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Pediatric brain tumors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909286/three-cases-of-levodopa-resistant-parkinsonism-after-radiation-therapy
#1
Raja Mehanna, Joohi Jimenez-Shahed, Ilia Itin
BACKGROUND Unequivocal brain radiation-induced parkinsonism has so far been reported in only in two pediatric patients. However, with the rising incidence rates for brain tumors in industrialized countries and the consequential increased exposure to cranial radiotherapy, clinicians might become more exposed to this entity. CASE REPORT Three patients were treated for intraparenchymal brain tumor with resection, chemotherapy, and whole brain radiation. One patient developed leukoencephalopathy and parkinsonism within one year of treatment, one developed it seven years after treatment completion, and one developed dementia, parkinsonism and cerebral infracts 40 years after whole brain radiation...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899404/tapping-big-data-to-help-little-patients
#2
(no author information available yet)
Through a large-scale tumor-sequencing effort for pediatric brain cancer, researchers hope to bring personalized care to young patients.
November 29, 2016: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893452/confounding-of-the-association-between-radiation-exposure-from-ct-scans-and-risk-of-leukemia-and-brain-tumors-by-cancer-susceptibility-syndromes
#3
Johanna M Meulepas, Cécile M Ronckers, Johannes Merks, Michel E Weijerman, Jay H Lubin, Michael Hauptmann
Recent studies linking radiation exposure from pediatric computed tomography (CT) to increased risks of leukemia and brain tumors lacked data to control for cancer susceptibility syndromes (CSS). These syndromes might be confounders because they are associated with an increased cancer risk and may increase the likelihood of pediatric CT scans. We identify CSS predisposing to leukemia and brain tumors through a systematic literature search and summarize prevalence and risk. Since empirical evidence is lacking in published literature on patterns of CT use for most types of CSS, we estimate confounding bias of relative risks (RR) for categories of radiation exposure based on expert opinion about patterns of CT scans among CSS patients...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893285/recent-advances-in-subtyping-tumors-of-the-central-nervous-system-using-molecular-data
#4
Jens Schittenhelm
Primary brain tumors account for substantial morbidity and mortality. They often infiltrate the brain diffusely, continue growing, and cause adverse events, such as headaches, seizures, and neurological deficits. The classification of primary brain tumors, based for decades on histology, has been fundamentally changed by the World Health Organization in 2016 by incorporation of molecular data. Areas covered: Literature from glioblastomas, high- and low-grade astrocytic, oligodendroglial, glioneuronal and ependymal tumors from the last five years were reviewed...
November 28, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889028/pediatric-brain-tumors-update-imaging-characterization-of-pediatric-brain-tumors-in-the-central-nervous-system-including-findings-on-advanced-mr-imaging-techniques
#5
EDITORIAL
Lara A Brandão
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889027/pediatric-brain-tumors
#6
EDITORIAL
Suresh K Mukherji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889026/imaging-of-the-sella-and-parasellar-region-in-the-pediatric-population
#7
REVIEW
Daniel P Seeburg, Marjolein H G Dremmen, Thierry A G M Huisman
Masses in the sella and parasellar region comprise about 10% of all pediatric brain tumors but type and frequency differs from those in adults. Imaging is critical for diagnosis and characterization of these lesions. By assessing the site of origin, signal and contrast enhancement characteristics, and the presence or absence of characteristic patterns, differential diagnosis can narrow the possibilities. The clinical presentation is often characteristic for lesion type and should be considered. This article summarizes the characteristic imaging features of the most frequent pediatric tumors and tumor-mimicking lesions in children in this region...
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889023/supratentorial-tumors-in-pediatric-patients
#8
REVIEW
Carlos Zamora, Thierry A G M Huisman, Izlem Izbudak
The breadth of tumors that can arise in the supratentorial brain in children is extensive. With the exception of those that result in seizures and the highly malignant histologies, supratentorial tumors may come to medical attention later compared with infratentorial tumors, as they are less commonly associated with ventricular obstruction. This article presents an overview of the neuroimaging characteristics of these entities, with particular attention to relevant features that may aid in narrowing the differential diagnosis, including correlation with demographics and clinical presentation...
