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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324113/microrna-expression-patterns-involved-in-amyloid-beta-induced-retinal-degeneration
#1
Peirong Huang, Junran Sun, Fenghua Wang, Xueting Luo, Jingyang Feng, Qing Gu, Te Liu, Xiaodong Sun
Purpose: Dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is characterized by the accumulation of drusen under Bruch's membrane, and amyloid beta (Aβ) is speculated to be one of the key pathologic factors. While the detrimental effects of Aβ on retinas have been widely explored, Aβ-induced epigenetic regulatory changes have yet to be fully investigated. We therefore aimed to identify the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in an Aβ-induced mouse model of retinal degeneration. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were intravitreally injected with Aβ1-40 or PBS and the eye tissues were collected for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, apoptosis immunofluorescence staining, and miRNA profiling...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323900/long-term-exposure-to-estrogen-enhances-chemotherapeutic-efficacy-potentially-through-epigenetic-mechanism-in-human-breast-cancer-cells
#2
Yu-Wei Chang, Kamaleshwar P Singh
Chemotherapy is the most common clinical option for treatment of breast cancer. However, the efficacy of chemotherapy depends on the age of breast cancer patients. Breast tissues are estrogen responsive and the levels of ovarian estrogen vary among the breast cancer patients primarily between pre- and post-menopausal age. Whether this age-dependent variation in estrogen levels influences the chemotherapeutic efficacy in breast cancer patients is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of natural estrogen 17 beta-estradiol (E2) on the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs in breast cancer cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315974/inherited-dna-repair-gene-mutations-detected-by-tumor-next-generation-sequencing-in-urinary-tract-cancers
#3
Sumati Gupta, Samantha Greenberg, Jade Grimmett, David Gaston, Neeraj Agarwal, William Lowrance, Joshua Schiffman, Wendy Kohlmann
Interpretation of next-generation sequencing (NGS) of tumor tissue in patients with advanced Urinary Tract Cancer (UTC) is performed to guide treatment selection but may reveal pathogenic variants with germline implications. We identified three patients with UTC with unexpected germline DNA repair gene mutations. Specific testing for these was prompted by the detection of these mutations by tumor NGS. All three patients were nonsmokers with a strong family history of cancer. Two patients had upper tract UTC with age at diagnosis in the 40 s...
March 18, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315163/activity-of-metabolic-enzymes-and-muscle-specific-gene-expression-in-parr-and-smolts-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-of-different-age-groups
#4
Maria V Churova, Olga V Meshcheryakova, Aleksey E Veselov, Denis A Efremov, Nina N Nemova
This study was conducted to characterize the energy metabolism level and the features of muscle growth regulation during the development of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) inhabiting the Indera River (Kola Peninsula, Russia). The activities of aerobic and anaerobic enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase and lactate dehydrogenase) and carbohydrate metabolism enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and aldolase) were measured in muscle and liver tissue. Gene expression levels of myosin heavy chain (MyHC), myostatin (MSTN-1a), and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs-MyoD1a, MyoD1b, MyoD1c, Myf5, myogenin) were measured in the white muscles of salmon parr of ages 0+, 1+, 2+, and 3+ and smolts of ages 2+ and 3+...
