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Lorraine Sherr, Kathryn J Roberts, Natasha Gandhi
Institutions are not necessarily good environments for children. In the face of challenges such as HIV, Ebola, poverty, conflict and disaster the numbers have grown rather than reduced. Some countries have closed institutions down -driven by findings that cognitive developmental delay is associated with institutional care. Yet insight into abuse and violence within institutionalised settings is neglected. Maltreatment -violence and abuse -may be an issue. This systematic review series addresses violence and abuse experiences in institutionalised care, exploring firstly the frequency of abuse/violence in institutions, secondly any interventions to reduce such violence or abuse and thirdly the perpetrators of such violence or abuse...
January 9, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Claudia Olaru, Smaranda Diaconescu, Laura Trandafir, Nicoleta Gimiga, Gabriela Stefanescu, Gabriela Ciubotariu, Marin Burlea
We conducted an observational study over a 1-year period, including 234 children aged 4-18 years and their caregivers and a matching control group. 60.73% of the children from the study group were males. Average age for the onset of constipation was 26.39 months. The frequency of defecation was 1/4.59 days (1/1.13 days in the control group). 38.49% of the patients in the sample group had a positive family history of functional constipation. The majority of children with functional constipation come from single-parent families, are raised by relatives, or come from orphanages...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
S Flostrand, I Rodriguez, B Maddox, L Finch, S Belulaj, A Gould
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Alexandra Murray Harrison
This article proposes a method of volunteering mental health consultation to child caregivers in developing countries in the context of episodic visits and a long-term relationship. It is derived from the author's experience doing this work for approximately 12 years. The two foundational features of the method-the role of a consultant and a long-term relationship-are described. The method is then elaborated in two settings: consultation to caregivers in an orphanage in Central America and at a hospital in India...
November 2016: Infant Mental Health Journal
Pessia Friedman Rubin, Ephraim Winocur, Assaf Erez, Ravit Birenboim-Wilensky, Benjamin Peretz
BACKGROUND: Previous studies focused on the dental caries status of East African children and not on their overall dental needs. Urban children consume more sugar-rich foods. OBJECTIVES: To assess overall dental treatment needs of children living in an orphanage in Uganda. STUDY DESIGN: Teeth were diagnosed as needing treatment by obvious frank carious lesions (WHO criteria), temporary fillings, staining, or very deep pit and/or fissures possibly requiring sealants...
2016: Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
Katarzyna Pysz, Teresa Leszczyńska, Renata Bieżanowska-Kopeć, Aneta Kopeć
The aim of this study has been to measure the level of lead, cadmium, nitrates, and nitrites in the daily diets of children and adolescents from orphanages located in Krakow (Poland). Diets were collected over four seasons of 2009. The content of cadmium and lead was measured with flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. Nitrates and nitrites in diets were measured using the Griess colorimetric method. In all orphanages, the average intake of lead with daily diets, regardless of the season, ranged from 1.11 ± 0...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
P G A Pushpakumara, R C Rajapakse, B M A O Perera, J L Brown
The Pinnawela Elephant Orphanage (PEO) in Sri Lanka maintains one of the largest captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus maximus) populations in the world, with a total of 79 animals (45 females and 34 males) at present. It was established in 1975 as an orphanage for rescued wild calves, and commenced natural breeding under controlled conditions when they reached breeding age. This study summarizes reproductive data of 65 live births from 38 years of records at PEO. The age at first calving (n=31) was 14.6±0...
November 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
Ph Kalatozishvili, N Davituliani, H Phagava, V Beridze, K Pagava
Aim - to define the parameters of physical development of children in orphanages. 72 children (45 boys, 27 girls) without chronic debilitating diseases and condition aged from 1 to 6 years from Tbilisi and Makhinjauri orphanages (Georgia) were assessed. Height and weight of all subjects were measured and BMI, height SDS (standard deviation score) and weight SDS were calculated. Data were compared to the normal values (national data). The retardation of the physical development were seen along almost all findings...
July 2016: Georgian Medical News
Dylan G Gee
Early caregiving experiences play a central role in shaping emotional development, stress physiology, and refinement of limbic circuitry. Converging evidence across species delineates a sensitive period of heightened neuroplasticity when frontoamygdala circuitry is especially amenable to caregiver inputs early in life. During this period, parental buffering regulates emotional behaviors and stress physiology as emotion regulation circuitry continues to mature. By contrast, disorganized or poor quality caregiving has profound and lasting consequences on the maturation of frontoamygdala circuitry essential for emotion regulation, even following termination of this early life stressor (e...
September 2016: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
O G Avraamova, Yu V Pakhomova
The aim of the study was to assess oral health status in in children with intellectual disability (ID) living in Moscow Orphanage №15. The study involved 91 children aged 12 (39 children) and 15 (52 children). Caries incidence and DMFT index, periodontal disease incidence, OHI-S and PMA index, malocclusions incidence were assessed at baseline examination. Caries incidence in 12 and 15 y.o. was moderate (53.85% and 56.0%, correspondingly), as well as DMFT (2.77±0.52 и 2.94±0.53 correspondingly). In 2 children with rumination syndrome all teeth were affected by caries and these children received dental treatment under general anesthesia 7 times during last 60 months...
2016: Stomatologii︠a︡
B Manaboriboon, R Lolekha, K Chokephaibulkit, P Leowsrisook, T Naiwatanakul, J Tarugsa, Y Durier, N Aunjit, W Punpanich Vandepitte, V Boon-Yasidhi
Identifying psychosocial needs of perinatally HIV-infected (pHIV) youth is a key step in ensuring good mental health care. We report psychosocial needs of pHIV youth identified using the "Youth Counseling Needs Survey" (YCS) and during individual counseling (IC) sessions. pHIV youth receiving care at two tertiary-care hospitals in Bangkok or at an orphanage in Lopburi province were invited to participate IC sessions. The youths' psychosocial needs were assessed using instructive IC sessions in four main areas: general health, reproductive health, mood, and psychosocial concerns...
