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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903958/global-approaches-to-regulating-electronic-cigarettes
#1
Ryan David Kennedy, Ayodeji Awopegba, Elaine De León, Joanna E Cohen
OBJECTIVES: Classify and describe the policy approaches used by countries to regulate e-cigarettes. METHODS: National policies regulating e-cigarettes were identified by (1) conducting web searches on Ministry of Health websites, and (2) broad web searches. The mechanisms used to regulate e-cigarettes were classified as new/amended laws, or existing laws. The policy domains identified include restrictions or prohibitions on product: sale, manufacturing, importation, distribution, use, product design including e-liquid ingredients, advertising/promotion/sponsorship, trademarks, and regulation requiring: taxation, health warning labels and child-safety standards...
November 30, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903563/leveraging-ongoing-research-to-evaluate-the-health-impacts-of-south-africa-s-salt-reduction-strategy-a-prospective-nested-cohort-within-the-who-sage-multicountry-longitudinal-study
#2
Karen Charlton, Lisa J Ware, Elias Menyanu, Richard Berko Biritwum, Nirmala Naidoo, Chiné Pieterse, Savathree Lorna Madurai, Jeannine Baumgartner, George A Asare, Elizabeth Thiele, Aletta E Schutte, Paul Kowal
INTRODUCTION: Attempting to curb the rising epidemic of hypertension, South Africa implemented legislation in June 2016 mandating maximum sodium levels in a range of manufactured foods that contribute significantly to population salt intake. This natural experiment, comparing two African countries with and without salt legislation, will provide timely information on the impact of legislative approaches addressing the food supply to improve blood pressure in African populations. This article outlines the design of this ongoing prospective nested cohort study...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895546/a-gaping-gap-smokeless-tobacco-control-in-pakistan
#3
REVIEW
Zohaib Khan
Oral cancer is second most common cancer in Pakistan and one of the major contributing factors to its high incidence is smokeless tobacco (SLT) use. 5.3% of Pakistan's youth are current SLT users. The World Health Organization requires the signatories of its "Framework Convention on Tobacco Control" to officially ban the sale of tobacco products to minors. We reviewed the Government of Pakistan's tobacco control, and related supporting policies, to assess how these address the issue of sale of SLT products to minors and found evident gaps in this regard...
2016: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884504/a-critical-examination-of-the-definition-of-psychoactive-effect-in-australian-drug-legislation
#4
Monica J Barratt, Kate Seear, Kari Lancaster
As the number of new 'psychoactive substances' detected globally has risen exponentially, the policy response of assessing and prohibiting each new substance individually has become increasingly unworkable. In an attempt to disrupt the availability of new as-yet-unscheduled substances, Ireland (2010), Poland (2011), Romania (2012), New Zealand (2013), Australia (2015) and the United Kingdom (2016) have enacted generic or blanket ban legislation that prohibits all 'psychoactive substances' that are not already regulated or belong to exempt categories...
November 21, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878539/what-s-counted-as-a-reindeer-herder-gender-and-the-adaptive-capacity-of-sami-reindeer-herding-communities-in-sweden
#5
Astri Buchanan, Maureen G Reed, Gun Lidestav
Researchers of adaptive capacity and sustainable livelihoods have frequently used social, cultural, human, economic and institutional capitals to better understand how rural and resource-dependent communities address environmental, social and economic stresses. Yet few studies have considered how men and women contribute differently to these capitals to support community resilience overall. Our research sought to understand the differential contributions of Sami men and women to the adaptive capacity of reindeer husbandry and reindeer herding communities in northern Sweden...
December 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874728/child-sexual-abuse-in-zimbabwe
#6
Fennie Mantula, Haroon Saloojee
Although child sexual abuse is a significant public health problem globally, its incidence, prevention, and management is less well described in resource-poor settings. In poorer settings prevention initiatives assume even more importance since resources for managing abused children are severely limited. This article examines the current status of policy and practice related to the prevention of child sexual abuse in Zimbabwe. It identifies implementation challenges and highlights opportunities that could be embraced to reduce CSA in Zimbabwe, based on evidence synthesized from recent work...
November 2016: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873295/colleges-and-universities-sticking-to-their-guns
#7
Jesse Perez Mendez, Lou Sabina, Jon Loffi
Firearm possession on college and university campuses remains a volatile public policy issue among policymakers, legislators, scholars, and administrators. Given the American federal governmental structure, many states have developed legislative approaches to "carry on campus" policies throughout the years that align with federal law. This study explores the diversity of state approaches and nuances of "carry on campus" throughout recent years and current state legislation under consideration. The implications of "carry on campus" legislation vary on college campuses, depending on applicable state law; however, some general dynamics apply to all...
