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Pediatric brain tumors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440450/comprehensive-analysis-of-a-microrna-expression-profile-in-pediatric-medulloblastoma
#1
Junqiang Dai, Qiao Li, Zhitong Bing, Yinian Zhang, Liang Niu, Hang Yin, Guoqiang Yuan, Yawen Pan
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of the central nervous system among children. Medulloblastoma is an embryonal tumor, of which little is known about the pathogenesis. Several efforts have been made to understand the molecular aspects of its tumorigenic pathways; however, these are poorly understood. microRNA (miRNA), a type of non‑coding short RNA, has been proven to be associated with a number of physiological processes and pathological processes of serious diseases, including brain tumors...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437838/prognostic-relevance-of-mir-124-3p-and-its-target-tp53inp1-in-pediatric-ependymoma
#2
Yulia Margolin-Miller, Natalia Yanichkin, Keren Shichrur, Helen Toledano, Anat Ohali, Theophilos Tzaridis, Shalom Michowitz, Suzana Fichman-Horn, Meora Feinmesser, Stefan M Pfister, Hendrik Witt, Uri Tabori, Eric Bouffet, Vijay Ramaswamy, Cynthia Hawkins, Michael D Taylor, Isaac Yaniv, Smadar Avigad
Ependymoma is a malignant pediatric brain tumor, often incurable under the current treatment regimen. We aimed to evaluate the expression of microRNAs (miRs) in pediatric ependymoma tumors in an attempt to identify prognostic molecular markers which would lead to potential therapeutic targets. Following miR-array expression analysis, we focused on 9 miRs that correlated with relapse which were further validated by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) in a cohort of 67 patients. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to measure target protein expression in 20 and 34 tumor samples, respectively...
April 24, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431179/mirna-regulation-in-gliomas-usual-suspects-in-glial-tumorigenesis-and-evolving-clinical-applications
#3
Heather Ames, Marc K Halushka, Fausto J Rodriguez
In recent years, an increasing role for noncoding small RNAs (miRNA) has been uncovered in carcinogenesis. These oligonucleotides can promote degradation and/or inhibit translation of key mRNAs. Recent studies have also highlighted a possible role for miRNAs in adult and pediatric brain tumors, including high- and low-grade gliomas, medulloblastoma, ependymoma, and neoplasms associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. Gliomas represent the most common category of primary intraparenchymal brain tumors, and, for example, manipulation of signaling pathways, through inhibition of PTEN transcription appears to be an important function of miRNA dysregulation through miR-21, miR-106b, and miR-26a...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414399/current-understanding-of-the-health-effects-of-electromagnetic-fields
#4
Tayaba Miah, Deepak Kamat
There has been an exponential increase in the use of electronic devices over the past few decades. This has led to increased exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Electric fields result from differences in voltage, whereas magnetic fields result from the flow of electric current. Higher-frequency waves of EMF have more energy than lower-frequency waves, and thus generally tend to be more harmful. An EMF activates cellular stress response and also causes breaks in DNA strands. There are many methodological barriers to effectively measuring the associations of EMF and childhood cancers...
April 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411324/determinants-of-social-competence-in-pediatric-brain-tumor-survivors-who-participated-in-an-intervention-study
#5
Maru Barrera, Eshetu G Atenafu, Fiona Schulte, Ute Bartels, Lillian Sung, Laura Janzen, Joanna Chung, Danielle Cataudella, Kelly Hancock, Amani Saleh, Douglas Strother, Dina McConnell, Andrea Downie, Juliette Hukin, Shayna Zelcer
PURPOSE: This prospective study describes disease/treatment, personal characteristics, and social/family contextual variables as risk and resilience factors that predict social competence in pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS). METHODS: Ninety-one PBTS (51% male, mean age 11.21 years, off-treatment, attending a regular classroom >50% of the time) participated. PBTS and their primary caregivers (proxy) completed the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) to assess social competence at baseline, 2, and 8 months follow-up...
April 14, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404981/characterization-of-the-transcriptional-and-metabolic-responses-of-pediatric-high-grade-gliomas-to-mtor-hif-1a-axis-inhibition
#6
Aurélia Nguyen, François Marie Moussallieh, Alan Mackay, A Ercument Cicek, Andres Coca, Marie Pierre Chenard, Noelle Weingertner, Benoit Lhermitte, Eric Letouzé, Eric Guérin, Erwan Pencreach, Sarah Jannier, Dominique Guenot, Izzie Jacques Namer, Chris Jones, Natacha Entz-Werlé
Pediatric high grade glioma (pHGGs), including sus-tentorial and diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas, are known to have a very dismal prognosis. For instance, even an increased knowledge on molecular biology driving this brain tumor entity, there is no treatment able to cure those patients. Therefore, we were focusing on a translational pathway able to increase the cell resistance to treatment and to reprogram metabolically tumor cells, which are, then, adapting easily to a hypoxic microenvironment. To establish, the crucial role of the hypoxic pathways in pHGGs, we, first, assessed their protein and transcriptomic deregulations in a pediatric cohort of pHGGs and in pHGG's cell lines, cultured in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions...
