeal metastases remains relatively low, we sought to characterize the CSF proteome of patients with CSF tumors to identify biomarkers predictive of metastatic spread. CSF samples from 27 children with brain tumors and 13 controls (extra-CNS non-Hodgkin lymphoma) were processed using core-shell hydrogel nanoparticles, and analyzed with reverse-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521298/insulin-like-growth-factor-2-axis-supports-the-serum-independent-growth-of-malignant-rhabdoid-tumor-and-is-activated-by-microenvironment-stress
#3
Ting Li, Jin Wang, Pengfei Liu, Jiadong Chi, Han Yan, Lei Lei, Zexing Li, Bing Yang, Xi Wang
Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are rare, lethal, pediatric tumors predominantly found in the kidney, brain and soft tissues. MRTs are driven by loss of tumor suppressor SNF5/INI1/SMARCB1/BAF47. The prognosis of MRT is poor using currently available treatments, so new treatment targets need to be identified to expand treatment options for patients experiencing chemotherapy resistance. The growth hormone insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) signaling pathway is a promising target to overcome drug resistance in many cancers...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516078/subependymal-giant-cell-astrocytoma-presenting-with-tumoral-bleeding-a-case-report
#4
Jae-Young Kim, Tae-Young Jung, Kyung-Hwa Lee, Seul-Kee Kim
We report a rare case of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) associated with tumoral bleeding in a pediatric patient without tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). A 10-year-old girl presented with a 2-week history of an increasingly aggravating headache. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed an approximately 3.6-cm, well-defined, heterogeneously enhancing mass with multistage hemorrhages on the right-sided foramen of Monro. The tumor was completely resected using a transcallosal approach. Intraoperatively, the mass presented as a gray-colored firm tumor associated with acute and subacute hemorrhages...
April 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510691/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-upregulation-through-epigenetic-silencing-of-ldoc1-drives-tumor-biology-and-specific-immunophenotype-in-group-a-ependymoma
#5
Andrea M Griesinger, Davis A Witt, Sydney T Grob, Sabrina R Georgio Westover, Andrew M Donson, Bridget Sanford, Jean M Mulcahy Levy, Randall Wong, Daniel C Moreira, John A DeSisto, Ilango Balakrishnan, Lindsey M Hoffman, Michael H Handler, Kenneth L Jones, Rajeev Vibhakar, Sujatha Venkataraman, Nicholas K Foreman
Background.: Inflammation has been identified as a hallmark of high-risk Group A (GpA) ependymoma (EPN). Chronic interleukin (IL)-6 secretion from GpA tumors drives an immune suppressive phenotype by polarizing infiltrating monocytes. This study determines the mechanism by which IL-6 is dysregulated in GpA EPN. Methods.: Twenty pediatric GpA and 21 pediatric Group B (GpB) EPN had gene set enrichment analysis for MSigDB Hallmark gene sets performed. Protein and RNA from patients and cell lines were used to validate transcriptomic findings...
May 16, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508928/embryonal-tumors-in-canadian-children-less-than-36-months-of-age-results-from-the-canadian-pediatric-brain-tumor-consortium-cpbtc
#6
E Story, D L Johnston, U Bartels, A S Carret, B Crooks, D D Eisenstat, C Fryer, L Lafay-Cousin, V Larouche, B Wilson, S Zelcer, M Silva, J Brossard, E Bouffet, D L Keene
Embryonal tumors are a heterogeneous group of central nervous system (CNS) tumors whose subgroups have varying incidence and outcome. Despite these differences, they are often grouped as a single entity for study purposes. To date, there are no Canadian multi-institutional studies examining the incidence and outcome of all embryonal subtypes. The current study is an observational study reviewing embryonal tumors in all patients less than 36 months of age diagnosed with a CNS tumor in Canada from 1990 to 2005...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504501/-bowel-obstruction-by-hamartomatous-polyp-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-tuberous-sclerosis
#7
Adriana V Scrigni, Adriana Bottero, Andrea Bosaleh, Nuria Aisenberg, Marcela Paglia, Lisandro Manfrin, Tai C Luong
Tuberous sclerosis is an autosomal dominant disorder with a wide clinical spectrum of disease. It is characterized by development of benign tumors in multiple organs due to a disturbance in cellular growth and differentiation. It usually affects skin, brain, heart and kidney. Gastrointestinal involvement is rare and mainly restricted to adults and sigmoid colon and rectum. In children there are only two cases; our patient would be the third. We present a patient with tuberous sclerosis who began at the first month of life with repeated intestinal subocclusion...
