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Jiaoyang Luo, Xu Han, Xiaowen Dou, Lei Zhang, Shihai Yang, Meihua Yang
Realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicines such as Xiao-Er-Zhi-Bao-Wan (XEZBW), have been widely used for thousands of years. However, events associated with arsenic-induced ailments have increasingly become a public concern. To address the toxicity of XEZBW, we studied the histopathology and blood biochemistry of rats exposed to XEZBW using technology like high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled mass spectrometry to determine arsenic speciation. Our results demonstrated that dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) increased from 18...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Taoguang Huo, Ying Fang, Yinghua Zhang, Yanlei Wang, Cong Feng, Mingmei Yuan, Shouyun Wang, Mo Chen, Hong Jiang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Realgar, a type of mineral drug that contains arsenic, is concurrently used with Glycyrrhizae Radx et Rhizoma to reduce its toxicity in many Chinese herbal formulations. Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) is the bioactive ingredient in Glycyrrhizae Radx et Rhizoma. In this study, the protective effects of GA on realgar-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR)-based metabolomic approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were divided into control, GA, realgar, and GA and realgar co-administration groups...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Peng Chen, Ruixiang Xu, Lei Yan, Zhengrong Wu, Yan Wei, Wenbin Zhao, Xin Wang, Qinjian Xie, Hongyu Li
Realgar is a naturally occurring arsenic sulfide (or Xionghuang, in Chinese). It contains over 90% tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfide (As4S4). Currently, realgar has been confirmed the antitumor activities, both in vitro and in vivo, of realgar extracted using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans). Bioleaching, a new technology to greatly improve the use rate of arsenic extraction from realgar using bacteria, is a novel methodology that addressed a limitation of the traditional method for realgar preparation...
May 22, 2017: Biological Research
Xiuli Zhang, Ting Kang, Lian Zhang, Yingying Tong, Wenping Ding, Siyu Chen
Arsenic sulfide (As4S4) is the main component of Realgar which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Previously we showed that As4S4 inhibited the proliferation of colon cancer cells through regulating nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway. Here we explore the role of NFAT in gastric cancer. We showed that As4S4 inhibited the expression of NFATc1, NFATc3, and NFATc4, and modulated the expression of NFATc2 accompanying with p53. The baseline expression of NFATc3 varied distinctly in gastric cancer cell lines (AGS, MGC803, MKN28, MKN45, and SGC7901) and the sensitivity of these cells to As4S4 was dissimilar, with AGS and MGC803 cells showing higher sensitivity while the SGC7901 cells relatively resistant...
April 18, 2017: Oncotarget
Huan-Hua Xu, Fei-Ran Hao, Mei-Xi Wang, Si-Jia Ren, Ming Li, Hong-Ling Tan, Yu-Guang Wang, Xiang-Lin Tang, Cheng-Rong Xiao, Qian-De Liang, Yue Gao, Zeng-Chun Ma
The purpose of this work was to study the influences of Realgar-Indigo naturalis (RIF) and its principal element realgar on 4 main cytochrome P450 enzymes activities in rats. A simple and efficient cocktail method was developed to detect the four probe drugs simultaneously. In this study, Wistar rats were administered intragastric RIF and realgar for 14 days; mixed probe drugs were injected into rats by caudal vein. Through analyzing the pharmacokinetic parameter of mixed probe drugs in rats, we can calculate the CYPs activities...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
N Kannan, S Balaji, N V Anil Kumar
BACKGROUND: The traditional Indian medicine 'Siddha' uses metals, metalloids and minerals including toxic ones with no proven toxicity. Thalagak karuppu (TK) is remarkably stable over a century and used for treating Suram (Fever), Kaasam (Cough), Elai (Tuberculosis) and Eraippu Erumal (Bronchial Asthma). OBJECTIVE: The present study addresses elemental and morphological characterization of therapeutic Siddha formulation: Thalagak karuppu (TK). MATERIALS AND METHODS: TK was purchased from the Indian Medical Practitioners Co-operative Pharmacy and Stores (IMCOPS) Ltd, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Xiang Wan, Haochen Dong, Liu Feng, Zhijia Lin, Qiuchen Luo
Three sequential extraction procedures (SEPs) including Tessier, Rauret, and Shiowatana SEPs, were compared for arsenic fractionation using highly polluted soils. In the definition context of exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable and residual fractions, with similar arsenic recovery and reproducibility, Tessier and Rauret SEPs were comparable to each other, whereas Shiowatana SEP showed higher extraction efficiency in all the first three arsenic fractions, although it might overestimate the reducible arsenic...
