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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817404/primary-renal-sarcomas-with-bcor-ccnb3-gene-fusion-a-report-of-2-cases-showing-histologic-overlap-with-clear-cell-sarcoma-of-kidney-suggesting-further-link-between-bcor-related-sarcomas-of-the-kidney-and-soft-tissues
#1
Pedram Argani, Yu-Chien Kao, Lei Zhang, Carlos Bacchi, Andres Matoso, Rita Alaggio, Jonathan I Epstein, Cristina R Antonescu
We report 2 primary renal sarcomas demonstrating BCOR-CCNB3 gene fusions that have recently been identified in undifferentiated round cell sarcomas of bone and soft tissue. These neoplasms occurred in male children aged 11 and 12 years, and both were cystic as a result of entrapment and dilatation of native renal tubules. Both cases were composed of variably cellular bland spindle cells with fine chromatin set in myxoid stroma and separated by a branching capillary vasculature. Both neoplasms demonstrated immunoreactivity for BCOR, cyclin D1, TLE1, and SATB2 in the spindle neoplastic cells and negativity in the prominent capillary vasculature...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814614/role-of-inactivity-in-chronic-diseases-evolutionary-insight-and-pathophysiological-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Frank W Booth, Christian K Roberts, John P Thyfault, Gregory N Ruegsegger, Ryan G Toedebusch
This review proposes that physical inactivity could be considered a behavior selected by evolution for resting, and also selected to be reinforcing in life-threatening situations in which exercise would be dangerous. Underlying the notion are human twin studies and animal selective breeding studies, both of which provide indirect evidence for the existence of genes for physical inactivity. Approximately 86% of the 325 million in the United States (U.S.) population achieve less than the U.S. Government and World Health Organization guidelines for daily physical activity for health...
October 1, 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814270/transcriptional-analysis-of-abdominal-fat-in-chickens-divergently-selected-on-bodyweight-at-two-ages-reveals-novel-mechanisms-controlling-adiposity-validating-visceral-adipose-tissue-as-a-dynamic-endocrine-and-metabolic-organ
#3
C W Resnyk, W Carré, X Wang, T E Porter, J Simon, E Le Bihan-Duval, M J Duclos, S E Aggrey, L A Cogburn
BACKGROUND: Decades of intensive genetic selection in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) have enabled the remarkable rapid growth of today's broiler (meat-type) chickens. However, this enhanced growth rate was accompanied by several unfavorable traits (i.e., increased visceral fatness, leg weakness, and disorders of metabolism and reproduction). The present descriptive analysis of the abdominal fat transcriptome aimed to identify functional genes and biological pathways that likely contribute to an extreme difference in visceral fatness of divergently selected broiler chickens...
August 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813529/natural-and-artificial-feeding-management-before-weaning-promote-different-rumen-microbial-colonization-but-not-differences-in-gene-expression-levels-at-the-rumen-epithelium-of-newborn-goats
#4
Leticia Abecia, Elisabeth Jiménez, Gonzalo Martínez-Fernandez, A Ignacio Martín-García, Eva Ramos-Morales, Eric Pinloche, Stuart E Denman, C Jamie Newbold, David R Yáñez-Ruiz
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding management during the first month of life (natural with the mother, NAT, or artificial with milk replacer, ART) on the rumen microbial colonization and the host innate immune response. Thirty pregnant goats carrying two fetuses were used. At birth one kid was taken immediately away from the doe and fed milk replacer (ART) while the other remained with the mother (NAT). Kids from groups received colostrum during first 2 days of life. Groups of four kids (from ART and NAT experimental groups) were slaughtered at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of life...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811655/a-tissue-engineered-blood-vessel-model-of-hutchinson-gilford-progeria-syndrome-using-human-ipsc-derived-smooth-muscle-cells
#5
Leigh Atchison, Haoyue Zhang, Kan Cao, George A Truskey
