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legislations and policies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774443/science-based-approach-for-credible-accounting-of-mitigation-in-managed-forests
#1
Giacomo Grassi, Roberto Pilli, Jo House, Sandro Federici, Werner A Kurz
BACKGROUND: The credibility and effectiveness of country climate targets under the Paris Agreement requires that, in all greenhouse gas (GHG) sectors, the accounted mitigation outcomes reflect genuine deviations from the type and magnitude of activities generating emissions in the base year or baseline. This is challenging for the forestry sector, as the future net emissions can change irrespective of actual management activities, because of age-related stand dynamics resulting from past management and natural disturbances...
May 17, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766700/health-policy-programs-realised-in-poland-in-2016-2017
#2
Patrycja Kurowska, Anna Królak, Wojciech Giermaziak
Background: Health Policy Program (Program Polityki Zdrowotnej – PPZ) is a state policy tool for engaging local government units into the mechanism of granting provision of health services. Authors show areas in which self-governments most often took preventive health care actions and describe legislative changes in the Act on provision of health services. Objective: The aim of the article is to quantitative and qualitative statement of PPZ prepared in Poland in 2016 and 2017, as well as presenting changing legal situation in the scope of evaluation of these projects...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761264/concise-research-report-the-future-of-medicaid-state-legislator-views-on-policy-waivers
#3
Jane M Zhu, Manik Chhabra, David Grande
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757880/leveraging-health-care-reform-to-accelerate-nurse-practitioner-full-practice-authority
#4
Heather M Brom, Pamela J Salsberry, Margaret Clark Graham
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Since development of the nurse practitioner (NP) role, NPs have been advocating for policy allowing them to practice to the full extent of their training. The aim of this research was to determine whether passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) had an impact on expansion of NPs' scope of practice. METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study of NPs' scope of practice legislation from 1994 to 2016 using regulatory theory. Data sources included annual reports on NP legislation and state-level legislative and media coverage...
March 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757124/perception-of-livestock-ecosystem-services-in-grazing-areas
#5
G Leroy, I Hoffmann, T From, S J Hiemstra, G Gandini
This study investigates how the ecosystem services (ES) linked to livestock grazing are perceived across countries. A total of 82 case studies collected from 42 countries via survey (53.7% cases from Europe and 46.3% from outside of Europe) have been analysed through a multivariate approach. In all, 18 non-provisioning ES were considered. Overall, the reported impacts of livestock grazing on the different ES were much more positive than negative. Notably, a large proportion of respondents reported either positive or very positive impacts for some cultural ES, namely cultural, historic and natural heritage (84%), knowledge systems and educational values (77%), landscape values (74%), and for some supporting and regulating ES, namely habitat provision (66%), nutrient cycling (65%), and bush encroachment/fire control (66%)...
May 14, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757081/-the-great-fiasco-of-the-1948-presidential-election-polls-status-recognition-and-norms-conflict-in-social-science
#6
Dominic Lusinchi
All three 'scientific' pollsters (Crossley, Gallup and Roper) wrongly predicted incumbent President Harry Truman's defeat in the 1948 presidential election, and thus faced a potentially serious legitimacy crisis. This 'fiasco' occurred at a most inopportune time. Social science was embroiled in a policy debate taking place in the halls of Congress. It was fighting a losing battle to be included, along with the natural sciences, in the National Science Foundation, for which legislation was being drafted. Faced with the failure of the polls, the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) intervened quickly to prevent social science's adversaries from using this event to degrade further its status...
May 14, 2018: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752173/associations-of-coexisting-conditions-with-healthcare-spending-for-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#7
Jay G Berry, Laurie Glader, Richard D Stevenson, Fareesa Hasan, Charis Crofton, Kinza Hussain, Matt Hall
OBJECTIVE: To determine which coexisting conditions have the strongest associations with healthcare use and spending among children with cerebral palsy (CP). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of 16 695 children ages 0-18 years with CP - identified with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes - using Medicaid from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013 from 10 states in the Truven MarketScan Medicaid Database. Using generalized linear models, we assessed which coexisting conditions (including medical technology) identified with Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Chronic Condition Indicators had the strongest associations with total healthcare spending across the healthcare continuum...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748905/diabetes-care-in-the-digital-era-a-synoptic-overview
#8
REVIEW
Farhad Fatehi, Anish Menon, Dominique Bird
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetes care is undergoing a remarkable transformation by the advancements in information and communications technology (ICT). The aim of this review is to provide a general overview of various ICT-based interventions for diabetes care, challenges of their adoption, and consider future directions. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of systematic reviews have examined studies on various aspects of telemedicine and eHealth for diabetes care, but they are generally focused on one specific type of technology application for diabetes care...