July 2017: Chemosphere
Gangyang Wang, Tao Zhang, Wei Sun, Hongsheng Wang, Fei Yin, Zhuoying Wang, Dongqing Zuo, Mengxiong Sun, Zifei Zhou, Binhui Lin, Jing Xu, Yingqi Hua, Haoqing Li, Zhengdong Cai
Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant bone tumor, the cure rate of which has stagnated over the past 25-30 years. Arsenic sulfide (As2S2), the main active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicine realgar, has been proved to have antitumor efficacy in several tumor types including acute promyelocytic leukemia, gastric cancer and colon cancer. Here, we investigated the efficacy and mechanism of As2S2 in osteosarcoma both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated that As2S2 potently suppressed cell proliferation by inducing G2/M phase arrest in various osteosarcoma cell lines...
February 7, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Peng Song, Peng Chen, Dong Wang, Zhengrong Wu, Qiyu Gao, Aixia Wang, Ruilan Zhu, Yajun Wang, Xin Wang, Longhe Zhao, Ziyun Duan, Shuqian Zhu, Peng Cui, Yang Li, Hongyu Li
Realgar (As4S4), as a mineral drug containing arsenic compound, has been employed in clinical therapy of cancer for its good therapeutic reputation in Chinese traditional medicine. However, large dose of realgar and long period of treatment are necessary for achieving the effective blood medicine concentration due to its low bioavailability resulted from poor solubility. In this study, we obtained realgar transforming solution (RTS) using intrinsic biotransformation in microorganism, and investigated underlying mechanisms of RTS for HepG2 cells...
February 2017: International Journal of Oncology
Z Bujňáková, M Baláž, M Zdurienčíková, J Sedlák, M Čaplovičová, Ľ Čaplovič, E Dutková, A Zorkovská, E Turianicová, P Baláž, O Shpotyuk, S Andrejko
Arsenic sulfide compounds have a long history of application in a traditional medicine. In recent years, realgar has been studied as a promising drug in cancer treatment. In this study, the arsenic sulfide (As4S4) nanoparticles combined with zinc sulfide (ZnS) ones in different molar ratio have been prepared by a simple mechanochemical route in a planetary mill. The successful synthesis and structural properties were confirmed and followed via X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements...
February 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Wen-Juan Fu, Ting Lei, Zhen Yin, Jian-Hao Pan, Yu-Shuang Chai, Xiao-Yun Xu, Yi-Xi Yan, Zhi-Hua Wang, Jian Ke, Gang Wu, Ren-He Xu, Manish Paranjpe, Lintao Qu, Hong Nie
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Angong Niuhuang Pill (ANP) is a well known Chinese traditional therapeutic for the treatment for diseases affecting the Central Nervous System (CNS). Components of the ANP formulation, including Bovis Calculus Sativus, Pulvis Bubali Comus Concentratus, Moschus, Margarita, Cinnabaris, Realgar, Coptidis Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Gardeniae Fructus, Curcumae Radix, and Bomeolum Syntheticum, have been used for the treatment of stroke, encephalitis and emergency meningitis across Asia, especially in China for hundreds of years...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Dan Shi, Yan Liu, Ronggang Xi, Wei Zou, Lijun Wu, Zhiran Zhang, Zhongyang Liu, Chao Qu, Baoli Xu, Xiaobo Wang
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by the t(9;22) (q34;q11)-associated Bcr-Abl fusion gene, which is an essential element of clinical diagnosis. As a traditional Chinese medicine, realgar has been widely used for the treatment of various diseases for >1,500 years. Inspired by nano-drug, realgar nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared with an average particle size of <100 nm in a previous work. Compared with coarse realgar, the realgar NPs have higher bioavailability. As a principal constituent protein of caveolae, caveolin-1 (Cav-1) participates in regulating various cellular physiological and pathological processes including tumorigenesis and tumor development...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Hongwen Cao, Yigeng Feng, Lei Chen
As the main component of realgar, arsenic sulphide (As4 S4 ) contains antitumour activity by repressing cancer cell proliferation and migration in many tumours. However, the detailed mechanism of these processes is not clear yet. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can function as tumour suppressor or oncogene based on their target mRNAs in different tumour tissues. Here, we found that As4 S4 could repress the overexpression of microRNA-372 (miR-372) in two prostate cancer cell lines and its overexpression promoted cell proliferation and migration...