December 2016: AIDS Care
R Kumsta, S J Marzi, J Viana, E L Dempster, B Crawford, M Rutter, J Mill, E J S Sonuga-Barke
Exposure to adverse rearing environments including institutional deprivation and severe childhood abuse is associated with an increased risk for mental and physical health problems across the lifespan. Although the mechanisms mediating these effects are not known, recent work in rodent models suggests that epigenetic processes may be involved. We studied the impact of severe early-life adversity on epigenetic variation in a sample of adolescents adopted from the severely depriving orphanages of the Romanian communist era in the 1980s...
June 7, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Mark Kennedy, Jana Kreppner, Nicky Knights, Robert Kumsta, Barbara Maughan, Dennis Golm, Michael Rutter, Wolff Schlotz, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke
BACKGROUND: Early-life institutional deprivation is associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) later in childhood and adolescence. In this article, we examine, for the first time, the persistence of deprivation-related ADHD into young adulthood in a sample of individuals adopted as young children by UK families after periods in extremely depriving Romanian orphanages. METHODS: We estimated rates of ADHD at age 15 years and in young adulthood (ages 22-25 years) in individuals at low (LoDep; nondeprived UK adoptees and Romanian adoptees with less than 6-month institutional exposure) and high deprivation-related risk (HiDep; Romanian adoptees with more than 6-month exposure)...
October 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Margaret Grant, Alan Rushton, John Simmonds
The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors' involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
Marziyeh Rouholamini, Seyed Mohammad Kalantarkousheh, Enayat Sharifi
This study was performed with the purpose of determining the effectiveness of spiritual components training on life satisfaction of Persian orphan adolescents. The study population was from female adolescents of two orphanages located in Kerman, Iran. They were randomly divided into two experimental and two control groups (each group including ten members). The experimental groups were received the spiritual training in ten sessions (spiritual training included components such as image of God, relationship with God, Tawwakul, searching for meaning during difficulties and pain), whereas the control groups were in the waiting list...
May 25, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
Dhanesheshwar N Lanjewar, Varsha Omprakash Bhatia, Sonali Dhaneshwar Lanjewar
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India has now been prevalent over three decades, and an increasing number of children are being affected with HIV. The spectrum of pathologic lesions in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in India has not been well described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of systematically conducted autopsies of 11 (10 boys and 1 girl) children with AIDS is presented. RESULTS: The mode of HIV transmission in 6 children was vertical; in one it was blood transfusion and in 4 children route was presumably vertical as these were children of orphanage...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Salwa A AlSadhan, Asma M Al-Jobair
The aim of this study was to assess the oral habit practices, dental trauma, and occlusal characteristics of 4- to 12-year-old orphans living in governmental orphanages in Riyadh. This cross-sectional study was conducted in three government orphanages and three ordinary schools. All 90 orphans, residing in the orphanage, were included. Ninety schoolchildren were selected to serve as the controls. Demographic data, oral habit history, and dental trauma history were obtained through a questionnaire. All children were examined to confirm the presence of signs of oral habits, dental trauma, and associated occlusal characteristics...
April 27, 2016: Special Care in Dentistry
Ekaterina A Korotkova, Anatoly P Gmyl, Maria L Yakovenko, Olga E Ivanova, Tatyana P Eremeeva, Liubov I Kozlovskaya, Armen K Shakaryan, Galina Y Lipskaya, Irina L Parshina, Nataliya V Loginovskikh, Nadezhda S Morozova, Vadim I Agol
UNLABELLED: Four cases of acute flaccid paralysis caused by slightly evolved (Sabin-like) vaccine polioviruses of serotype 2 were registered in July to August 2010 in an orphanage of Biysk (Altai Region, Russia). The Biysk cluster of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) had several uncommon, if not unique, features. (i) Until this outbreak, Sabin-like viruses (in distinction to more markedly evolved vaccine-derived polioviruses [VDPVs]) were reported to cause only sporadic cases of VAPP...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
A A Kulenkova, Yu O Dyagileva, V B Pavlenko, V V Belalov, O M Kochukhova
We investigated whether the electroencephalogram (EEG) during visual fixation in institutionalized children shows the altered oscillation properties. EEG was recorded in the "eyes open" situation with visual attention fixed on a cartoon in 51 2-3.5 years old children living in Simferopol orphanage, Crimea and in 53 age-matched children living in families. Oscillation properties were measured using the relative power (RP) indices of theta-, alpha-, beta- and gamma-rhythms. Institutionalized children showed higher RP of alpha rhythm in seven loci (frontal polar, anterior temporal, posterior temporal and left occipital derivations), lower RP of theta rhythm in eight loci (frontal polar, frontal, anterior temporal and posterior temporal derivations)...
September 2015: Zhurnal Vyssheĭ Nervnoĭ Deiatelnosti Imeni I P Pavlova
Hubert Barennes, Kang Virak, François Rouet, Yves Buisson, Michel Strobel, Ung Vibol
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the efficacy of first and and second-line antiretroviral therapies (ART) for HIV-1 infected children in resource limited Southeast Asian settings. Previous studies have shown that orphans are at a higher risk for virological failure (VF) in Cambodia. Consequently most of them required transfer to second-line ART. We assessed the factors associated with VF among HIV-1 infected children who were either under first-line (mostly 3TC + D4T + NVP) or under second-line (mostly ABC + DDI + LPV) therapies at a referral hospital in Cambodia...
February 5, 2016: BMC Research Notes
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