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889022/advanced-mr-imaging-in-pediatric-brain-tumors-clinical-applications
#9
REVIEW
Maarten Lequin, Jeroen Hendrikse
Advanced MR imaging techniques, such as spectroscopy, perfusion, diffusion, and functional imaging, have improved the diagnosis of brain tumors in children and also play an important role in defining surgical as well as therapeutic responses in these patients. In addition to the anatomic or structural information gained with conventional MR imaging sequences, advanced MR imaging techniques also provide physiologic information about tumor morphology, metabolism, and hemodynamics. This article reviews the physiology, techniques, and clinical applications of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, perfusion MR imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and functional MR imaging in the setting of neuro-oncology...
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889021/neuroimaging-of-peptide-based-vaccine-therapy-in-pediatric-brain-tumors-initial-experience
#10
REVIEW
Andre D Furtado, Rafael Ceschin, Stefan Blüml, Gary Mason, Regina I Jakacki, Hideho Okada, Ian F Pollack, Ashok Panigrahy
The potential benefits of peptide-based immunotherapy for pediatric brain tumors are under investigation. Treatment-related heterogeneity has resulted in radiographic challenges, including pseudoprogression. Conventional MR imaging has limitations in assessment of different forms of treatment-related heterogeneity, particularly regarding distinguishing true tumor progression from efficacious treatment responses. Advanced neuroimaging techniques, including diffusion magnetic resonance (MR), perfusion MR, and MR spectroscopy, may add value in the assessment of treatment-related heterogeneity...
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889020/tumor-and-tumorlike-masses-in-pediatric-patients-that-involve-multiple-spaces
#11
REVIEW
Thangamadhan Bosemani, Andrea Poretti
There are several tumors and tumorlike masses involving multiple spaces in the pediatric brain. Accurate diagnosis of tumors and distinguishing them from tumorlike masses is an important aspect in the diagnostic workup and plays a key role for management and prognosis. Neuroimaging plays an important role in (1) identification of a brain mass, (2) determining its location, (3) demonstrating involvement of a single space versus multiple spaces, and (4) distinguishing a tumor from tumorlike masses.
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889018/posterior-fossa-tumors
#12
REVIEW
Lara A Brandão, Tina Young Poussaint
Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of death from solid tumors in childhood. The most common posterior fossa tumors in children are medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymoma, and brainstem glioma. Location, and imaging findings on computed tomography (CT) and conventional MR (cMR) imaging may provide important clues to the most likely diagnosis. Moreover, information obtained from advanced MR imaging techniques increase diagnostic confidence and help distinguish between different histologic tumor types...
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878779/total-estimated-effective-doses-from-radiologic-imaging-modalities-of-children-with-cancer-a-single-center-experience
#13
Derya Özyörük, Suna Emir, Hacı Ahmet Demir, Gülşah Bayram Kabaçam, Bahattin Tunç
BACKGROUND: Recently, awareness of the cumulative radiation exposure for pediatric oncology patients has been increasing, together with increased survival rates and longer life expectancy. The aim of our study was to quantify the amount of ionising radiation from imaging modalities of pediatric oncology patients. METHODS: Eighty-eight patients who were diagnosed with childhood cancer and followed up for 5 years between 2004-2014 in our center were included in the study...
November 23, 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876089/rapid-onset-obesity-hypoventilation-hypothalamic-dysfunction-autonomic-dysregulation-and-neuroendocrine-tumor-syndrome-with-a-homogenous-enlargement-of-the-pituitary-gland-a-case-report
#14
Lama Aljabban, Lina Kassab, Nour Alhuda Bakoura, Mohammad Fayez Alsalka, Ismaeil Maksoud
BACKGROUND: Rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome is a rare pediatric disorder with a variable sequence of clinical presentations, undefined etiology, and high risk of mortality. Our patient presented an unusual course of the disease accompanied by a homogenous mild enlargement of her pituitary gland with an intact pituitary-endocrine axis which, to the best of our knowledge, represents a new finding in rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction, and autonomic dysregulation syndrome...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866682/-adolescent-and-young-adults-ayas-brain-tumor-national-web-conference-on-behalf-of-anocef-go-aja-and-sfce-societies
#15
Didier Frappaz, Marie-Pierre Sunyach, Emilie Le Rhun, Marie Blonski, Valérie Laurence, Alice Bonneville Levard, Hugues Loiseau, David Meyronnet, Arnaud Callies, F Laigle-Donadey, Cecile Faure Conter
: The skills of adult versus pediatric neuro-oncologists are not completely similar though additive. Because the tumors and their protocols are different and the tolerance and expected sequelae are specific. Multidisciplinary meetings including adult and pediatric neuro-oncologists are warranted to share expertise. Since 2008, a weekly national web based conference was held in France. Any patient with the following criteria could be discussed: Adolescent and Young Adults aged between 15 and 25 years, and any adult with a pediatric type pathology, including medulloblastoma, germ cell tumors, embryonic tumors, ependymoma, pilocytic astrocytoma...