March 18, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314298/multi-omics-profiling-of-patients-with-melanoma-treated-with-nivolumab-in-project-hope
#5
Shusuke Yoshikawa, Yoshio Kiyohara, Masaki Otsuka, Ryota Kondou, Chizu Nonomura, Haruo Miyata, Akira Iizuka, Keiichi Ohshima, Kenichi Urakami, Takeshi Nagashima, Masatoshi Kusuhara, Takashi Sugino, Tohru Mochizuki, Ken Yamaguchi, Yasuto Akiyama
BACKGROUND: Project HOPE (High-tech Omics-based Patient Evaluation) has been in progress since 2014 and uses whole-exome sequencing (WES) and gene expression profiling (GEP). Among a total of 1,685 patients with cancer, 13 with melanoma were registered and characterized using multi-omics analyses to investigate specific biomarkers in responders to programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patients with melanoma comprised of six males and seven females, and their mean age was 68 years...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304372/micrornas-mir-203-3p-mir-664-3p-and-mir-708-5p-are-associated-with-median-strain-lifespan-in-mice
#6
Benjamin P Lee, Ivana Burić, Anupriya George-Pandeth, Kevin Flurkey, David E Harrison, Rong Yuan, Luanne L Peters, George A Kuchel, David Melzer, Lorna W Harries
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA species that have been shown to have roles in multiple processes that occur in higher eukaryotes. They act by binding to specific sequences in the 3' untranslated region of their target genes and causing the transcripts to be degraded by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). MicroRNAs have previously been reported to demonstrate altered expression in several aging phenotypes such as cellular senescence and age itself. Here, we have measured the expression levels of 521 small regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) in spleen tissue from young and old animals of 6 mouse strains with different median strain lifespans by quantitative real-time PCR...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303777/placental-up-regulation-of-leptin-and-arms2-is-associated-with-growth-discordance-in-monochorionic-diamniotic-twin-pregnancies
#7
Luming Sun, Jia Zhou, Kai Wang, Jian Wang, Ling Shang, Jianguang Zhang, Junqing Wu, David S Cram
Fetal growth discordance is a relatively common complication of monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies and is caused by a combination of maternal and placental factors. The aim of the study was to survey placental gene expression patterns and identify genes associated with growth discordance. Clinical samples comprised eight growth-discordant MCDA twin placentas (31+3-34+4 weeks gestational age) and six growth-concordant twin placentas (31+2-37 weeks gestational age). Gene expression libraries were constructed from placental biopsy samples and analyzed by RNA-sequencing...
April 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303410/downregulation-of-myogenic-micrornas-in-sub-chronic-but-not-in-sub-acute-model-of-daunorubicin-induced-cardiomyopathy
#8
Gabriel Doka, Eva Malikova, Kristina Galkova, Giampiero La Rocca, Peter Kruzliak, Mariusz Adamek, Luis Rodrigo, Peter Krenek, Jan Klimas
Cardiac muscle-related microRNAs play important roles in cardiac development and disease by translational silencing of mRNAs, the dominant mechanism of microRNA action. To test whether they could be involved in daunorubicin-associated cardiomyopathy (DACM), we determined expression patterns of myomiRs in two distinct models of DACM. We used 10-12 weeks old male Wistar rats. In the sub-acute model, rats were administered with six doses of daunorubicin (DAU-A, 3 mg/kg, i.p., every 48 h). Rats were sacrificed two days after the last dose...
March 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303350/immunohistochemical-evaluation-of-klotho-and-dna-methyltransferase-3a-in-oral-squamous-cell-carcinomas
#9
Bhoj Raj Adhikari, Osamu Uehara, Hirofumi Matsuoka, Rie Takai, Fumiya Harada, Masafumi Utsunomiya, Takatoshi Chujo, Tetsuro Morikawa, Mamata Shakya, Koki Yoshida, Jun Sato, Toshiya Arakawa, Michiko Nishimura, Hiroki Nagayasu, Itsuo Chiba, Yoshihiro Abiko
Carcinoma follows a course of multiple changes that are affected by several important factors, with epigenetic silencing of the promoter gene being one of them. A series of studies have suggested that epigenetic changes in the anti-aging gene Klotho may be one of the emerging areas of concern in the study of carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that epigenetic silencing of Klotho due to hypermethylation of DNMT3a may be one of the causes of carcinoma in the oral and maxillofacial region. In this study, we analyzed the immunohistochemical expressions of Klotho and DNMT3a in tissues obtained from oral dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma...