March 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401334/h3-idh-wild-type-pediatric-glioblastoma-is-comprised-of-molecularly-and-prognostically-distinct-subtypes-with-associated-oncogenic-drivers
#7
Andrey Korshunov, Daniel Schrimpf, Marina Ryzhova, Dominik Sturm, Lukas Chavez, Volker Hovestadt, Tanvi Sharma, Antje Habel, Anna Burford, Chris Jones, Olga Zheludkova, Ella Kumirova, Christof M Kramm, Andrey Golanov, David Capper, Andreas von Deimling, Stefan M Pfister, David T W Jones
Pediatric glioblastoma (pedGBM) is an extremely aggressive pediatric brain tumor, accounting for ~6% of all central nervous system neoplasms in children. Approximately half of pedGBM harbor recurrent somatic mutations in histone 3 variants or, infrequently, IDH1/2. The remaining subset of pedGBM is highly heterogeneous, and displays a variety of genomic and epigenetic features. In the current study, we aimed to further stratify an H3-/IDH-wild type (wt) pedGBM cohort assessed through genome-wide molecular profiling...
April 11, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401018/otx2-expression-contributes-to-proliferation-and-progression-in-myc-amplified-medulloblastoma
#8
REVIEW
Yining Lu, Collin M Labak, Neha Jain, Ian J Purvis, Maheedhara R Guda, Sarah E Bach, Andrew J Tsung, Swapna Asuthkar, Kiran K Velpula
Medulloblastoma is one of the most prevalent pediatric brain malignancies, accounting for approximately 20% of all primary CNS tumors in children under the age of 19. OTX2 is the member of a highly conserved family of bicoid-like homeodomain transcription factors responsible for the regulation of cerebellar development and of current investigational interest in the tumorigenesis of medulloblastoma. Recent studies have revealed that Group 3 and Group 4 medulloblastomas show marked overexpression of OTX2 with a concurrent amplification of the MYC and MYCN oncogenes, respectively, correlating with anaplasticity and unfavorable patient outcomes...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398638/a-functional-screening-of-the-kinome-identifies-the-polo-like-kinase-4-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-malignant-rhabdoid-tumors-and-possibly-other-embryonal-tumors-of-the-brain
#9
Simone Treiger Sredni, Mario Suzuki, Jian-Ping Yang, Jacek Topczewski, Anders W Bailey, Tufan Gokirmak, Jeffrey N Gross, Alexandre de Andrade, Akihide Kondo, David R Piper, Tadanori Tomita
PURPOSE: Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are deadly embryonal tumors of the infancy. With poor survival and modest response to available therapies, more effective and less toxic treatments are needed. We hypothesized that a systematic screening of the kinome will reveal kinases that drive rhabdoid tumors and can be targeted by specific inhibitors. METHODS: We individually mutated 160 kinases in a well-characterized rhabdoid tumor cell line (MON) using lentiviral clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)...
April 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397028/incidence-and-survival-trends-in-oligodendrogliomas-and-anaplastic-oligodendrogliomas-in-the-united-states-from-2000-to-2013-a-cbtrus-report
#10
Rebecca L Achey, Vishesh Khanna, Quinn T Ostrom, Carol Kruchko, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan
Measuring tumor-specific trends in incidence is necessary to elucidate tumor-type contribution to overall cancer burden in the US population. Recently, there have been conflicting reports concerning the incidence of oligodendrogliomas (OD) and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOD). Therefore, our goal was to examine trends in OD and AOD incidence and survival by age, gender and race. Data was analyzed from the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) from 2000 to 2013. Age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 person-years with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and annual percent changes (APCs) with 95% CI were calculated for OD and AOD by age, sex and race...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396020/exploring-long-term-neurologic-complications-with-advanced-imaging-in-pediatric-brain-tumor-survivors
#11
EDITORIAL
Arastoo Vossough
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391296/cognitive-function-cerebral-microbleeds-radiotherapy-and-bevacizumab-in-survivors-of-pediatric-brain-tumors
#12
João Passos, Hipólito Nzwalo, Joana Marques, Ana Azevedo, Sofia Nunes, Duarte Salgado
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387652/pediatric-ependymoma-a-proteomics-perspective
#13
George Th Tsangaris, Chrissa Papathanasiou, Panagiotis G Adamopoulos, Andreas Scorilas, Constantinos E Vorgias, Neofytos Prodromou, Foteini Tzortzatou Stathopoulou, Dimitrios J Stravopodis, Athanasios K Anagnostopoulos
BACKGROUND/AIM: Proteomics based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) is the tool of choice for the analysis of protein presence, modifications and interactions, with increasing emphasis on the examination of tumor tissues. Application of MS-based proteomics offers a detailed picture of tumor tissue characteristics, facilitating the appreciation of different tumor entities, whilst providing reliable and fast results for therapeutic marker targeting and prognostic factor assessment...
