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Huan-Hua Xu, Fei-Ran Hao, Mei-Xi Wang, Si-Jia Ren, Ming Li, Hong-Ling Tan, Yu-Guang Wang, Xiang-Lin Tang, Cheng-Rong Xiao, Qian-De Liang, Yue Gao, Zeng-Chun Ma
The purpose of this work was to study the influences of Realgar-Indigo naturalis (RIF) and its principal element realgar on 4 main cytochrome P450 enzymes activities in rats. A simple and efficient cocktail method was developed to detect the four probe drugs simultaneously. In this study, Wistar rats were administered intragastric RIF and realgar for 14 days; mixed probe drugs were injected into rats by caudal vein. Through analyzing the pharmacokinetic parameter of mixed probe drugs in rats, we can calculate the CYPs activities...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
N Kannan, S Balaji, N V Anil Kumar
BACKGROUND: The traditional Indian medicine 'Siddha' uses metals, metalloids and minerals including toxic ones with no proven toxicity. Thalagak karuppu (TK) is remarkably stable over a century and used for treating Suram (Fever), Kaasam (Cough), Elai (Tuberculosis) and Eraippu Erumal (Bronchial Asthma). OBJECTIVE: The present study addresses elemental and morphological characterization of therapeutic Siddha formulation: Thalagak karuppu (TK). MATERIALS AND METHODS: TK was purchased from the Indian Medical Practitioners Co-operative Pharmacy and Stores (IMCOPS) Ltd, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Xiang Wan, Haochen Dong, Liu Feng, Zhijia Lin, Qiuchen Luo
Three sequential extraction procedures (SEPs) including Tessier, Rauret, and Shiowatana SEPs, were compared for arsenic fractionation using highly polluted soils. In the definition context of exchangeable, reducible, oxidizable and residual fractions, with similar arsenic recovery and reproducibility, Tessier and Rauret SEPs were comparable to each other, whereas Shiowatana SEP showed higher extraction efficiency in all the first three arsenic fractions, although it might overestimate the reducible arsenic...
March 22, 2017: Chemosphere
Gangyang Wang, Tao Zhang, Wei Sun, Hongsheng Wang, Fei Yin, Zhuoying Wang, Dongqing Zuo, Mengxiong Sun, Zifei Zhou, Binhui Lin, Jing Xu, Yingqi Hua, Haoqing Li, Zhengdong Cai
Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant bone tumor, the cure rate of which has stagnated over the past 25-30 years. Arsenic sulfide (As2S2), the main active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicine realgar, has been proved to have antitumor efficacy in several tumor types including acute promyelocytic leukemia, gastric cancer and colon cancer. Here, we investigated the efficacy and mechanism of As2S2 in osteosarcoma both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we demonstrated that As2S2 potently suppressed cell proliferation by inducing G2/M phase arrest in various osteosarcoma cell lines...
February 7, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Peng Song, Peng Chen, Dong Wang, Zhengrong Wu, Qiyu Gao, Aixia Wang, Ruilan Zhu, Yajun Wang, Xin Wang, Longhe Zhao, Ziyun Duan, Shuqian Zhu, Peng Cui, Yang Li, Hongyu Li
Realgar (As4S4), as a mineral drug containing arsenic compound, has been employed in clinical therapy of cancer for its good therapeutic reputation in Chinese traditional medicine. However, large dose of realgar and long period of treatment are necessary for achieving the effective blood medicine concentration due to its low bioavailability resulted from poor solubility. In this study, we obtained realgar transforming solution (RTS) using intrinsic biotransformation in microorganism, and investigated underlying mechanisms of RTS for HepG2 cells...
February 2017: International Journal of Oncology
Z Bujňáková, M Baláž, M Zdurienčíková, J Sedlák, M Čaplovičová, Ľ Čaplovič, E Dutková, A Zorkovská, E Turianicová, P Baláž, O Shpotyuk, S Andrejko
Arsenic sulfide compounds have a long history of application in a traditional medicine. In recent years, realgar has been studied as a promising drug in cancer treatment. In this study, the arsenic sulfide (As4S4) nanoparticles combined with zinc sulfide (ZnS) ones in different molar ratio have been prepared by a simple mechanochemical route in a planetary mill. The successful synthesis and structural properties were confirmed and followed via X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements...