Hutchison-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a rare, accelerated aging disorder caused by nuclear accumulation of progerin, an altered form of the Lamin A gene. The primary cause of death is cardiovascular disease at about 14 years. Loss and dysfunction of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the vasculature may cause defects associated with HGPS. Due to limitations of 2D cell culture and mouse models, there is a need to develop improved models to discover novel therapeutics. To address this need, we produced a functional three-dimensional model of HGPS that replicates an arteriole-scale tissue engineered blood vessel (TEBV) using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived SMCs from an HGPS patient...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811612/coenzyme-q10-improves-lipid-metabolism-and-ameliorates-obesity-by-regulating-camkii-mediated-pde4-inhibition
#6
Zhe Xu, Jia Huo, Xin Ding, Mu Yang, Lin Li, Jian Dai, Kazunori Hosoe, Hiroshi Kubo, Masayuki Mori, Keiichi Higuchi, Jinko Sawashita
Our recent studies revealed that supplementation with the reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10H2) inhibits oxidative stress and slows the process of aging in senescence-accelerated mice. CoQ10H2 inhibits adipocyte differentiation and regulates lipid metabolism. In the present study, we show that dietary supplementation with CoQ10H2 significantly reduced white adipose tissue content and improved the function of brown adipose tissue by regulating expression of lipid metabolism-related factors in KKAy mice, a model of obesity and type 2 diabetes...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811294/dihydrocapsiate-improved-age-associated-impairments-in-mice-by-increasing-energy-expenditure
#7
Kana Ohyama, Katsuya Suzuki
Metabolic dysfunction is associated with aging and results in age-associated chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Hence, there has been a focus on increasing energy expenditure in aged populations to protect them from age-associated diseases. Dihydrocapsiate (DCT) is a compound that belongs to the capsinoid family. Capsinoids are capsaicin analogs that are found in non-pungent peppers and increase whole-body energy expenditure. However, their effect on energy expenditure has been reported only in young populations, and to date the effectiveness of DCT in increasing energy expenditure in aged populations has not been investigated...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810582/microrna-92a-promotes-cell-viability-and-invasion-in-cervical-cancer-via-directly-targeting-dickkopf-related-protein-3
#8
Shengtian Luo, Na Li, Shaohua Yu, Lichun Chen, Chunying Liu, Jiawei Rong
MicroRNA-92a (miR-92a) was recently reported to have an oncogenic role in cervical cancer; however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the expression, clinical significance and regulatory mechanism of miR-92a in cervical cancer. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) data indicated that miR-92a was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer tissues compared with matched adjacent non-tumor tissues (P<0.01). High expression of miR-92a was significantly associated with poor differentiation (P=0...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810314/-clinical-and-pathological-characteristics-of-erdheim-chester-disease-involving-the-lungs
#9
T Lu, S Wang, H Huang, T Wang, M Wang, D R Zhong, R E Feng
Objective: To explore the clinical manifestations, pathological features, differential diagnosis and gene mutation status in patients with pulmonary involvement of Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD). Methods: The clinical data of 4 cases of Erdheim-Chester disease admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital from October 2014 to August 2016 were examined for imaging, microscopic and immunohistochemitry findings, and BRAFV600E mutation. The related literatures were reviewed. Results: Among the 4 cases, there were 3 males and 1 female, aging from 7 to 47 years, and the average age was 34...
August 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810250/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-is-associated-with-dysregulation-in-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-system-and-other-major-cellular-pathways-in-specific-brain-regions
#10
Marie-Françoise Ritz, Caspar Grond-Ginsbach, Felix Fluri, Manja Kloss, Markus Tolnay, Nils Peters, Stefan Engelter, Philippe Lyrer
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is characterized by periventricular white matter (WM) changes and can lead to vascular dementia, the second most common form of age-dependent dementia. The pathogenesis of the disease remains poorly understood, and studies of its molecular basis are limited. By profiling gene expression of dissected postmortem brain tissue in SVD patients and comparisons with tissue of nonneurological controls, we aimed to identify genes and processes that are involved in the pathogenesis of SVD to gain new pathogenetic insights...