May 10, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747592/qualitative-exploration-of-barriers-and-facilitators-of-dental-service-utilization-of-pregnant-women-a-triangulation-approach
#9
Hoda Bahramian, Simin Z Mohebbi, Mohammad Reza Khami, Rocio Beatriz Quinonez
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are vulnerable to a wide range of oral health conditions that could be harmful to their own health and future child. Despite the usefulness of regular dental service utilization in prevention and early detection of oral diseases, it is notably low among pregnant women. In this qualitative study, we aimed to explore barriers and facilitators influencing pregnant women's dental service utilization. METHODS: Using a triangulation approach, we included pregnant women (n = 22) from two public health centers, midwives (n = 8) and dentists (n = 12) from 12 other public centers in Tehran (Iran)...
May 10, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745287/is-current-risk-assessment-of-non-genotoxic-carcinogens-protective
#10
Hedwig M Braakhuis, Wout Slob, Evelyn D Olthof, Gerrit Wolterink, Edwin P Zwart, Eric R Gremmer, Emiel Rorije, Jan van Benthem, Ruud Woutersen, Jan Willem van der Laan, Mirjam Luijten
Non-genotoxic carcinogens (NGTXCs) do not cause direct DNA damage but induce cancer via other mechanisms. In risk assessment of chemicals and pharmaceuticals, carcinogenic risks are determined using carcinogenicity studies in rodents. With the aim to reduce animal testing, REACH legislation states that carcinogenicity studies are only allowed when specific concerns are present; risk assessment of compounds that are potentially carcinogenic by a non-genotoxic mode of action is usually based on subchronic toxicity studies...
May 10, 2018: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744945/understanding-the-development-of-a-regulated-market-approach-to-new-psychoactive-substances-nps-in-new-zealand-using-punctuated-equilibrium-theory
#11
Marta Rychert, Chris Wilkins
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The short-lived regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) in New Zealand marked a radical departure from the traditional prohibition-based approach. This paper aimed to enhance understanding of this policy change using Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET). METHODS: The analysis draws on three years of evaluative research, including interviews with key stakeholders, analysis of legislation and policy documents and academic and grey literature...
May 9, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742706/impact-of-presumed-service-connected-diagnosis-on-the-department-of-veterans-affairs-healthcare-utilization-patterns-of-vietnam-theater-veterans-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Dennis A Fried, Mangala Rajan, Chin-Lin Tseng, Drew Helmer
During the Vietnam War, the US military sprayed almost 20 million gallons of Agent Orange (AO), an herbicide contaminated with dioxin, over Vietnam. Approximately, 2.7 million US military personnel may have been exposed to AO during their deployment. Ordinarily, veterans who can demonstrate a nexus between a diagnosed condition and military service are eligible for Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) service-connected disability compensation. Vietnam Veterans have had difficulty, however, establishing a nexus between AO exposure and certain medical conditions that developed many years after the war...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735485/longitudinal-associations-of-smoke-free-policies-and-incident-cardiovascular-disease-cardia-study
#13
Stephanie L Mayne, Rachel Widome, Allison J Carroll, Pamela J Schreiner, Penny Gordon-Larsen, David R Jacobs, Kiarri N Kershaw
Background -Smoke-free legislation has been associated with lower rates of cardiovascular disease hospital admissions in ecological studies. However, prior studies lacked detailed information on individual-level factors (eg, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics) that could potentially confound associations. Our objective was to estimate associations of smoke-free policies with incident cardiovascular disease in a longitudinal cohort after controlling for sociodemographics, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and policy covariates...
May 7, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734466/research-for-leveraging-food-policy-in-universal-eating-disorder-prevention
#14
Rachel F Rodgers, Kendrin Sonneville
Policy and legislation have emerged as important levers for universal prevention efforts in the context of eating disorders. However, to date, little attention has been paid to generating research that will inform opportunities to regulate the food environment, specifically the way that food is produced and marketed. The present paper aims to lay out a framework for research that will examine (1) the ways in which food industry may influence risk for eating disorders and (2) the impact of legislative efforts on eating disorder cognitions and behaviors...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731466/-wandering-in-the-desert-the-clinch-river-breeder-reactor-debate-in-the-u-s-congress-1972-1983
#15
Michael Camp
The experimental Clinch River breeder reactor, approved by the U.S. Congress in 1970 for construction in East Tennessee, would have used plutonium instead of uranium. The project drew the ire of environmentalists who insisted that plutonium was too dangerous for commercial use, along with opponents of nuclear proliferation. Tennessee's representatives in Congress, however, desired the jobs that the project would create, and formed legislative coalitions to ensure continued appropriations for the project. Funding lasted until 1983, when fiscal conservatives, concerned about ballooning cost projections, joined with environmentalists to defund the breeder...