June 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501783/silencing-of-dna-repair-sensitizes-pediatric-brain-tumor-cells-to-%C3%AE-irradiation-using-gold-nanoparticles
#8
Zuliang Liu, Huiru Yan, Hongsha Li
We present a nanoparticle (NP)-mediated delivery vehicle that effectively carries and protects siRNA in pediatric ependymoma (EP) and medulloblastoma (MB) cells. The delivery vehicle consists of gold NPs coated with a polymeric shell comprising polyethylene glycol (PG), chitosan and polyethyleneimine (Au-CP-PEI). NPs loaded with siRNA knocked down Ape1 expression by over 75% in both MB and EP cells. Further, this reduction in Ape1 expression is associated with an increase in DNA damage after irradiation. The results indicate that NP-associated delivery of siApe1 is a feasible approach to circumventing pediatric brain tumor resistance to radiation therapy...
April 27, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495911/intratumoral-injection-of-hsv1716-an-oncolytic-herpes-virus-is-safe-and-shows-evidence-of-immune-response-and-viral-replication-in-young-cancer-patients
#9
Keri A Streby, James I Geller, Mark A Currier, Patrick S Warren, John M Racadio, Alexander J Towbin, Michele R Vaughan, Melinda Triplet, Kristy Ott-Napier, Devon J Dishman, Lori R Backus, Beth Stockman, Marianne Brunner, Kathleen Simpson, Robert Spavin, Joe Conner, Timothy P Cripe
Purpose: HSV1716 is an oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) studied in adults via injection into the brain and superficial tumors. To determine the safety of administering HSV1716 to pediatric patients with cancer, we conducted a phase I trial of image-guided injection in young patients with relapsed or refractory extracranial cancers.Experimental Design: We delivered a single dose of 10(5) to 10(7) infectious units of HSV1716 via computed tomography-guided intratumoral injection and measured tumor responses by imaging...
May 11, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490517/atoh1-promotes-leptomeningeal-dissemination-and-metastasis-of-sonic-hedgehog-subgroup-medulloblastomas
#10
Katie B Grausam, Samuel Dr Dooyema, Laure Bihannic, Hasitha Premathilake, A Sorana Morrissy, Antoine Forget, Amanda M Schaefer, Justin H Gundelach, Slobodan Macura, Diane M Maher, Xin Wang, Alex H Heglin, Xijin Ge, Erliang Zeng, Stephanie Puget, Indra Chandrasekar, Kameswaran Surendran, Richard J Bram, Ulrich Schüller, Michael D Taylor, Olivier Ayrault, Haotian Zhao
Medulloblastoma (MB) arising from the cerebellum is the most common pediatric brain malignancy, with leptomeningeal metastases often present at diagnosis and recurrence associated with poor clinical outcome. In this study, we employed mouse MB models to explore the relationship of tumor pathophysiology and dysregulated expression of the Notch pathway transcription factor ATOH1, which is present in aggressive MB subtypes driven by aberrant Sonic Hedgehog/Patched (SHH/PTCH) signaling. In experiments with conditional Atoh1 mouse mutants crossed to Ptch1(+/-) mice which develop SHH-driven MB[63], animals with Atoh1 transgene expression developed highly penetrant MB at a young age with extensive leptomeningeal disease and metastasis to the spinal cord and brain, resembling xenografts of human SHH MB...
May 10, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488624/papillary-craniopharyngioma-a-clinicopathologic-study-of-a-rare-entity-from-a-major-tertiary-care-center-in-pakistan
#11
Muhammad Usman Tariq, Nasir Ud Din, Zubair Ahmad, Wasim Memon
BACKGROUND: Papillary craniopharyngioma (PCP) are uncommon variants of craniopharyngiomas (CP), which are benign epithelial neoplasms of the sellar and suprasellar region. Histologically, PCPs are typically composed of well-differentiated stratified squamous epithelium; however, focal variations are not uncommon. A distinction from other lesions of the region, despite being difficult to achieve due to the overlapping radiological and clinical features, is important for adequate treatment to be administered...
May 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488086/large-cell-anaplastic-medulloblastoma-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-a-retrospective-analysis-at-a-single-institute
#12
Pin-I Huang, Shih-Chieh Lin, Yi-Yen Lee, Donald Ming-Tak Ho, Wan-Yuo Guo, Kai-Ping Chang, Feng-Chi Chang, Muh-Lii Liang, Hsin-Hung Chen, Yu-Ming Liu, Sang-Hue Yen, Tai-Tong Wong, Yi-Wei Chen
PURPOSE: Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most commonly occurring malignant pediatric brain tumor worldwide. However, a recent study found that the treatment outcomes in those with high-risk disease receiving conventional treatment were suboptimal. This study aimed to assess outcomes and treatment strategies for specific histologic subtypes of pediatric MB. METHODS: A total of 114 pediatric patients (age < 20 years) diagnosed with MB between March 1998 and August 2011 were retrospectively reviewed; 52 that were treated with surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CHT) were included...