August 16, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807865/novel-compound-heterozygous-mutations-identified-by-whole-exome-sequencing-in-a-japanese-patient-with-geroderma-osteodysplastica
#11
Ryojun Takeda, Masaki Takagi, Hiroyuki Shinohara, Hiroshi Futagawa, Satoshi Narumi, Tomonobu Hasegawa, Gen Nishimura, Hiroshi Yoshihashi
Geroderma osteodysplastica (GO) is a subtype of cutis laxa syndrome characterized by congenital wrinkly skin, a prematurely aged face, extremely short stature, and osteoporosis leading to recurrent fractures. GO exhibits an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern and is caused by loss-of-function mutations in GORAB, which encodes a protein important for Golgi-related transport. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified novel compound heterozygous nonsense mutations in the GORAB in a GO patient. The patient was a 14-year-old Japanese boy...
August 11, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807550/decreased-gene-expression-of-fatty-acid-binding-protein-3-in-the-atrium-of-patients-with-new-onset-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-cardiac-perioperative-phase
#12
Yasushige Shingu, Takashi Yokota, Shingo Takada, Haruki Niwano, Tomonori Ooka, Hiroki Katoh, Tsuyoshi Tachibana, Suguru Kubota, Yoshiro Matsui
BACKGROUND: Post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) frequently occurs after cardiac surgery. However, the mechanisms of POAF have not been fully elucidated. We aimed to examine whether pre-operative atrial gene expression related to cardiac metabolism is changed in patients with POAF. METHODS: Right atrial tissue was obtained during surgery from 38 patients who underwent cardiac surgery from 2013 to 2015. Atrial expression levels were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the following genes: glucose transporter type 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, fatty acid translocase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B, and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3)...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803751/insulin-prevents-aberrant-mitochondrial-phenotype-in-sensory-neurons-of-type-1-diabetic-rats
#13
Mohamad-Reza Aghanoori, Darrell R Smith, Subir Roy Chowdhury, Mohammad Golam Sabbir, Nigel A Calcutt, Paul Fernyhough
Diabetic neuropathy affects approximately 50% of diabetic patients. Down-regulation of mitochondrial gene expression and function has been reported in both human tissues and in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that loss of direct insulin signaling in diabetes contributes to loss of mitochondrial function in DRG neurons and to development of neuropathy. Sensory neurons obtained from age-matched adult control or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats were cultured with or without insulin before determining mitochondrial respiration and expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain and insulin signaling-linked proteins...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802630/infantile-hypophosphatasia-combined-with-vitamin-b6-responsive-seizures-and-reticular-formation-lesions-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-case-report
#14
Mitsuharu Fukazawa, Junichiro Tezuka, Momoko Sasazuki, Natsuko Masumoto, Haruhisa Baba, Takehiko Doi, Yasushi Tsutsumi, Yuji Mizuno, Futoshi Mihara, Hideki Nakayama
BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by rachitic bone manifestations and a low serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level. It is caused by mutations in the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene, which encodes the tissue non-specific isozyme of ALP. HPP patients exhibit various presentations depending on their age at onset, such as infantile HPP combined with vitamin B6-responsive seizures. CASE PRESENTATION: A newborn with infantile HPP presented with tonic convulsions from day 5 after birth and received intravenous vitamin B6 (10mg/kg/day pyridoxal phosphate)...
