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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910962/baricitinib-jak-inhibition-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#1
J Gras
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by inflammation and joint destruction, is associated with pain, progressive disability, systemic comorbidities and early death. Conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biological DMARDs (bDMARDs) have been able to achieve remission or a very low disease activity status for RA. Nevertheless, since many patients do not reach a sufficient response with DMARDs or present with unacceptable side effects, new therapies are needed...
October 2016: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905037/involvement-of-jak1-jak2-and-jak3-in-stimulation-of-functional-activity-of-mesenchymal-progenitor-cells-by-fibroblast-growth-factor
#2
G N Zyuz'kov, V V Zhdanov, E V Udut, L A Miroshnichenko, E V Simanina, T Yu Polyakova, L A Stavrova, V V Udut, M Yu Minakova, A M Dygai
We studied the involvement of individual JAK kinases in the realization of the growth potential of mesenchymal precursors under the effect of fibroblast growth factor. The important role of JAK2 and JAK3 in determining the initial level of mitotic activity of progenitor cells and participation of JAK1 in this process under conditions of cytokine stimulation of progenitor cells were demonstrated. Specific inhibitors of these kinases reduced the yield of fibroblast CFU and the rate of their division. Moreover, blockade of JAK1, JAK2, and JAK3 under the effect of fibroblast growth factor was accompanied by an increase in the intensity of progenitor cell differentiation...
December 1, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900363/integration-of-genomics-and-histology-revises-diagnosis-and-enables-effective-therapy-of-refractory-cancer-of-unknown-primary-with-pdl1-amplification
#3
Stefan Gröschel, Martin Bommer, Barbara Hutter, Jan Budczies, David Bonekamp, Christoph Heining, Peter Horak, Martina Fröhlich, Sebastian Uhrig, Daniel Hübschmann, Christina Geörg, Daniela Richter, Nicole Pfarr, Katrin Pfütze, Stephan Wolf, Peter Schirmacher, Dirk Jäger, Christof von Kalle, Benedikt Brors, Hanno Glimm, Wilko Weichert, Albrecht Stenzinger, Stefan Fröhling
Identification of the tissue of origin in cancer of unknown primary (CUP) poses a diagnostic challenge and is critical for directing site-specific therapy. Currently, clinical decision-making in patients with CUP primarily relies on histopathology and clinical features. Comprehensive molecular profiling has the potential to contribute to diagnostic categorization and, most importantly, guide CUP therapy through identification of actionable lesions. We here report the case of an advanced-stage malignancy initially mimicking poorly differentiated soft-tissue sarcoma that did not respond to multiagent chemotherapy...
November 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894077/tyrosine-kinase-fusion-genes-in-pediatric-bcr-abl1-like-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#4
Judith M Boer, Elisabeth M P Steeghs, João R M Marchante, Aurélie Boeree, James J Beaudoin, H Berna Beverloo, Roland P Kuiper, Gabriele Escherich, Vincent H J van der Velden, C Ellen van der Schoot, Hester A de Groot-Kruseman, Rob Pieters, Monique L den Boer
Approximately 15% of pediatric B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) is characterized by gene expression similar to that of BCR-ABL1-positive disease and unfavorable prognosis. This BCR-ABL1-like subtype shows a high frequency of B-cell development gene aberrations and tyrosine kinase-activating lesions. To evaluate the clinical significance of tyrosine kinase gene fusions in children with BCP-ALL, we studied the frequency of recently identified tyrosine kinase fusions, associated genetic features, and prognosis in a representative Dutch/German cohort...
November 22, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892610/beside-to-bench-jak-inhibitor-ruxolitinib-inhibits-the-expression-of-cytokines-characteristic-of-cutaneous-lupus-erythematosus
#5
Anna Sophie Klaeschen, Dominik Wolf, Peter Brossart, Thomas Bieber, Joerg Wenzel
This study was stimulated by the clinical observation of a rapid response of a chilblain lupus patient to treatment with JAK1/2-kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib. We investigated the in-vivo expression of phospho-JAK2 in CLE skin samples as well as the immunomodulatory in-vitro effect of ruxolitinib in cultured immortalized keratinocytes and in a 3D human epidermis model (epiCS). Our results demonstrate that ruxolitinib significantly decreases the production of CLE-typical cytokines (CXCL10, CXCL9, MxA) and might be a promising drug for future clinical studies in patients with CLE and related autoimmune skin diseases...