November 17, 2016: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866569/computed-tomography-in-germany
#16
Roman Pokora, Lucian Krille, Steffen Dreger, Choonsik Lee, Christian Günster, Hajo Zeeb, Maria Blettner
BACKGROUND: In 2001, calculations in models based on atomic bomb survivors indicated that children exposed to ionizing radiation by computed tomography (CT) would be expected to have an increased risk of cancer. This led to the issuance of new recommendations in Germany concerning CT in children. METHODS: We analyzed data from the German pediatric CT cohort study together with data on children from a large general statutory health insurance provider (AOK) in order to characterize the secular trend in the use of CT in Germany...
October 28, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864705/the-clinical-and-financial-impact-of-a-pediatric-surgical-neuro-oncology-clinical-trial
#17
Eric M Thompson, Sridharan Gururangan, Gerald Grant, Duane Mitchell, John H Sampson
Pediatric surgical trials are rare and the impact of such trials on the institutions in which they are conducted is unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical and financial impact of The Re-MATCH trial, a Phase I clinical trial requiring the biopsy or resection of recurrent medulloblastoma or PNET for enrollment. Inpatient financial and clinical volume information was collected during the 3 years of trial enrollment and the years preceding and following it. The primary endpoints were the difference in direct contribution margin (DCM), or net gain, of study and non-study patients and the difference in surgical volume during the study and non-study periods...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858578/severe-cerebral-edema-following-nivolumab-treatment-for-pediatric-glioblastoma-case-report
#18
Xiao Zhu, Michael M McDowell, William C Newman, Gary E Mason, Stephanie Greene, Mandeep S Tamber
Nivolumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) currently undergoing Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of glioblastoma. The authors present the case of a 10-year-old girl with glioblastoma treated with nivolumab under compassionate-use guidelines. After the first dose of nivolumab the patient developed hemiparesis, cerebral edema, and significant midline shift due to severe tumor necrosis. She was managed using intravenous dexamethasone and discharged on a dexamethasone taper. The patient's condition rapidly deteriorated after the second dose of nivolumab, demonstrating hemiplegia, seizures, and eventually unresponsiveness with a fixed and dilated left pupil...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836863/checkpoint-proteins-in-pediatric-brain-and-extracranial-solid-tumors-opportunities-for-immunotherapy
#19
Eric K Ring, James M Markert, G Yancey Gillespie, Gregory K Friedman
Pediatric brain and extracranial solid tumors are a diverse group of malignancies that represent almost half of pediatric cancers. Standard therapy includes various combinations of surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation, which can be very harmful to a developing child, and survivors carry a substantial burden of long term morbidities. While these therapies have improved survival rates for children with solid tumors, outcomes still remain extremely poor for subsets of patients. Recently, immunosuppressive checkpoint molecules that negatively regulate immune cell function have been described...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834580/nkg2d-ligand-expression-in-pediatric-brain-tumors
#20
Kristen Haberthur, Kathryn Brennan, Virginia Hoglund, Stephanie Balcaitis, Harrison Chinn, Amira Davis, Shannon Kreuser, Conrad Winter, Sarah E S Leary, Gail H Deutsch, Richard G Ellenbogen, Courtney A Crane
Adult brain tumors establish an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment as a modality of immune escape, with several immunotherapies designed to overcome this barrier. However, the relationship between tumor cells and immune cells in pediatric brain tumor patients is not as well-defined. In this study, we sought to determine whether the model of immune escape observed in adult brain tumors is reflected in patients with pediatric brain tumors by evaluating NKG2D ligand expression on tissue microarrays created from patients with a variety of childhood brain tumor diagnoses, and infiltration of Natural Killer and myeloid cells...
November 11, 2016: Cancer Biology & Therapy
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