March 16, 2017: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301205/intratendon-delivery-of-leukocyte-poor-platelet-rich-plasma-improves-healing-compared-with-leukocyte-rich-platelet-rich-plasma-in-a-rabbit-achilles-tendinopathy-model
#10
Ruijian Yan, Yanjia Gu, Jisheng Ran, Yejun Hu, Zefeng Zheng, Mengfeng Zeng, Boonchin Heng, Xiao Chen, Zi Yin, Weishan Chen, Weiliang Shen, Hongwei Ouyang
BACKGROUND: Chronic tendinopathy is a commonly occurring clinical problem that affects both athletes and inactive middle-aged patients. Although some studies have shown that different platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preparations could exert various therapeutic effects in vitro, the role of leukocytes in PRP has not yet been defined under tendinopathy conditions in vivo. PURPOSE: This study compared the effects of the intratendon delivery of leukocyte-poor PRP (Lp-PRP) versus leukocyte-rich PRP (Lr-PRP) in a rabbit chronic tendinopathy model in vivo...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300011/neonatal-fatty-acid-profiles-are-correlated-with-infant-growth-measures-at-6-months
#11
P F O'Tierney-Ginn, D Davina, M Gillingham, D J P Barker, C Morris, K L Thornburg
Rapid weight gain in infancy and low levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) at birth are associated with increased adiposity later in life. The association between placental LCPUFA delivery and weight gain in infancy is poorly understood. We sought to determine the relationships between maternal phenotype, placental fatty acid transporter expression and offspring growth patterns over the first 6 months. Placental tissue and cord blood were collected at term delivery from women with uncomplicated pregnancies...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299817/altered-expression-of-the-olr59-ethe1-and-slc10a2-genes-in-the-liver-of-f344-rats-by-neonatal-thyroid-hormone-disruption
#12
Kana Matsubara, Naoki Nakamura, Seigo Sanoh, Shigeru Ohta, Shigeyuki Kitamura, Naoto Uramaru, Shinichi Miyagawa, Taisen Iguchi, Nariaki Fujimoto
Many concerns have been expressed regarding the possible adverse effects of thyroid hormone-disrupting chemicals in the environment. The disruption of thyroid hormones in the neonatal period may lead to permanent effects on thyroid hormone homeostasis as well as related developmental disorders, as thyroid hormones are essential for regulating the growth and differentiation of many tissues. To understand the long-term alteration in gene expressions by neonatal administration of thyroid hormone-like chemicals in general, we identified genes whose expression was altered in the liver, an important component of the thyroid hormone axis, by neonatal exposure to triiodothyronine (T3)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299655/runx-family-genes-in-tissue-stem-cell-dynamics
#13
Chelsia Qiuxia Wang, Michelle Meng Huang Mok, Tomomasa Yokomizo, Vinay Tergaonkar, Motomi Osato
The Runx family genes play important roles in development and cancer, largely via their regulation of tissue stem cell behavior. Their involvement in two organs, blood and skin, is well documented. This review summarizes currently known Runx functions in the stem cells of these tissues. The fundamental core mechanism(s) mediated by Runx proteins has been sought; however, it appears that there does not exist one single common machinery that governs both tissue stem cells. Instead, Runx family genes employ multiple spatiotemporal mechanisms in regulating individual tissue stem cell populations...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293015/profile-of-expression-of-genes-encoding-matrix-metallopeptidase-9-mmp9-matrix-metallopeptidase-28-mmp28-and-timp-metallopeptidase-inhibitor-1-timp1-in-colorectal-cancer-assessment-of-the-role-in-diagnosis-and-prognostication
#14
Zbigniew Lorenc, Dariusz Waniczek, Katarzyna Lorenc-Podgórska, Wiktor Krawczyk, Maciej Domagała, Mateusz Majewski, Urszula Mazurek
BACKGROUND Studies on the pathomechanism of colorectal cancer (CRC) expansion indicate a significant role of metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in the extracellular matrix. The results of the analysis of a profile of transcriptional activity of genes encoding metalloproteinases were the basis of the hypothesis indicating changes in the expression of genes encoding MMP9, MMP28, and TIMP1 as an additional diagnostic and prognostic marker of CRC. MATERIAL AND METHODS The material consisted of samples obtained from resected tumors and healthy tissue samples from 15 CRC patients (aged 46-72 years) at clinical stages (CSs) I and II-IV...