November 28, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889820/ruxolitinib-in-clinical-practice-for-primary-and-secondary-myelofibrosis-an-analysis-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-gruppo-laziale-of-ph-negative-mpn
#6
Massimo Breccia, Alessandro Andriani, Marco Montanaro, Elisabetta Abruzzese, Francesco Buccisano, Michele Cedrone, Antonietta Centra, Nicoletta Villivà, Francesca Celesti, Malgorzata Monica Trawinska, Fulvio Massaro, Ambra Di Veroli, Barbara Anaclerico, Gioia Colafigli, Matteo Molica, Antonio Spadea, Luca Petriccione, Giuseppe Cimino, Roberto Latagliata
Ruxolitinib, a JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor, has been tested and approved for the treatment of primary and secondary myelofibrosis (MF). Aim of our study is to report safety and efficacy of ruxolitinib in 98 patients affected by MF treated outside clinical trials and collected and treated consecutively by the Lazio Cooperative Group for Ph negative myeloproliferative diseases.There were 45 males and 53 females; median age was 61.8 years (range 35.3-88). Forty-five patients were diagnosed as primary MF and 53 as secondary MF...
November 26, 2016: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884974/from-leeches-to-personalized-medicine-evolving-concepts-in-the-management-of-polycythemia-vera
#7
Alessandro Maria Vannucchi
Polycythemia vera (PV), a clonal disorders of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells that manifests with prevalent expansion of red cell mass, is the most frequent among chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). It is characterized by a V617F point mutation in JAK2 exon 14 , or less common mutations in exon 12, in virtually all cases. The landmark discovery of autonomously activated JAK/STAT signaling pathway paved the way for the clinical development of the first target drug, the JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib, that is now approved for patients with resistance or intolerance to hydroxyurea...
November 24, 2016: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882812/should-we-be-treating-lower-risk-myelofibrosis-patients-with-a-jak2-inhibitor
#8
Guido Lancman, John Mascarenhas
Myelofibrosis (MF) is a Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm that is associated with debilitating constitutional symptoms, progressive splenomegaly, and cytopenias. Ruxolitinib, a JAK1/2 inhibitor, is currently the only drug approved for the treatment of patients with intermediate or high risk MF. There is rationale and even limited clinical data supporting the use of ruxolitinib in lower risk patients, although this has not yet been validated in a randomized controlled trial. Areas Covered: We examine rationale for using ruxolitinib in lower risk MF patients, including survival data from COMFORT-I and COMFORT-II, specific patient populations that may derive clinical benefit, and the future impact of molecular analysis on risk stratification and treatment...
November 24, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871289/inhibition-of-stat3-and-mapk-dependent-pge2-synthesis-ameliorates-phagocytosis-of-fibrillar-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptide-1-42-via-ep2-receptor-in-emf-stimulated-n9-microglial-cells
#9
Gen-Lin He, Zhen Luo, Ting-Ting Shen, Ping Li, Ju Yang, Xue Luo, Chun-Hai Chen, Peng Gao, Xue-Sen Yang
BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-involved neuroinflammatory processes are prevalent in several neurological conditions and diseases. Amyloid burden is correlated with the activation of E-prostanoid (EP) 2 receptors by PGE2 in Alzheimer's disease. We previously demonstrated that electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure can induce pro-inflammatory responses and the depression of phagocytosis in microglial cells, but the signaling pathways involved in phagocytosis of fibrillar β-amyloid (fAβ) in microglial cells exposed to EMF are poorly understood...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870571/high-frequency-and-poor-outcome-of-philadelphia-chromosome-like-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-adults
#10
Kathryn G Roberts, Zhaohui Gu, Debbie Payne-Turner, Kelly McCastlain, Richard C Harvey, I-Ming Chen, Deqing Pei, Ilaria Iacobucci, Marcus Valentine, Stanley B Pounds, Lei Shi, Yongjin Li, Jinghui Zhang, Cheng Cheng, Alessandro Rambaldi, Manuela Tosi, Orietta Spinelli, Jerald P Radich, Mark D Minden, Jacob M Rowe, Selina Luger, Mark R Litzow, Martin S Tallman, Peter H Wiernik, Ravi Bhatia, Ibrahim Aldoss, Jessica Kohlschmidt, Krzysztof Mrózek, Guido Marcucci, Clara D Bloomfield, Wendy Stock, Stephen Kornblau, Hagop M Kantarjian, Marina Konopleva, Elisabeth Paietta, Cheryl L Willman, Charles G Mullighan