May 9, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486100/using-epigenetic-reprogramming-to-treat-pediatric-brain-cancer
#13
Milan G Chheda, David H Gutmann
In this issue of Cancer Cell, Nagaraja et al. dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying therapeutic responses to transcriptional disruptors in the fatal pediatric brain tumor, diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). Moreover, they identify super-enhancers mediating these effects, highlighting how normal brain developmental programs can be hijacked in cancer.
May 8, 2017: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485351/pediatric-brain-tumors-an-analysis-of-5-years-of-data-from-a-tertiary-cancer-care-center-india
#14
R Madhavan, B P Kannabiran, A M Nithya, J Kani, P Balasubramaniam, S Shanmugakumar
BACKGROUND: Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children worldwide. Even though there are enough data about the epidemiology of pediatric brain tumors in western population, there are only a few reports from developing countries like India. AIMS: To study the epidemiological patterns of brain tumors in children, to study the patterns of care, and to assess the treatment response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective epidemiological approach is used...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481580/neurocognitive-deficits-in-children-with-chronic-health-conditions
#15
Bruce E Compas, Sarah S Jaser, Kristen Reeslund, Niral Patel, Janet Yarboi
Over 4 million children in the United States suffer from chronic health conditions, including cancer, sickle cell disease, and diabetes. Because of major advances in the early identification and treatment of these conditions, survival rates for these children continue to rise, and the majority now lives into adulthood. However, increases in survival have come with costs related to long-term effects of disease processes and treatments. Foremost among these consequences is impairment in brain development and neurocognitive function that may affect a substantial portion of children with chronic health conditions and follow many into adulthood...
May 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475292/long-term-follow-up-of-endocrine-function-among-young-children-with-newly-diagnosed-malignant-central-nervous-system-tumors-treated-with-irradiation-avoiding-regimens
#16
Anne M Cochrane, Clement Cheung, Kasey Rangan, David Freyer, Leena Nahata, Girish Dhall, Jonathan L Finlay
BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of irradiation on endocrine function among patients with pediatric brain tumor are well documented. Intensive induction chemotherapy followed by marrow-ablative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (AuHCR) without central nervous system (CNS) irradiation has demonstrated efficacy in a proportion of very young children with some malignant CNS tumors. This study assessed the long-term endocrine function of young children following chemotherapy-only treatment regimens...
May 5, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474256/pediatric-imaging-in-dicer1-syndrome
#17
Marta Tijerin Bueno, Claudia Martínez-Ríos, Alejandro De la Puente Gregorio, Rayan A Ahyad, Anita Villani, Harriet Druker, Kalene van Engelen, Bailey Gallinger, Laura Aronoff, Ronald Grant, David Malkin, Mary-Louise C Greer
BACKGROUND: DICER1 syndrome, arising from a mutation in the DICER1 gene mapped to chromosome 14q32, is associated with an increased risk of a range of benign and malignant neoplasms. OBJECTIVE: To determine the spectrum of abnormalities and imaging characteristics in patients with DICER1 syndrome at a tertiary pediatric hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective analysis evaluated imaging in patients ≤18 years with DICER1 germline variants between January 2004 and July 2016...
May 4, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469330/profile-of-primary-pediatric-brain-and-spinal-cord-tumors-from-north-india
#18
Nadia Shirazi, Meenu Gupta, Nowneet Kumar Bhat, Braham Prakash Kalra, Ranjit Kumar, Manju Saini
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The study was carried out to find the profile of pediatric brain and spinal cord tumors during 2006-2015 in a tertiary referral center of North India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a retrospective medical record-based observational study. All children <18 years of age with confirmed histopathological diagnosis of cancer were included in the study. RESULTS: Central nervous system (CNS) tumors constituted 5.6% of all pediatric solid malignancies in our hospital...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464132/immunotherapy-targets-several-different-pediatric-brain-tumors
#19
Tracy Hampton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463617/robot-assisted-procedures-in-pediatric-neurosurgery
#20
Alessandro De Benedictis, Andrea Trezza, Andrea Carai, Elisabetta Genovese, Emidio Procaccini, Raffaella Messina, Franco Randi, Silvia Cossu, Giacomo Esposito, Paolo Palma, Paolina Amante, Michele Rizzi, Carlo Efisio Marras
OBJECTIVE During the last 3 decades, robotic technology has rapidly spread across several surgical fields due to the continuous evolution of its versatility, stability, dexterity, and haptic properties. Neurosurgery pioneered the development of robotics, with the aim of improving the quality of several procedures requiring a high degree of accuracy and safety. Moreover, robot-guided approaches are of special interest in pediatric patients, who often have altered anatomy and challenging relationships between the diseased and eloquent structures...
May 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
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