February 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Wen-Juan Fu, Ting Lei, Zhen Yin, Jian-Hao Pan, Yu-Shuang Chai, Xiao-Yun Xu, Yi-Xi Yan, Zhi-Hua Wang, Jian Ke, Gang Wu, Ren-He Xu, Manish Paranjpe, Lintao Qu, Hong Nie
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Angong Niuhuang Pill (ANP) is a well known Chinese traditional therapeutic for the treatment for diseases affecting the Central Nervous System (CNS). Components of the ANP formulation, including Bovis Calculus Sativus, Pulvis Bubali Comus Concentratus, Moschus, Margarita, Cinnabaris, Realgar, Coptidis Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, Gardeniae Fructus, Curcumae Radix, and Bomeolum Syntheticum, have been used for the treatment of stroke, encephalitis and emergency meningitis across Asia, especially in China for hundreds of years...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Dan Shi, Yan Liu, Ronggang Xi, Wei Zou, Lijun Wu, Zhiran Zhang, Zhongyang Liu, Chao Qu, Baoli Xu, Xiaobo Wang
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by the t(9;22) (q34;q11)-associated Bcr-Abl fusion gene, which is an essential element of clinical diagnosis. As a traditional Chinese medicine, realgar has been widely used for the treatment of various diseases for >1,500 years. Inspired by nano-drug, realgar nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared with an average particle size of <100 nm in a previous work. Compared with coarse realgar, the realgar NPs have higher bioavailability. As a principal constituent protein of caveolae, caveolin-1 (Cav-1) participates in regulating various cellular physiological and pathological processes including tumorigenesis and tumor development...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Hongwen Cao, Yigeng Feng, Lei Chen
As the main component of realgar, arsenic sulphide (As4 S4 ) contains antitumour activity by repressing cancer cell proliferation and migration in many tumours. However, the detailed mechanism of these processes is not clear yet. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can function as tumour suppressor or oncogene based on their target mRNAs in different tumour tissues. Here, we found that As4 S4 could repress the overexpression of microRNA-372 (miR-372) in two prostate cancer cell lines and its overexpression promoted cell proliferation and migration...
March 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Pierre Le Pape, Fabienne Battaglia-Brunet, Marc Parmentier, Catherine Joulian, Cindy Gassaud, Lidia Fernandez-Rojo, Jean-Michel Guigner, Maya Ikogou, Lucie Stetten, Luca Olivi, Corinne Casiot, Guillaume Morin
Acid mine drainages (AMD) are major sources of pollution to the environment. Passive bio-remediation technologies involving sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are promising for treating arsenic contaminated waters. However, mechanisms of biogenic As-sulfide formation need to be better understood to decontaminate AMDs in acidic conditions. Here, we show that a high-As AMD effluent can be decontaminated by an indigenous SRB consortium. AMD water from the Carnoulès mine (Gard, France) was incubated with the consortium under anoxic conditions and As, Zn and Fe concentrations, pH and microbial activity were monitored during 94days...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
M A Garrote, M D Robador, J L Perez-Rodriguez
The pigments, execution technique and repainting used on the polychrome wood ceilings and doors in the Casa de Pilatos (Seville, Spain) were studied using portable X-ray fluorescence equipment. Cross-sections of small samples were also analysed by optical microscopy, SEM with EDX analysis, micro-Raman and micro-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. These carpentry works are magnificent examples of the Mudéjar art made in Spain in the early 16th century. Portable X-ray fluorescence gave good information on the different components of the polychrome...
February 15, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Xian-Chun Zeng, Guoji E, Jianing Wang, Nian Wang, Xiaoming Chen, Yao Mu, Hao Li, Ye Yang, Yichen Liu, Yanxin Wang
The tailings of the Shimen realgar mine have unique geochemical features. Arsenite oxidation is one of the major biogeochemical processes that occurs in the tailings. However, little is known about the functional and molecular aspects of the microbial community involved in arsenite oxidation. Here, we fully explored the functional and molecular features of the microbial communities from the tailings of the Shimen realgar mine. We collected six samples of tailings from sites A, B, C, D, E, and F. Microcosm assays indicated that all of the six sites contain both chemoautotrophic and heterotrophic arsenite-oxidizing microorganisms; their activities differed considerably from each other...
December 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Yanlei Wang, Mo Chen, Yinghua Zhang, Taoguang Huo, Ying Fang, Xuexin Jiao, Mingmei Yuan, Hong Jiang
Realgar is a type of mineral drug that contains arsenic and has neurotoxicity. Glutathione (GSH), which is the main antioxidant in the central nervous system, plays a key role in antioxidant defenses and the detoxification of arsenic. However, whether realgar interferes with the synthesis of GSH in the brain and the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects are largely unknown. Here, we used mouse models of exposure to realgar to show that realgar affects the synthesis of GSH in the hippocampus, leading to ultrastructural changes in hippocampal neurons and synapses and deficiencies in cognitive abilities, and that the mechanisms that cause this effect may be associated with alterations in the expression of system XAG(-), system XC(-), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1(MRP-1), nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), and the levels of glutamate (Glu) and cysteine (Cys) in the extracellular fluid...