2018: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726942/colorado-s-new-proxy-law-allowing-physicians-to-serve-as-proxies-moving-from-statute-to-guidelines
#16
Jacqueline J Glover, Deb Bennett-Woods, Jean Abbott
In 2016, the Colorado legislature passed an amendment to Colorado's medical proxy law that established a process for the appointment of a physician to act as proxy decision maker of last resort for an unrepresented patient (Colorado HB 16-1101: Medical Decisions For Unrepresented Patients). The legislative process brought together a diverse set of stakeholders, not all of whom supported the legislation. Following passage of the statutory amendment, the Colorado Collaborative for Unrepresented Patients (CCUP), a group of advocates responsible for initiating the legislative process, coordinated a unique effort to engage these stakeholders in the creation of a set of voluntary guidelines to assist facilities and individual careproviders in the implementation of policies and procedures enabled by the statute...
2018: Journal of Clinical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724710/improving-visualization-of-female-breast-cancer-survival-estimates-analysis-using-interactive-mapping-reports
#17
Awatef Ahmed Ben Ramadan, Jeannette Jackson-Thompson, Chester Lee Schmaltz
BACKGROUND: The Missouri Cancer Registry collects population-based cancer incidence data on Missouri residents diagnosed with reportable malignant neoplasms. The Missouri Cancer Registry wanted to produce data that would be of interest to lawmakers as well as public health officials at the legislative district level on breast cancer, the most common non-skin cancer among females. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to measure and interactively visualize survival data of female breast cancer cases in the Missouri Cancer Registry...
May 3, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718943/biomonitoring-of-blood-cholinesterases-and-acylpeptide-hydrolase-activities-in-rural-inhabitants-exposed-to-pesticides-in-the-coquimbo-region-of-chile
#18
Muriel Ramírez-Santana, Cristián Farías-Gómez, Liliana Zúñiga-Venegas, Rodrigo Sandoval, Nel Roeleveld, Koos Van der Velden, Paul T J Scheepers, Floria Pancetti
In Chile, agriculture is a relevant economic activity and is concomitant with the use of pesticides to improve the yields. Acute intoxications of agricultural workers occur with some frequency and they must be reported to the surveillance system of the Ministry of Health. However the impacts of chronic and environmental pesticide exposure have been less studied. Among pesticides frequently used in Chile for insects control are organophosphates (OP) and carbamates (CB). They are inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713458/can-chiropractors-contribute-to-work-disability-prevention-through-sickness-absence-management-for-musculoskeletal-disorders-a-comparative-qualitative-case-study-in-the-scandinavian-context
#19
Mette Jensen Stochkendahl, Ole Kristoffer Larsen, Casper Glissmann Nim, Iben Axén, Julia Haraldsson, Ole Christian Kvammen, Corrie Myburgh
Background: Despite extensive publication of clinical guidelines on how to manage musculoskeletal pain and back pain in particular, these efforts have not significantly translated into decreases in work disability due to musculoskeletal pain. Previous studies have indicated a potential for better outcomes by formalized, early referral to allied healthcare providers familiar with occupational health issues. Instances where allied healthcare providers of comparable professional characteristics, but with differing practice parameters, can highlight important social and organisational strategies useful for informing policy and practice...
2018: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709621/workforce-trends-and-analysis-of-selected-pediatric-subspecialties-in-the-united-states
#20
Mary E Rimsza, Holly S Ruch-Ross, Conrad J Clemens, William B Moskowitz, Holly J Mulvey
OBJECTIVE: To update pediatric subspecialty workforce data to support evidence-based legislation and public policy decisions by replicating the American Academy of Pediatrics' 1998 Future of Pediatric Education (FOPE II) workforce survey. STUDY DESIGN: A descriptive and comparative analysis of survey responses from 9,950 US pediatric subspecialists who completed an electronic survey. RESULTS: Pediatric subspecialists are working fewer hours and spending less of their time in direct patient care than they did in 1998 but the mean hours worked differs significantly by subspecialty...
April 27, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
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