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Pediatric brain tumors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717727/childhood-cancer-mortality-in-india-direct-estimates-from-a-nationally-representative-survey-of-childhood-deaths
#1
Sumit Gupta, Shaun K Morris, Wilson Suraweera, Lukasz Aleksandrowicz, Rajesh Dikshit, Prabhat Jha
PURPOSE: Although most children with cancer live in low- and middle-income countries, measurements of childhood cancer burden in such countries have been restricted to incidence rates from a few subnational cancer registries and mortality rates from vital statistics. We aimed to provide alternative burden estimates by using nationally representative longitudinal survey-derived mortality rates. METHODS: We examined cancer deaths in childhood (1 month to 14 years of age) in the Million Death Study, a cohort of > 27,000 pediatric deaths in India on the basis of enhanced verbal autopsies...
December 2016: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716813/inhibition-of-heparanase-in-pediatric-brain-tumor-cells-attenuates-their-proliferation-invasive-capacity-and-in-vivo-tumor-growth
#2
Argyris Spyrou, Soumi Kundu, Lulu Haseeb, Di Yu, Tommie Olofsson, Keith Dredge, Edward Hammond, Uri Barash, Israel Vlodavsky, Karin Forsberg-Nilsson
Curative therapy for medulloblastoma and other pediatric embryonal brain tumors has improved, but the outcome still remains poor and current treatment causes long-term complications. Malignant brain tumors infiltrate the healthy brain tissue and, thus despite resection, cells that have already migrated cause rapid tumor regrowth. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), major components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), modulate the activities of a variety of proteins. The major enzyme that degrades HS, heparanase (HPSE), is an important regulator of the ECM...
July 17, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696044/practice-patterns-of-palliative-radiation-therapy-in-pediatric-oncology-patients-in-an-international-pediatric-research-consortium
#3
Avani Dholakia Rao, Qinyu Chen, Ralph P Ermoian, Sara R Alcorn, Maria Luisa S Figueiredo, Michael J Chen, Karin Dieckmann, Shannon M MacDonald, Matthew M Ladra, Daria Kobyzeva, Alexey V Nechesnyuk, Kristina Nilsson, Eric C Ford, Brian A Winey, Rosangela C Villar, Stephanie A Terezakis
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The practice of palliative radiation therapy (RT) is based on extrapolation from adult literature. We evaluated patterns of pediatric palliative RT to describe regimens used to identify opportunity for future pediatric-specific clinical trials. DESIGN/METHODS: Six international institutions with pediatric expertise completed a 122-item survey evaluating patterns of palliative RT for patients ≤21 years old from 2010 to 2015. Two institutions use proton RT...
July 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693404/the-association-between-the-behavior-rating-inventory-of-executive-functioning-and-cognitive-testing-in-children-diagnosed-with-a-brain-tumor
#4
M de Vries, M A de Ruiter, K J Oostrom, A Y N Schouten-Van Meeteren, H Maurice-Stam, J Oosterlaan, M A Grootenhuis
Pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS) suffer from cognitive late effects, such as deteriorating executive functioning (EF). We explored the suitability of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) to screen for these late effects. We assessed the relationship between the BRIEF and EF tasks, and between the BRIEF-Parent and BRIEF-Teacher, and we explored the clinical utility. Eighty-two PBTS (8-18 years) were assessed with EF tasks measuring attention, cognitive flexibility, inhibition, visual-, and working memory (WM), and with the BRIEF-Parent and BRIEF-Teacher...
July 10, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689260/extended-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-with-two-compartment-and-anomalous-diffusion-models-for-differentiation-of-low-grade-and-high-grade-brain-tumors-in-pediatric-patients
#5
Delilah Burrowes, Jason R Fangusaro, Paige C Nelson, Bin Zhang, Nitin R Wadhwani, Michael J Rozenfeld, Jie Deng
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine advanced diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) models for differentiation of low- and high-grade tumors in the diagnosis of pediatric brain neoplasms. METHODS: Sixty-two pediatric patients with various types and grades of brain tumors were evaluated in a retrospective study. Tumor type and grade were classified using the World Health Organization classification (WHO I-IV) and confirmed by pathological analysis...