March 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Pierre Le Pape, Fabienne Battaglia-Brunet, Marc Parmentier, Catherine Joulian, Cindy Gassaud, Lidia Fernandez-Rojo, Jean-Michel Guigner, Maya Ikogou, Lucie Stetten, Luca Olivi, Corinne Casiot, Guillaume Morin
Acid mine drainages (AMD) are major sources of pollution to the environment. Passive bio-remediation technologies involving sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are promising for treating arsenic contaminated waters. However, mechanisms of biogenic As-sulfide formation need to be better understood to decontaminate AMDs in acidic conditions. Here, we show that a high-As AMD effluent can be decontaminated by an indigenous SRB consortium. AMD water from the Carnoulès mine (Gard, France) was incubated with the consortium under anoxic conditions and As, Zn and Fe concentrations, pH and microbial activity were monitored during 94days...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
M A Garrote, M D Robador, J L Perez-Rodriguez
The pigments, execution technique and repainting used on the polychrome wood ceilings and doors in the Casa de Pilatos (Seville, Spain) were studied using portable X-ray fluorescence equipment. Cross-sections of small samples were also analysed by optical microscopy, SEM with EDX analysis, micro-Raman and micro-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. These carpentry works are magnificent examples of the Mudéjar art made in Spain in the early 16th century. Portable X-ray fluorescence gave good information on the different components of the polychrome...
February 15, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Xian-Chun Zeng, Guoji E, Jianing Wang, Nian Wang, Xiaoming Chen, Yao Mu, Hao Li, Ye Yang, Yichen Liu, Yanxin Wang
The tailings of the Shimen realgar mine have unique geochemical features. Arsenite oxidation is one of the major biogeochemical processes that occurs in the tailings. However, little is known about the functional and molecular aspects of the microbial community involved in arsenite oxidation. Here, we fully explored the functional and molecular features of the microbial communities from the tailings of the Shimen realgar mine. We collected six samples of tailings from sites A, B, C, D, E, and F. Microcosm assays indicated that all of the six sites contain both chemoautotrophic and heterotrophic arsenite-oxidizing microorganisms; their activities differed considerably from each other...
December 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Yanlei Wang, Mo Chen, Yinghua Zhang, Taoguang Huo, Ying Fang, Xuexin Jiao, Mingmei Yuan, Hong Jiang
Realgar is a type of mineral drug that contains arsenic and has neurotoxicity. Glutathione (GSH), which is the main antioxidant in the central nervous system, plays a key role in antioxidant defenses and the detoxification of arsenic. However, whether realgar interferes with the synthesis of GSH in the brain and the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects are largely unknown. Here, we used mouse models of exposure to realgar to show that realgar affects the synthesis of GSH in the hippocampus, leading to ultrastructural changes in hippocampal neurons and synapses and deficiencies in cognitive abilities, and that the mechanisms that cause this effect may be associated with alterations in the expression of system XAG(-), system XC(-), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1(MRP-1), nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), and the levels of glutamate (Glu) and cysteine (Cys) in the extracellular fluid...
October 1, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Qiang Ma, Chuan Wang, Xiaojin Li, Hua Guo, Jie Meng, Jian Liu, Haiyan Xu
Realgar (As4S4) has been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML); it has the advantages of no drug resistance and oral administration. Nevertheless, its poor solubility has been an obstacle to its bioavailability, requiring high-dose administration over a long period. We investigated whether crushing realgar crystals to the nanoscale and encapsulating the particles in a water-soluble polymer in one step using hot-melt extrusion would increase the bioavailability of As4S4...
2016: Scientific Reports
Taoguang Huo, Ying Fang, Longshan Zhao, Zhili Xiong, Yinghua Zhang, Yanlei Wang, Cong Feng, Mingmei Yuan, Shouyun Wang, Mo Chen, Hong Jiang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Realgar has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for thousands of years. Recently, a number of realgar or realgar-containing medicines poisoning cases have been reported. However, the toxicological mechanism of realgar has not been clearly clarified. In present study, the subchronic hepatotoxicity of realgar on mice was investigated using (1)HNMR-based metabonomic approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight male mice were divided into control group and low (0...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Fenfang Wu, Di Wu, Yong Ren, Chongyang Duan, Shangwu Chen, Anlong Xu
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a curable subtype of acute myeloid leukemia. The optimum regimen for newly diagnosed APL remains inconclusive. In this Bayesian network meta-analysis, we compared the effectiveness of five regimens-arsenic trioxide (ATO) + all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), realgar-indigo naturalis formula (RIF) which contains arsenic tetrasulfide + ATRA, ATRA + anthracycline-based chemotherapy (CT), ATO alone and ATRA alone, based on fourteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 1407 newly diagnosed APL patients...
July 26, 2016: Oncotarget
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