Purpose Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) -like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a high-risk subtype of childhood ALL characterized by kinase-activating alterations that are amenable to treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We sought to define the prevalence and genomic landscape of Ph-like ALL in adults and assess response to conventional chemotherapy. Patients and Methods The frequency of Ph-like ALL was assessed by gene expression profiling of 798 patients with B-cell ALL age 21 to 86 years. Event-free survival and overall survival were determined for Ph-like ALL versus non-Ph-like ALL patients...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870387/primary-myelofibrosis-2017-update-on-diagnosis-risk-stratification-and-management
#11
Ayalew Tefferi
: Disease overview: Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) characterized by stem cell-derived clonal myeloproliferation that is often but not always accompanied by JAK2, CALR or MPL mutation, abnormal cytokine expression, bone marrow fibrosis, anemia, splenomegaly, extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH), constitutional symptoms, cachexia, leukemic progression and shortened survival. DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis is based on bone marrow morphology...
December 2016: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865464/myeloproliferative-neoplasms-molecular-drivers-and-therapeutics
#12
G W Reuther
Activating mutations in genes that drive neoplastic cell growth are numerous and widespread in cancer, and specific genetic alterations are associated with certain types of cancer. For example, classic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are hematopoietic stem cell disorders that affect cells of the myeloid lineage, including erythrocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. An activating mutation in the JAK2 tyrosine kinase is prevalent in these diseases. In MPN patients that lack such a mutation, other genetic changes that lead to activation of the JAK2 signaling pathway are present, indicating deregulation of JAK2 signaling plays an etiological driving role in MPNs, a concept supported by significant evidence from in vivo experimental MPN systems...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860260/integration-of-ruxolitinib-into-dose-intensified-therapy-targeted-against-a-novel-jak2-f694l-mutation-in-b-precursor-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#13
Jodi R Mayfield, David R Czuchlewski, James M Gale, Ksenia Matlawska-Wasowska, Mohammad A Vasef, Christian Nickl, Gavin Pickett, Scott A Ness, Stuart S Winter
A 17-year-old girl with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) with persistent minimal residual disease (MRD) who underwent standard chemotherapy was found to have a BCR-ABL1-like gene expression pattern. Genome sequencing revealed a JAK2 mutation not previously described in BCP-ALL and a potential therapeutic target. Due to concern for an on-therapy relapse, the JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib was incorporated into a modified chemotherapy backbone to achieve complete remission prior to stem cell transplant...
November 15, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856658/new-targets-in-psoriatic-arthritis
#14
REVIEW
Juergen Braun
PsA is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease that affects both skin and joints; it is a heterogeneous disease characterized by synovitis, enthesitis, dactylitis and spondylitis. The impact on patients and the burden of disease are substantial. For assessment of the disease, patient-reported outcomes are increasingly important. Conventional therapy consists of NSAIDs, local and systemic CSs, and synthetic and biological DMARDs. While MTX, LEF, SSZ and CYC are the synthetic drugs mainly used, TNF-α blocking agents have represented the majority of biologics used in the last decade (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, certolizumab and golimumab)...
December 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848055/knockdown-of-klf11-attenuates-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury-via-jak2-stat3-signaling-in-h9c2
#15
Yang Li, Xiaojing Shi, Jian Li, Minghui Zhang, Bo Yu
KLF11 is a Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family member, which plays a central role in cardiac hypertrophy and cerebrovascular protection during ischemic insults. However, the roles of KLF11 in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury of rat cardiomyocytes H9c2 have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of KLF11 on H/R injury and investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. Here, we found that KLF11 was increased following H/R and reached the highest level with 24 h hypoxia followed by 12 h reoxygenation...