September 2016: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871314/a-mixed-methods-systematic-review-protocol-to-examine-the-use-of-physical-restraint-with-critically-ill-adults-and-strategies-for-minimizing-their-use
#8
Louise Rose, Craig Dale, Orla M Smith, Lisa Burry, Glenn Enright, Dean Fergusson, Samir Sinha, Lesley Wiesenfeld, Tasnim Sinuff, Sangeeta Mehta
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients frequently experience severe agitation placing them at risk of harm. Physical restraint is common in intensive care units (ICUs) for clinician concerns about safety. However, physical restraint may not prevent medical device removal and has been associated with negative physical and psychological consequences. While professional society guidelines, legislation, and accreditation standards recommend physical restraint minimization, guidelines for critically ill patients are over a decade old, with recommendations that are non-specific...
November 21, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865253/perceptions-of-patients-families-physicians-and-nurses-regarding-challenges-in-cancer-disclosure-a-descriptive-qualitative-study
#9
Maryam Ehsani, Fariba Taleghani, Simin Hematti, Parvaneh Abazari
PURPOSE: The findings of numerous studies have illustrated that there is still a high proportion of cancer patients in Eastern and Middle-East countries including Iran, who are not properly informed of their disease due to the concealment atmosphere which still prevails. This descriptive qualitative study is aimed at exploring perceptions of patients, patients' family members, physicians and nurses regarding cancer disclosure challenges. METHODS: Thirty-five participants (15 patients, 6 family members, 9 physicians, and 5 nurses) were selected through purposive sampling...
December 2016: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861814/local-groundwater-withdrawal-permitting-laws-in-the-south-western-u-s-california-in-comparative-context
#10
Rebecca Louise Nelson, Debra Perrone
The Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) aims to control, for the first time in California's history, the state's significant use and depletion of groundwater. SGMA gives local agencies a high degree of discretion in relation to a new permitting power, but the discretion is a double-edged sword: agencies gain maximum flexibility to tailor their regime to local conditions, yet the statute provides no direction on appropriate components of a groundwater permitting regime. We introduce SGMA and the broader legislative context to its permitting power, and we explain the continuing common law context in which the legislation operates...
November 10, 2016: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852876/attitudes-of-primary-school-teachers-in-three-western-countries-toward-learning-disabilities
#11
Cesare Cornoldi, Agnese Capodieci, Carla Colomer Diago, Ana Miranda, Katharine G Shepherd
In recent years, teachers in Western countries have developed beliefs and attitudes related to working with students with specific learning disabilities (LD) that may be critical in shaping their educational practices with them; however, their beliefs and attitudes differ across political and geographical contexts and may be influenced by specific contextual circumstances and national legislation. This study examines these issues by comparing beliefs and attitudes among 557 primary school teachers from specific areas of three countries (Italy, Spain, and the United States)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852317/the-relationship-between-the-maria-da-penha-law-and-intimate-partner-violence-in-two-brazilian-states
#12
Mariana V Gattegno, Jasmine D Wilkins, Dabney P Evans
BACKGROUND: Globally, inequality between men and women manifests in a variety of ways. In particular, gender inequality increases the risk of perpetration of violence against women (VAW), especially intimate partner violence (IPV), by males. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 35 % of women have experienced physical, psychological and/or sexual IPV at least once in their lives, making IPV unacceptably common. In 2006, the Maria da Penha Law on Domestic and Family Violence, became the first federal law to regulate VAW and punish perpetrators in Brazil...
November 17, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849455/the-extremity-trauma-and-amputation-center-of-excellence-overview-of-the-research-and-surveillance-division
#13
Christopher A Rábago, Mary Clouser, Christopher L Dearth, Shawn Farrokhi, Michael R Galarneau, M Jason Highsmith, Jason M Wilken, Marilynn P Wyatt, Owen T Hill
Congress authorized creation of the Extremity Trauma and Amputation Center of Excellence (EACE) as part of the 2009 National Defense Authorization Act. The legislation mandated the Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to implement a comprehensive plan and strategy for the mitigation, treatment, and rehabilitation of traumatic extremity injuries and amputation. The EACE also was tasked with conducting clinically relevant research, fostering collaborations, and building partnerships across multidisciplinary international, federal, and academic networks to optimize the quality of life of service members and veterans who have sustained extremity trauma or amputations...