October 1, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Qiang Ma, Chuan Wang, Xiaojin Li, Hua Guo, Jie Meng, Jian Liu, Haiyan Xu
Realgar (As4S4) has been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML); it has the advantages of no drug resistance and oral administration. Nevertheless, its poor solubility has been an obstacle to its bioavailability, requiring high-dose administration over a long period. We investigated whether crushing realgar crystals to the nanoscale and encapsulating the particles in a water-soluble polymer in one step using hot-melt extrusion would increase the bioavailability of As4S4...
2016: Scientific Reports
Taoguang Huo, Ying Fang, Longshan Zhao, Zhili Xiong, Yinghua Zhang, Yanlei Wang, Cong Feng, Mingmei Yuan, Shouyun Wang, Mo Chen, Hong Jiang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Realgar has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for thousands of years. Recently, a number of realgar or realgar-containing medicines poisoning cases have been reported. However, the toxicological mechanism of realgar has not been clearly clarified. In present study, the subchronic hepatotoxicity of realgar on mice was investigated using (1)HNMR-based metabonomic approaches. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight male mice were divided into control group and low (0...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Fenfang Wu, Di Wu, Yong Ren, Chongyang Duan, Shangwu Chen, Anlong Xu
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a curable subtype of acute myeloid leukemia. The optimum regimen for newly diagnosed APL remains inconclusive. In this Bayesian network meta-analysis, we compared the effectiveness of five regimens-arsenic trioxide (ATO) + all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), realgar-indigo naturalis formula (RIF) which contains arsenic tetrasulfide + ATRA, ATRA + anthracycline-based chemotherapy (CT), ATO alone and ATRA alone, based on fourteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 1407 newly diagnosed APL patients...
July 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Eric Mädl, Gábor Balázs, Eugenia V Peresypkina, Manfred Scheer
The reduction of [Cp'''Ni(η(3) -P3 )] (1; Cp'''=η(5) -1,2,4-tBu3 C5 H2 ) with potassium produces the complex anion [(Cp'''Ni)2 (μ,η(2:2) -P8 )](2-) (2), which contains a realgar-like P8 unit. The anionic triple-decker sandwich complex [(Cp'''Ni)2 (μ,η(3:3) -P3 )](-) (3) with a cyclo-P3 middle deck is obtained when 1 is treated with NaNH2 as a nucleophile. Na[3] can subsequently be oxidized with AgOTf to the neutral triple-decker complex [(Cp'''Ni)2 (μ,η(3:3) -P3 )] (4). In contrast, 1 reacts with LiPPh2 to give the anionic compound [(Cp'''Ni)2 (μ,η(2:2) -P6 PPh2 )](-) (5), a complex containing a bicyclic P7 fragment capped by two Cp'''Ni units...
June 27, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Cameron J Ollson, Euan Smith, Kirk G Scheckel, Aaron R Betts, Albert L Juhasz
Mine-impacted materials were collected from Victoria, Australia and categorized into three source materials; tailings (n=35), calcinated (n=10) and grey slimes (n=5). Arsenic (As) concentrations in these materials varied over several orders of magnitude (30-47,000mgkg(-1)), with median concentrations of 500, 10,800 and 1500mgkg(-1), respectively. When As bioaccessibility was assessed using the Solubility Bioaccessibility Research Consortium (SBRC) assay, As bioaccessibility ranged between 4 and 90%, with mean gastric phase values of 30%, 49% and 82% for tailings, calcinated and grey slimes, respectively...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Yan-Lei Wang, Mo Chen, Tao-Guang Huo, Ying-Hua Zhang, Ying Fang, Cong Feng, Shou-Yun Wang, Hong Jiang
Realgar, a type of mineral drug-containing arsenic, exhibits neurotoxicity. Brain glutathione (GSH) is crucial to protect the nervous system and to resist arsenic toxicity. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to explore the neurotoxic mechanisms of realgar and the protective effects of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) by observing the effects of GA on the hippocampal GSH biosynthetic pathway after exposure to realgar. Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were randomly divided into five groups: a control group, a GA control group, a realgar alone group, a low-dose GA intervention group, and a high-dose GA intervention group...
April 2, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Chelladurai Ganesamoorthy, Christoph Wölper, Anton S Nizovtsev, Stephan Schulz
Redox reactions of [(L(1,2) Mg)2 ] and Sb2 R4 (R=Me, Et) yielded the first Mg-substituted realgar-type Sb8 polystibides [(L(1,2) Mg)4 (μ4 ,η(2:2:2:2) -Sb8)] (L(1) =HC[C(Me)N(2,4,6-Me3 C6 H2)]2, L(2) =HC[C(Me)N(2,6-i-Pr2 C6 H3)]2). Compounds [(L(1,2) Mg)2] serve both as reducing agents, initiating the cleavage of the Sb-C bonds, and as stabilizers for the resulting Sb8 polyanion. The polystibides were characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopies, elemental analysis, and X-ray structure analysis. In addition, results from quantum chemical calculations are presented...
March 18, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
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