July 8, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689249/caregiver-perspectives-on-the-social-competence-of-pediatric-brain-tumor-survivors
#6
Matthew C Hocking, Lauren F Quast, Cole Brodsky, Janet A Deatrick
ᅟ: Pediatric brain tumor survivors are at risk for significant difficulties related to social competence. Little research has examined factors that contribute to survivor social problems. PURPOSE: The current study is grounded in a model of social competence for youth with brain disorder and used qualitative and quantitative methods to obtain caregiver perspectives on survivor social competence and identify pertinent risk and resistance factors. METHODS: The study occurred in two phases, including focus groups with 36 caregivers of 24 survivors and confirmatory interviews with 12 caregivers of 12 survivors...
July 8, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681244/survival-rates-and-prognostic-predictors-of-high-grade-brain-stem-gliomas-in-childhood-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Hadeel Hassan, Anne Pinches, Susan V Picton, Robert S Phillips
Diagnosis of a pediatric high grade brain stem glioma is devastating with dismal outcomes. This systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to determine the survival rates and assess potential prognostic factors including selected interventions. Studies included involved pediatric participants with high grade brain stem gliomas diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging or biopsy reporting overall survival rates. Meta-analysis was undertaken using a binomial random effects model. Sixty-five studies (2336 participants) were included...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675683/pediatric-cancer-pathology-review-from-a-single-institution-neuropathology-expert-opinion-is-essential-for-accurate-diagnosis-of-pediatric-brain-tumors
#8
Zeina Merabi, Fouad Boulos, Teresa Santiago, Jesse Jenkins, Miguel Abboud, Samar Muwakkit, Nidale Tarek, Ghazi Zaatari, Sima Jeha, Hassan El-Solh, Raya Saab
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Second pathology review has been reported to improve accuracy in oncologic diagnoses, including pediatric malignancies. We assessed the impact of second review on the diagnosis of pediatric malignancies at a tertiary care referral center in Beirut, Lebanon. METHODS: Pathology reports of patients treated at the Children's Cancer Institute in Lebanon were retrospectively reviewed for the period 2008-2016 and compared with same samples' diagnoses at St...
July 4, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670142/prevalence-of-hypercalcemia-of-malignancy-among-pediatric-cancer-patients-in-the-uk-clinical-practice-research-datalink-database
#9
Susan Jick, Lin Li, Victor M Gastanaga, Alexander Liede, Rohini K Hernandez
BACKGROUND: The reported proportion of cancer patients who experience hypercalcemia of malignancy (HCM) is low, particularly in the pediatric population, ranging between <1% and 5%. HCM can be observed with any type of tumor in children and occurs most commonly with leukemia. While HCM is a potentially fatal condition, the prevalence of HCM is not well understood in pediatric cancer patients. METHODS: Using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we identified pediatric cancer patients with recorded corrected serum calcium (CSC) from 2003 through 2014...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667671/smaller-hippocampal-subfield-volumes-predict-verbal-associative-memory-in-pediatric-brain-tumor-survivors
#10
Alexandra L Decker, Kamila U Szulc, Eric Bouffet, Suzanne Laughlin, M Mallar Chakravarty, Jovanka Skocic, Cynthia B de Medeiros, Donald J Mabbott
The developing hippocampus is highly sensitive to chemotherapy and cranial radiation treatments for pediatric cancers, yet little is known about the effects that cancer treatments have on specific hippocampal subfields. Here, we examined hippocampal subfield volumes in twenty-nine pediatric brain tumor survivors treated with cranial radiation and chemotherapy, and thirty healthy developing children and adolescents. We also examined associations between hippocampal subfield volumes and short-term verbal memory...
