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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230095/genetic-diversity-transmission-dynamics-and-drug-resistance-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-angola
#1
João Perdigão, Sofia Clemente, Jorge Ramos, Pedro Masakidi, Diana Machado, Carla Silva, Isabel Couto, Miguel Viveiros, Nuno Taveira, Isabel Portugal
Tuberculosis (TB) poses a serious public health problem in Angola. No surveillance data on drug resistance is available and nothing is known regarding the genetic diversity and population structure of circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Here, we have genotyped and evaluated drug susceptibility of 89 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Luanda. Thirty-three different spoligotype profiles corresponding to 24 different Shared International Types (SIT) and 9 orphan profiles were detected...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229025/effect-of-interleukin-il-35-on-il-17-expression-and-production-by-human-cd4-%C3%A2-t-cells
#2
Kosuke Okada, Takeki Fujimura, Takeshi Kikuchi, Makoto Aino, Yosuke Kamiya, Ario Izawa, Yuki Iwamura, Hisashi Goto, Iichiro Okabe, Eriko Miyake, Yoshiaki Hasegawa, Makio Mogi, Akio Mitani
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-17 produced by mainly T helper 17 (Th17) cells may play an important destructive role in chronic periodontitis (CP). Thus, anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-35, might have a beneficial effect in periodontitis by inhibiting differentiation of Th17 cells. Th17 differentiation is regulated by the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR) α (encoded by RORA) and RORγt (encoded by RORC). However, the role of IL-35 in periodontitis is not clear and the effect of IL-35 on the function of Th17 cells is still incompletely understood...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228611/anti-diabetic-action-of-all-trans-retinoic-acid-and-the-orphan-g-protein-coupled-receptor-gprc5c-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#3
Stefan Amisten, Israa Mohammad Al-Amily, Arvind Soni, Ross Hawkes, Patricio Atanes, Shanta Jean Persaud, Patrik Rorsman, Albert Salehi
Pancreatic islets express high levels of the orphan G-protein coupled receptor C5C (GPRC5C), the function of which remains to be established. Here we have examined the role of GPRC5C in the regulation of insulin secretion and β-cell survival and proliferation using human and mouse pancreatic islets. The expression of GPRC5C was analysed by RNA-sequencing, qPCR, western blotting and confocal microscopy. Insulin secretion and cell viability were determined by RIA and MTS assays, respectively. GPRC5C mRNA expression and protein level were reduced in the islets from type-2 diabetic donors...
February 22, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228555/microrna-15b-suppresses-th17-differentiation-and-is-associated-with-pathogenesis-of-multiple-sclerosis-by-targeting-o-glcnac-transferase
#4
Ruiqiong Liu, Xiaofeng Ma, Li Chen, Yang Yang, Yi Zeng, Jie Gao, Wei Jiang, Fang Zhang, Daojing Li, Bin Han, Ranran Han, Rongfang Qiu, Wei Huang, Yan Wang, Junwei Hao
IL-17-producing Th17 cells have gradually become considered as key factors in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the involvement of certain microRNAs in the development of MS has been reported, their role in Th17-driven autoimmunity is still poorly understood. In this study, we identified microRNA (miR)-15b as an important factor in Th17-associated effects and determined that the expression of miR-15b is significantly downregulated in MS patients and in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224267/selection-of-dna-aptamers-for-extra-cellular-domain-of-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-to-detect-her2-positive-carcinomas
#5
A Sett, B B Borthakur, U Bora
BACKGROUND: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2, an orphan receptor of ErbB family) is considered as an important biomarker as it plays a key role in the development and progression of aggressive types of breast, ovarian, stomach and gastric cancer. In the present study, we developed novel DNA aptamers against the extra-cellular domain (ECD) of Her2 protein for detection of Her2-positive carcinomas. METHODS: We cloned and expressed Her2-ECD protein in E...
February 21, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223348/immunoactive-clostridial-membrane-vesicle-production-is-regulated-by-a-sporulation-factor
#6
Nozomu Obana, Ryoma Nakao, Kyoko Nagayama, Kouji Nakamura, Hidenobu Senpuku, Nobuhiko Nomura
Recently, many Gram-positive bacteria as well as gram-negative bacteria have been reported to produce MVs, but little is known regarding the regulators involved in MV formation. We found that a Gram-positive anaerobic pathogen, Clostridium perfringens, produces MVs predominantly containing membrane proteins and cell wall components. These MVs stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine production in mouse macrophage-like cells. We suggested that MVs induced IL-6 production through the TLR2 signaling pathway. Thus, the MV could have a role in the bacteria-host interaction and bacterial infection pathogenesis...