November 2016: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836014/is-the-un-convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities-impacting-mental-health-laws-and-policies-in-high-income-countries-a-case-study-of-implementation-in-canada
#14
EDITORIAL
Steven J Hoffman, Lathika Sritharan, Ali Tejpar
BACKGROUND: Persons with psychosocial disabilities face disparate access to healthcare and social services worldwide, along with systemic discrimination, structural inequalities, and widespread human rights abuses. Accordingly, many people have looked to international human rights law to help address mental health challenges. On December 13, 2006, the United Nations formally adopted the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) - the first human rights treaty of the 21st century and the fastest ever negotiated...
November 11, 2016: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818131/threats-to-reproductive-health-care-time-for-obstetrician-gynecologists-to-get-involved
#15
David L Eisenberg, V C Leslie
To be healthy, support their families, and be productive members of their communities, women must have access to comprehensive reproductive health services including treatment of miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy and access to abortion, sterilization, and other contraceptive methods. However, in the United States, hospitals and legislative bodies are erecting barriers and limiting access to these basic health care services. These barriers are caused by factors such as hospital mergers (specifically those that are religiously affiliated); federal, state, and local legislation; hospital policies; and business-related decisions are threatening reproductive health care...
November 4, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814815/dense-breast-legislation-in-the-united-states-state-of-the-states
#16
Soudabeh Fazeli Dehkordy, Ruth C Carlos
Limitations of screening mammography in patients with dense breasts combined with the significant increased risk for breast cancer have made the issue of dense breasts a matter of great concern in recent years, leading to advocacy for policy change and legislation. Dense breast notification legislation requires direct patient notification of mammographic results indicating the presence of dense breast tissue. The aim of this study was to summarize the state of dense breast notification legislation across the country...
November 2016: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813058/resolving-malpractice-claims-after-tort-reform-experience-in-a-self-insured-texas-public-academic-health-system
#17
William M Sage, Molly Colvard Harding, Eric J Thomas
OBJECTIVE: To describe the litigation experience in a state with strict tort reform of a large public university health system that has committed to transparency with patients and families in resolving medical errors. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Secondary data collected from The University of Texas System, which self-insures approximately 6,000 physicians at six health campuses across the state. We obtained internal case management data for all medical malpractice claims closed during 1 year before and 6 recent years following the enactment of state tort reform legislation...
November 4, 2016: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812404/the-influence-of-socioeconomic-factors-on-the-densities-of-high-value-cross-border-species-the-african-elephant
#18
Sarah-Anne Jeanetta Selier, Rob Slotow, Enrico Di Minin
Unprecedented poaching levels triggered by demand for ivory in Far East Asia are threatening the persistence of African elephant Loxodonta africana. Southern African countries make an important contribution to elephant conservation and could soon become the last stronghold of elephant conservation in Africa. While the ecological factors affecting elephant distribution and densities have extensively been accounted for, there is a need to understand which socioeconomic factors affect elephant numbers in order to prevent conflict over limited space and resources with humans...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810766/contextual-and-interdependent-causes-of-climate-change-adaptation-barriers-insights-from-water-management-institutions-in-himachal-pradesh-india
#19
Adani Azhoni, Ian Holman, Simon Jude
Research on adaptation barriers is increasing as the need for climate change adaptation becomes evident. However, empirical studies regarding the emergence, causes and sustenance of adaptation barriers remain limited. This research identifies key contextual causes of adaptation barriers in water institutions in the mountainous Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh in northern India. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with representatives from twenty-six key governmental, non-governmental, academic and research institutions in the State with responsibilities spanning domestic water supply, irrigation and hydropower generation, environmental monitoring and research...
October 31, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810301/non-perennial-mediterranean-rivers-in-europe-status-pressures-and-challenges-for-research-and-management
#20
REVIEW
Nikolaos T Skoulikidis, Sergi Sabater, Thibault Datry, Manuela M Morais, Andrea Buffagni, Gerald Dörflinger, Stamatis Zogaris, Maria Del Mar Sánchez-Montoya, Nuria Bonada, Eleni Kalogianni, Joana Rosado, Leonidas Vardakas, Anna Maria De Girolamo, Klement Tockner
Non-perennial rivers and streams (NPRS) cover >50% of the global river network. They are particularly predominant in Mediterranean Europe as a result of dry climate conditions, climate change and land use development. Historically, both scientists and policy makers underestimated the importance of NRPS for nature and humans alike, mainly because they have been considered as systems of low ecological and economic value. During the past decades, diminishing water resources have increased the spatial and temporal extent of artificial NPRS as well as their exposure to multiple stressors, which threatening their ecological integrity, biodiversity and ecosystem services...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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