July 1, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655455/attention-processing-speed-and-executive-functioning-in-pediatric-brain-tumor-survivors-treated-with-proton-beam-radiation-therapy
#11
Tanya N Antonini, M Douglas Ris, David R Grosshans, Anita Mahajan, M Fatih Okcu, Murali Chintagumpala, Arnold Paulino, Amanda E Child, Jessica Orobio, Heather H Stancel, Lisa S Kahalley
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study examines attention, processing speed, and executive functioning in pediatric brain tumor survivors treated with proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined 39 survivors (age 6-19years) who were 3.61years post-PBRT on average. Craniospinal (CSI; n=21) and focal (n=18) subgroups were analyzed. Attention, processing speed, and executive functioning scores were compared to population norms, and clinical/demographic risk factors were examined...
June 24, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649600/oncolytic-herpes-virus-rrp450-shows-efficacy-in-orthotopic-xenograft-group-3-4-medulloblastomas-and-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumors
#12
Adam W Studebaker, Brian J Hutzen, Christopher R Pierson, Kellie B Haworth, Timothy P Cripe, Eric M Jackson, Jeffrey R Leonard
Pediatric brain tumors including medulloblastoma and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor are associated with significant mortality and treatment-associated morbidity. While medulloblastoma tumors within molecular subgroups 3 and 4 have a propensity to metastasize, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors frequently afflict a very young patient population. Adjuvant treatment options for children suffering with these tumors are not only sub-optimal but also associated with many neurocognitive obstacles. A potentially novel treatment approach is oncolytic virotherapy, a developing therapeutic platform currently in early-phase clinical trials for pediatric brain tumors and recently US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved to treat melanoma in adults...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647700/molecular-proteomic-characterization-of-a-pediatric-medulloblastoma-xenograft
#13
George T Tsangaris, Konstantinos Dimas, Angeliki Malamou, Angeliki Katsafadou, Chrissa Papathanasiou, Dimitrios J Stravopodis, Constantinos E Vorgias, Maria Gazouli, Athanasios K Anagnostopoulos
BACKGROUND/AIM: Medulloblastoma (MBL), an archetypal primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cerebellum, is the most common pediatric central nervous system malignancy representing approximately 20% of all childhood brain tumors. Herein, we report on a new xenotransplantable tumor cell line, derived from a 6-year-old female patient with cerebellar medulloblastoma, and the completele proteome molecular characterization of subsequent tumors from MBL xenotrasplanted mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tumors were grown in nude mice as subcutaneous xenografts (MBLX) composed of small round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and scant cytoplasm...
July 2017: Cancer Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640707/response-assessment-in-neuro-oncology-clinical-trials
#14
Patrick Y Wen, Susan M Chang, Martin J Van den Bent, Michael A Vogelbaum, David R Macdonald, Eudocia Q Lee
Development of novel therapies for CNS tumors requires reliable assessment of response and progression. This requirement has been particularly challenging in neuro-oncology for which contrast enhancement serves as an imperfect surrogate for tumor volume and is influenced by agents that affect vascular permeability, such as antiangiogenic therapies. In addition, most tumors have a nonenhancing component that can be difficult to accurately quantify. To improve the response assessment in neuro-oncology and to standardize the criteria that are used for different CNS tumors, the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group was established...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640705/genomic-analysis-of-childhood-brain-tumors-methods-for-genome-wide-discovery-and-precision-medicine-become-mainstream
#15
Stephen C Mack, Paul A Northcott
Recent breakthroughs in next-generation sequencing technology and complementary genomic platforms have transformed our capacity to interrogate the molecular landscapes of human cancers, including childhood brain tumors. Numerous high-throughput genomic studies have been reported for the major histologic brain tumor entities diagnosed in children, including interrogations at the level of the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome, many of which have yielded essential new insights into disease biology. The nature of these discoveries has been largely platform dependent, exemplifying the usefulness of applying different genomic and computational strategies, or integrative approaches, to address specific biologic and/or clinical questions...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640695/gadolinium-brain-deposition-after-macrocyclic-gadolinium-administration-a-pediatric-case-control-study
#16
Daniel Tibussek, Christin Rademacher, Julian Caspers, Bernd Turowski, Jörg Schaper, Gerald Antoch, Dirk Klee
Purpose To determine whether signal intensity (SI) in T1 sequences as a potential indicator of gadolinium deposition increases after repeated administration of the macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) gadoteridol and gadoterate meglumine in a pediatric cohort. Materials and Methods This retrospective case-control study of children with brain tumors who underwent nine or more contrast material-enhanced brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies from 2008 to 2015 was approved by the local ethics board...