August 9, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802040/aged-stem-cells-reprogram-their-daily-rhythmic-functions-to-adapt-to-stress
#15
Guiomar Solanas, Francisca Oliveira Peixoto, Eusebio Perdiguero, Mercè Jardí, Vanessa Ruiz-Bonilla, Debayan Datta, Aikaterini Symeonidi, Andrés Castellanos, Patrick-Simon Welz, Juan Martín Caballero, Paolo Sassone-Corsi, Pura Muñoz-Cánoves, Salvador Aznar Benitah
Normal homeostatic functions of adult stem cells have rhythmic daily oscillations that are believed to become arrhythmic during aging. Unexpectedly, we find that aged mice remain behaviorally circadian and that their epidermal and muscle stem cells retain a robustly rhythmic core circadian machinery. However, the oscillating transcriptome is extensively reprogrammed in aged stem cells, switching from genes involved in homeostasis to those involved in tissue-specific stresses, such as DNA damage or inefficient autophagy...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802039/circadian-reprogramming-in-the-liver-identifies-metabolic-pathways-of-aging
#16
Shogo Sato, Guiomar Solanas, Francisca Oliveira Peixoto, Leonardo Bee, Aikaterini Symeonidi, Mark S Schmidt, Charles Brenner, Selma Masri, Salvador Aznar Benitah, Paolo Sassone-Corsi
The process of aging and circadian rhythms are intimately intertwined, but how peripheral clocks involved in metabolic homeostasis contribute to aging remains unknown. Importantly, caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan in several organisms and rewires circadian metabolism. Using young versus old mice, fed ad libitum or under CR, we reveal reprogramming of the circadian transcriptome in the liver. These age-dependent changes occur in a highly tissue-specific manner, as demonstrated by comparing circadian gene expression in the liver versus epidermal and skeletal muscle stem cells...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801701/the-overexpression-of-hsp90b1-is-associated-with-tumorigenesis-of-canine-mammary-glands
#17
B V Sunil Kumar, Rabia Bhardwaj, Kanika Mahajan, Neeraj Kashyap, Ashwani Kumar, Ramneek Verma
Heat shock proteins (Hsp) are molecular chaperones that are responsible for protein folding and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Hsp90, an important member of HSP family, has an important role in breast cancer. Glucose-regulated protein 94 (Grp94) is the endoplasmic reticulum paralog of Hsp90 encoded by Hsp90B1 gene. To test if this protein is overexpressed in dogs with mammary tumor, we estimated and compared its serum levels in healthy dogs and that of dogs with mammary tumors. Hsp90B1 mRNA expression was measured in tumorous and healthy mammary tissues (from age- and breed-matched dogs) by real-time PCR...
August 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801529/silencing-of-repetitive-dna-is-controlled-by-a-member-of-an-unusual-caenorhabditis-elegans-gene-family
#18
Eduardo Leyva-Díaz, Nikolaos Stefanakis, Inés Carrera, Lori Glenwinkel, Guoqiang Wang, Monica Driscoll, Oliver Hobert
Repetitive DNA sequences are subject to gene silencing in various animal species. Under specific circumstances repetitive DNA sequences can escape such silencing. For example, when exogenously added, extrachromosomal DNA sequences that are stably inherited in multicopy repetitive arrays in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans are frequently silenced in the germline, whereas such silencing often does not occur in the soma. This indicates that somatic cells might utilize factors that prevent repetitive DNA silencing...
August 11, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800310/nephroblastoma-overexpressed-gene-expression-and-its-prognostic-implications-of-clinical-outcomes-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-patients
#19
Hongbin Shi, Jianping Yu, Jie Li
BACKGROUND: The nephroblastoma overexpressed gene (NOV) expressions in tissues and organs has become abnormal during tumorigenesis and progression. This study intended to investigate the correlation between clinical outcomes and NOV expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. METHODS: Fifty RCC patients who attended the hospital from January 2013 to January 2015 were enrolled in this study. NOV expression in cancerous tissues and adjacent non-cancerous renal tissues of RCC patients were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
July 31, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798202/aerobic-exercise-elevates-markers-of-angiogenesis-and-macrophage-il6-gene-expression-in-the-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-of-overweight-to-obese-adults
#20
Douglas W Van Pelt, Lisa M Guth, Jeffrey F Horowitz
Alterations in the inflammatory state, metabolic function, and structure of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) can impact the development of insulin resistance in obesity. Exercise can improve metabolic health in obesity, but the effects of exercise on SAT are not well known. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute exercise and habitual exercise training on mRNA expression of markers of lipid metabolism, inflammation, fibrosis, and hypoxia/angiogenesis in SAT, as well as adipocyte cell size...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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