February 21, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223062/nivolumab-for-previously-treated-unresectable-metastatic-anal-cancer-nci9673-a-multicentre-single-arm-phase-2-study
#7
Van K Morris, Mohamed E Salem, Halla Nimeiri, Syma Iqbal, Preet Singh, Kristen Ciombor, Blase Polite, Dustin Deming, Emily Chan, James L Wade, Lianchun Xiao, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Luis Vence, Jorge Blando, Armeen Mahvash, Wai Chin Foo, Chimela Ohaji, Manolo Pasia, Gail Bland, Aki Ohinata, Jane Rogers, Amir Mehdizadeh, Kimberly Banks, Richard Lanman, Robert A Wolff, Howard Streicher, James Allison, Padmanee Sharma, Cathy Eng
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) is a rare malignancy associated with infection by human papillomavirus (HPV). No consensus treatment approach exists for the treatment of metastatic disease. Because intratumoral HPV oncoproteins upregulate immune checkpoint proteins such as PD-1 to evade immune-mediated cytotoxicity, we did a trial of the anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab for patients with metastatic SCCA. METHODS: We did this single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial at ten academic centres in the USA...
February 17, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223061/anal-cancer-from-an-orphan-disease-to-a-curable-malignancy
#8
Stefano Cascinu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219155/-genotype-distribution-of-human-enteroviruses-isolated-from-swage-in-shanghai-during-year-2013-2014
#9
Y Y Li, J Lu, X Z Wang, Y Y Yang, J Fei, L P Zhang, Z Li, C S Li, Y Zuo
Objective: To explore the time and genotype distribution of human enterovirus (HEV) isolated from sewage in Shanghai in 2013-2014. Methods: One sewage sample each was collected from two local sewage plants located in Minhang District and Jiading District on the same day at the day 24-28 of every month from 2013 to 2014. Each sample weighed 1 L. The specimens were concentrated by anionic membrane absorption, eluted with beef extract solution, and then used to inoculate RD, HEp-2, and L20B cell lines. A total of 249 enterovirus strains were isolated from sewage samples during the study period, including 185 non-polio enterovirus (NPEV) and 64 poliovirus (PV) strains, which were identified as vaccine strains...
February 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218743/vitamin-d-signaling-and-melanoma-role-of-vitamin-d-and-its-receptors-in-melanoma-progression-and-management
#10
REVIEW
Andrzej T Slominski, Anna A Brożyna, Michal A Zmijewski, Wojciech Jóźwicki, Anton M Jetten, Rebecca S Mason, Robert C Tuckey, Craig A Elmets
Ultraviolet B (UVB), in addition to having carcinogenic activity, is required for the production of vitamin D3 (D3) in the skin which supplies >90% of the body's requirement. Vitamin D is activated through hydroxylation by 25-hydroxylases (CYP2R1 or CYP27A1) and 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) to produce 1,25(OH)2D3, or through the action of CYP11A1 to produce mono-di- and trihydroxy-D3 products that can be further modified by CYP27B1, CYP27A1, and CYP24A1. The active forms of D3, in addition to regulating calcium metabolism, exert pleiotropic activities, which include anticarcinogenic and anti-melanoma effects in experimental models, with photoprotection against UVB-induced damage...
February 20, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215430/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-resilience-based-intervention-on-psychosocial-well-being-of-children-affected-by-hiv-aids-effects-at-6-and-12-month-follow-up
#11
Xiaoming Li, Sayward E Harrison, Amanda J Fairchild, Peilian Chi, Junfeng Zhao, Guoxiang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Global literature suggests that resilience-based interventions may yield improvements in psychosocial well-being for vulnerable children, but limited data are available regarding the efficacy of such interventions among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate initial efficacy of a multi-level resilience-based intervention among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in China in improving children's psychosocial well-being and resilience-related outcomes...
February 13, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214361/identification-of-arabidopsis-genic-and-non-genic-promoters-by-paired-end-sequencing-of-tss-tags
#12
Mutsutomo Tokizawa, Kazutaka Kusunoki, Hiroyuki Koyama, Atsushi Kurotani, Tetsuya Sakurai, Yutaka Suzuki, Tomoaki Sakamoto, Tetsuya Kurata, Yoshiharu Y Yamamoto
Information about transcription start sites (TSSs) provides foundational data for analyses of promoter architecture. In this report, we used paired- and single-end deep sequencing to analyze Arabidopsis TSS tags from several libraries prepared from roots, shoots, flowers, and etiolated seedlings. The clustering of approximately 33 million mapped TSS tags led to the identification of 324,461 promoters that covered 79.7% (21,672/27,206) of protein-coding genes in the Arabidopsis genome. In addition, we identified intragenic, antisense, and Orphan promoters that were not associated with any gene models...
February 18, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213288/inhibition-of-estrogen-related-receptor-%C3%AE-attenuates-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-migration-by-regulating-rhoa-p27-kip1-and-%C3%AE-catenin-wnt4-signaling-pathway
#13
Qunyi Li, Lei Zhu, Liudi Zhang, Haifei Chen, Yingfeng Zhu, Yongli Du, Wanxian Zhong, Mingkang Zhong, Xiaojin Shi
RhoA/p27(Kip1) and β-Catenin/Wnt4 signaling processes play central roles in proliferation and migration in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). ERRα, a member of orphan nuclear receptors, is a potent prognostic factor in breast, ovarian, colon and other types of tumors. However, biological significance of ERRα in VSMCs as well as the molecular mechanisms remains largely unknown. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether ERRα is involved in the proliferation and migration of VSMCs in vitro and neointimal formation in vivo...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212758/the-guanidine-riboswitch-a-poor-orphan-no-longer
#14
David M J Lilley
Riboswitches are widespread in the bacterial kingdom, where they regulate gene expression in response to different small molecules and ions. However, some remain orphans with no known endogenous ligand. Three recently published papers (Battaglia et al., 2017; Nelson et al., 2017; and Reiss et al., 2017) de-orphanize a widespread ykkC element, showing that it responds to guanidine and elaborating on how that response is mediated.