June 21, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626255/underlying-cause-of-death-recorded-during-2013-to-2015-at-a-tertiary-general-hospital-in-vientiane-capital-lao-pdr
#17
Bounfeng Phoummalaysith, Viengsakhone Louangpradith, Tavanh Manivon, Bounxou Keohavong, Eiko Yamamoto, Nobuyuki Hamajima
In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), the cause of death is not registered in death reports. As a result, the government cannot produce official reports that show mortality according to cause of death. This study aimed to report the underlying cause of death in a tertiary general hospital (Mittaphab Hospital) in Vientiane capital. Mittaphab hospital is a governmental teaching hospital with 300 beds for inpatient services specialized in orthopedics, neurology, and hemodialysis. Since a children hospital exists beside Mittaphab Hospital, severe pediatric cases are referred to the child hospital...
February 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625338/acute-diplopia-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department-a-cohort-multicenter-italian-study
#18
Umberto Raucci, Pasquale Parisi, Nicola Vanacore, Francesco La Penna, Valentina Ferro, Lucia Calistri, Claudia Bondone, Fabio Midulla, Agnese Suppiej, Raffaele Falsaperla, Duccio Maria Cordelli, Antonella Palmieri, Alberto Verrotti, Sabrina Becciani, Sonia Aguzzi, Mario Mastrangelo, Federica Pelizza, Filippo Greco, Giulia Carbonari, Ramona Tallone, Gabriella Bottone, Italo Trenta, Stefano Masi, Maria Pia Villa, Antonino Reale
BACKGROUND: Acute diplopia (AD) is an uncommon and distressing symptom of numerous ocular and neurological conditions, with potentially serious sequelaes. No data are present in pediatrics on the presentation and management of AD. AIM: This study investigated characteristics, etiology and health care utilization of the pediatric population with AD accessed to pediatric Emergency Departments (ED), trying to identify "red flags" associated with potentially life-threatening (LT) conditions...
June 3, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621573/update-on-the-diagnostic-value-and-safety-of-stereotactic-biopsy-for-pediatric-brainstem-tumors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-735-cases
#19
Christina Hamisch, Philipp Kickingereder, Matthias Fischer, Thorsten Simon, Maximilian I Ruge
OBJECTIVE Recent studies have shed light on the molecular makeup of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas and led to the identification of potential treatment targets for these lesions, which account for the majority of pediatric brainstem tumors (pedBSTs). Therefore, stereotactic biopsy-driven molecular characterization of pedBSTs may become an important prerequisite for the management of these fatal brain tumors. The authors conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis to precisely determine the safety and diagnostic success of stereotactic biopsy of pedBSTs...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620009/recommendations-for-cancer-surveillance-in-individuals-with-rasopathies-and-other-rare-genetic-conditions-with-increased-cancer-risk
#20
REVIEW
Anita Villani, Mary-Louise C Greer, Jennifer M Kalish, Akira Nakagawara, Katherine L Nathanson, Kristian W Pajtler, Stefan M Pfister, Michael F Walsh, Jonathan D Wasserman, Kristin Zelley, Christian P Kratz
In October 2016, the American Association for Cancer Research held a meeting of international childhood cancer predisposition syndrome experts to evaluate the current knowledge of these syndromes and to propose consensus surveillance recommendations. Herein, we summarize clinical and genetic aspects of RASopathies and Sotos, Weaver, Rubinstein-Taybi, Schinzel-Giedion, and NKX2-1 syndromes as well as specific metabolic disorders known to be associated with increased childhood cancer risk. In addition, the expert panel reviewed whether sufficient data exist to make a recommendation that all patients with these disorders be offered cancer surveillance...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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