March 15, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292758/feeding-influences-adipose-tissue-responses-to-exercise-in-overweight-men
#15
Yung-Chih Chen, Rebecca L Travers, Jean-Philippe Walhin, Javier T Gonzalez, Francoise Koumanov, James A Betts, Dylan Thompson
Feeding profoundly affects metabolic responses to exercise in various tissues but the effect of feeding status on human adipose tissue responses to exercise has never been studied. Ten healthy overweight men aged 26 ± 5 years (mean ± SD) with a waist circumference of 105 ± 10 cm walked at 60% of maximum oxygen uptake under either FASTED or FED conditions in a randomised, counterbalanced design. Feeding comprised 648 ± 115 kcal 2 h before exercise. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals to examine changes in metabolic parameters and adipokine concentrations...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292562/a-quantitative-analysis-of-multilineage-differentiating-stress-enduring-muse-cells-in-human-adipose-tissue-and-efficacy-of-melanocytes-induction
#16
Takeshi Yamauchi, Kenshi Yamasaki, Kenichiro Tsuchiyama, Saaya Koike, Setsuya Aiba
We have shown previously that multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells in neonatal fibroblasts can differentiate into functional melanocytes. In this study, we quantitate Muse cells in adipose-mesenchymal stem cells (adipose-MSCs) of human subcutaneous tissue obtained from 11 subjects of various ages, and measured efficacy of melanocytes induction from Adipose-MSC-derived Muse cells (hASC-Muse cells). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the age of donors and the numbers of adipose-MSCs recovered per g fat as well as the percentage of SSEA3+ cells in the adipose-MSC populations, but isolated hASC-Muse cells showed pluripotency and growth curves equally regardless the age of donors...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291821/transcriptomic-profile-of-leg-muscle-during-early-growth-in-chicken
#17
Qian Xue, Genxi Zhang, Tingting Li, Jiaojiao Ling, Xiangqian Zhang, Jinyu Wang
The early growth pattern, especially the age of peak growth, of broilers affects the time to market and slaughter weight, which in turn affect the profitability of the poultry industry. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating chicken growth and development have rarely been studied. This study aimed to identify candidate genes involved in chicken growth and investigated the potential regulatory mechanisms of early growth in chicken. RNA sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of chicken muscle tissues at three developmental stages during early growth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291008/the-efficacy-of-yttrium-90-radiosynovectomy-in-patients-with-camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa-vara-pericarditis-syndrome
#18
Sulaiman Mohammed Al-Mayouf, Nora Almutairi, Khalid Alismail
OBJECTIVE: Camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa-vara-pericarditis (CACP) syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in PRG4 gene that encodes for proteoglycan 4, the main lubricant for joints and tendon surfaces. It is a non-inflammatory arthropathy, characterized by joint effusions and synovial hypertrophy. So far, there is no effective treatment for this disorder. To evaluate the effectiveness of yttrium-90 radiosynovectomy in arthropathy of patients with CACP syndrome...
February 5, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290609/senescence-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-review
#19
Yi Li, Qiong Wu, Yujia Wang, Li Li, Hong Bu, Ji Bao
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used in cell-based therapy for various diseases, due to their immunomodulatory and inflammatory effects. However, the function of MSCs is known to decline with age, a process that is called senescence. To date, the process of MSC senescence remains unknown as in-depth understanding of the mechanisms involved in cellular senescence is lacking. First, senescent MSCs are so heterogeneous that not all of them express the same phenotypic markers. In addition, the genes and signaling pathways which regulate this process in MSCs are still unknown...
March 9, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289249/control-of-cellular-aging-tissue-function-and-cancer-by-p53-downstream-of-telomeres
#20
Caitlin M Roake, Steven E Artandi
Telomeres, the nucleoprotein complex at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, perform an essential cellular role in part by preventing the chromosomal end from initiating a DNA-damage response. This function of telomeres can be compromised as telomeres erode either as a consequence of cell division in culture or as a normal part of cellular ageing in proliferative tissues. Telomere dysfunction in this context leads to DNA-damage signaling and activation of the tumor-suppressor protein p53, which then can prompt either cellular senescence or apoptosis...
March 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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