February 16, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209382/err%C3%AE-a-junior-orphan-with-a-senior-role-in-metabolism
#15
REVIEW
Jagannath Misra, Don-Kyu Kim, Hueng-Sik Choi
Estrogen-related receptor (ERR)γ is an orphan nuclear hormone receptor that belongs to the ERR subfamily of transcription factors. No endogenous ligand has been identified to date. ERRγ possesses ligand-independent transcriptional activity that is regulated by co-regulator interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs). Recent data from animal models have established ERRγ as a crucial mediator of multiple endocrine and metabolic signals. ERRγ plays important roles in pathological conditions such as insulin resistance, alcoholic liver injury, and cardiac hypertrophy, and controls energy metabolism in the heart, skeletal muscle, and pancreatic β cells...
February 13, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209180/are-products-with-an-orphan-designation-for-oncology-indications-different-from-products-for-other-rare-indications-a-retrospective-analysis-of-european-orphan-designations-granted-between-2002-2012
#16
Kim Pauwels, Isabelle Huys, Minne Casteels, Kristina Larsson, Caroline Voltz, Karri Penttila, Thomas Morel, Steven Simoens
BACKGROUND: Orphan designated medicinal products benefit from regulatory and economic incentives for orphan drug development. Approximately 40% of orphan designations target rare neoplastic disorders, referring to rare cancers. In order to provide more insights in drugs for rare neoplastic disorders that are under development and to better understand the role of orphan designation in the development of oncology drugs, this study investigates the characteristics of the product, the indication and the applicants as well as the stage of development of products with an orphan designation for rare neoplastic disorders and compares them with products with an orphan designation for other rare indications...
February 16, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204833/small-heterodimer-partner-attenuates-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-expression-of-cyclooxygenase-2-and-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-by-suppression-of-activator-protein-1-and-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-renal-proximal-tubule-epithelial-cells
#17
Jung Sun Park, Hoon In Choi, Eun Hui Bae, Seong Kwon Ma, Soo Wan Kim
The orphan nuclear receptor, small heterodimer partner (SHP), plays a negative regulatory role in innate immune responses and is involved in various inflammatory signaling pathways. In the present study, we aimed to ascertain whether SHP is effective in preventing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced kidney tubular inflammation and explored the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of SHP. Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury was induced in mice by clamping both renal pedicles for 30 min...
March 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203051/a-review-and-update-on-orphan-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-noninfectious-uveitis
#18
REVIEW
Caiyun You, Haitham F Sahawneh, Lina Ma, Buraa Kubaisi, Alexander Schmidt, C Stephen Foster
INTRODUCTION: Uveitis, a leading cause of preventable blindness around the world, is a critically underserved disease in regard to the medications approved for use. Multiple immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) drugs are appropriate for uveitis therapy but are still off-label. These IMT agents, including antimetabolites, calcineurin inhibitors, alkylating agents, and biologic agents, have been designated as "orphan drugs" and are widely used for systemic autoimmune diseases or organ transplantation...
2017: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198082/pck1-expression-is-correlated-with-the-plasma-glucose-level-in-the-duck
#19
L Chen, T Zeng, G Q Li, R Liu, Y Tian, Q H Li, L Z Lu
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (soluble) (PCK1) is a key gene in gluconeogenesis and glyceroneogenesis. Although its functions have been extensively studied in mice, bats and humans, little is known in ducks. Here, PCK1 functions were studied using a duck domestication model and a 48-h fasting experiment. We found PCK1 expression significantly decreased in two breeds of domestic ducks (Jinyun Pockmark ducks and Cherry Valley ducks) as compared with wild ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Simultaneously, plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides and free fatty acid in domestic ducks were lower than in wild ducks...
February 15, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197652/-intravascular-papillary-endothelial-hyperplasia-ipeh-masson-s-pseudoangiosarcoma-on-the-forefoot
#20
P Rottler, A Wilke, T M Frangen, C Kuhnen, B Schley
Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH)/Masson's pseudoangiosarcoma is a rare (orphan) disease of the forefoot that has not yet been described in Europe. The pathoanatomic examination of a young patient with a vague interdigital space-consuming lesion revealed a intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia/Masson's pseudoangiosarcoma. The intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia can be mainly detected in the upper limbs as well as cervically. Heretofore, the intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia has only been described in Japan and the USA...
February 14, 2017: Der Orthopäde
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