March 2017: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382397/does-scope-of-practice-correlate-with-the-outcomes-of-craniotomy-for-tumor-resection-in-children
#14
Symeon Missios, Kimon Bekelis
BACKGROUND: The relationship of scope of practice (predominantly adult, versus predominantly pediatric) with the outcomes of brain tumor surgery in children remains uncertain. We investigated the association of practice focus with the outcomes of neurosurgical oncology operations in pediatric patients. METHODS: We performed a cohort study of all pediatric patients (younger than 18 years old) who underwent craniotomies for tumor resections from 2009 to 2013 and were registered in the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database...
April 5, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380428/penfluridol-suppresses-glioblastoma-tumor-growth-by-akt-mediated-inhibition-of-gli1
#15
Alok Ranjan, Sanjay K Srivastava
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common brain tumor with poor survival rate. Our results show that penfluridol, an antipsychotic drug significantly reduced the survival of ten adult and pediatric glioblastoma cell lines with IC50 ranging 2-5 μM after 72 hours of treatment and induced apoptosis. Penfluridol treatment suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 and reduced the expression of GLI1, OCT4, Nanog and Sox2 in several glioblastoma cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibiting Akt with LY294002 and siRNA, or inhibiting GLI1 using GANT61, cyclopamine, siRNA and CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in enhanced cell growth suppressive effects of penfluridol...
March 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378288/development-of-cystic-malacia-after-high-dose-cranial-irradiation-of-pediatric-cns-tumors-in-long-term-follow-up
#16
Fumiyuki Yamasaki, Takeshi Takayasu, Ryo Nosaka, Ikuno Nishibuchi, Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Manish Kolakshyapati, Shumpei Onishi, Taiichi Saito, Kazuhiko Sugiyama, Masao Kobayashi, Kaoru Kurisu
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence of cystic malacia in long-term survivors of pediatric brain tumors treated with high-dose cranial irradiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1997 and 2015, we treated 41 pediatric patients (26 males, 15 females; age ranging from 3.3 to 15.7 years, median 9-year-old) of pediatric brain tumors [17 medulloblastomas, 7 primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), 3 pineoblastomas, 6 non-germinomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCT), 8 gliomas (including 4 ependymomas, 1 anaplastic astrocytoma, 1 oligodendroglioma, 1 pilocytic astrocytoma, 1 astroblastoma)] with high-dose craniospinal irradiation...
April 4, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374184/brain-cancer-stem-cells-in-adults-and-children-cell-biology-and-therapeutic-implications
#17
REVIEW
Tamara J Abou-Antoun, James S Hale, Justin D Lathia, Stephen M Dombrowski
Brain tumors represent some of the most malignant cancers in both children and adults. Current treatment options target the majority of tumor cells but do not adequately target self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs have been reported to resist the most aggressive radiation and chemotherapies, and give rise to recurrent, treatment-resistant secondary malignancies. With advancing technologies, we now have a better understanding of the genetic, epigenetic and molecular signatures and microenvironmental influences which are useful in distinguishing between distinctly different tumor subtypes...
April 3, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360821/combined-ephb2-receptor-knockdown-with-radiation-decreases-cell-viability-and-invasion-in-medulloblastoma
#18
Shilpa Bhatia, Kellen Hirsch, Sanjana Bukkapatnam, Nimrah A Baig, Ayman Oweida, Anastacia Griego, Dylan Calame, Jaspreet Sharma, Andrew Donson, Nicholas Foreman, Christopher Albanese, Sujatha Venkataraman, Rajeev Vibhakar, Sana D Karam
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is one of the most common types of pediatric brain tumor characterized by the subpopulation of cells that exhibit high invasive potential and radioresistant properties. In addition, dysregulated function and signaling by Eph family of receptors have been shown to impart pro-tumorigenic characteristics in this brain malignancy. In the current study, we investigated whether EphB2 knockdown in combination with radiation can alter invasiveness and decrease medulloblastoma tumor growth or viability in vitro...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360212/correlation-of-18-f-fdg-pet-and-mr-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-adc-histogram-metrics-with-survival-in-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma-a-report-from-the-pediatric-brain-tumor-consortium
#19
Katherine Zukotynski, Sridhar Vajapeyam, Frederic H Fahey, Mehmet Kocak, Douglas Brown, Kelsey Ricci, Arzu Onar-Thomas, Maryam Fouladi, Tina Young Poussaint
Rationale: To describe baseline (18)F-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) voxel characteristics in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) and to correlate these metrics with baseline magnetic resonance (MR) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram metrics, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Methods: Baseline brain FDG-PET and MR scans were obtained in 33 children from Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC) clinical DIPG trials. FDG-PET, post-gadolinium (PG) and ADC images were registered to baseline fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346057/the-role-of-germline-variants-in-chemotherapy-outcome-in-brain-tumors-a-systematic-review-of-pharmacogenetic-studies
#20
Marije J Klumpers, Marieke Jh Coenen, Corrie Em Gidding, D Maroeska Wm Te Loo
AIM: This systematic review provides an overview of publications concerning pharmacogenetic research in pediatric patients with medulloblastoma and low-grade glioma. MATERIALS & METHODS: Three electronic databases searches including a manual search were performed to identify studies investigating potential interactions between germline variants and chemotherapy efficacy and toxicity. RESULTS: Out of 3570 citations, 21 studies were included...
March 27, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
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