November 15, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847203/lycorine-induces-cell-death-in-mm-by-suppressing-janus-kinase-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-via-inducing-the-expression-of-socs1
#16
Zhouxiang Jin, Shujuan Zhou, Yu Zhang, Haige Ye, Songfu Jiang, Kang Yu, Yongyong Ma
Despite the use of novel anti-myeloma agents,nearly all patients will eventually relapse or become refractory to drug treatment. New and more effective drugs for multiple myeloma (MM) are urgently needed. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway is important in the proliferation of myeloma cells.Lycorine,a natural alkaloid extracted from amaryllidaceae, has shown anti-tumor effects against a variety of solid tumors. However, its effects on MM remain unclear.In this study,we found that lycorine inhibited cellular viability and induced cell death in MM cell lines and primary myeloma cells which were derived from our four MM patients...
November 12, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832516/assessing-the-safety-and-efficacy-of-ruxolitinib-in-a-multicenter-open-label-study-in-japanese-patients-with-myelofibrosis
#17
Norio Komatsu, Keita Kirito, Kazuya Shimoda, Takayuki Ishikawa, Kohshi Ohishi, Kazuma Ohyashiki, Naoto Takahashi, Hikaru Okada, Taro Amagasaki, Toshio Yonezu, Koichi Akashi
Ruxolitinib is a potent JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor that has demonstrated durable improvements in splenomegaly, symptoms, and overall survival in controlled clinical trials in patients with myelofibrosis. The single-arm study reported here was initiated to collect further safety and efficacy data in Japanese patients with myelofibrosis and is the largest study of ruxolitinib in this population. The primary objective was to assess safety. Secondary endpoints included changes in spleen size and patient-reported outcomes...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825119/malignant-ascites-enhances-migratory-and-invasive-properties-of-ovarian-cancer-cells-with-membrane-bound-il-6r-in-vitro
#18
Soochi Kim, HyeRan Gwak, Hee Seung Kim, Boyun Kim, Danny N Dhanasekaran, Yong Sang Song
Transcoelomic route is the most common and the earliest route of metastasis, causing the ascites formation in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We demonstrated that interleukin 6 (IL-6) is enriched in the malignant ascites from patients with ovarian cancer, which enhanced invasive properties of EOC cells. Interestingly, the expression of IL-6R on cell membrane of EOC cells correlated with ascites-induced invasion. Selective knockdown of IL-6R or inhibition with IL-6 neutralizing antibody, suppressed the stimulatory effects of ascites on EOC invasion...
November 4, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802075/kinase-inactive-tyrosine-kinase-tyk2-supports-differentiation-of-brown-fat-cells
#19
Vidisha Raje, Marta Derecka, Marc Cantwell, Jeremy Meier, Karol Szczepanek, Jennifer D Sisler, Birgit Strobl, Ana Gamero, Thurl E Harris, Andrew C Larner
It has been known for decades that brown adipose tissue plays a central role in maintaining body temperature in hibernating animals, and human infants. Recently it has become evident that there are also depots of brown fat in adult humans, and the mass of brown fat is inversely correlated with body weight. There are a variety of transcription factors implicated in the differentiation of classical Myf5+ brown preadipocytes, one of the most important of which is PRDM16. We have recently identified that in addition to PRDM16, the tyrosine kinase Tyk2 and the STAT3 transcription factor are required for the differentiation of Myf5 positive brown preadipocytes both in cell culture and in mice...
November 1, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796499/underlying-mechanisms-of-the-jak2v617f-mutation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#20
A Mullally
Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) comprise a spectrum of clonal neoplastic disorders characterized by overproduction of terminally differentiated cells of the myeloid lineage. A common genetic basis for the BCR-ABL-negative MPN disorders was elucidated in 2005 with the identification of the JAK2V617F mutation in the majority of MPN patients. The discovery of JAK2V617F had a dramatic impact on the diagnosis and treatment of MPN. Testing for JAK2 mutations is now included in the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for the diagnosis of MPN, and in 2011 the oral JAK2 kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib became the first Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug for the treatment of myelofibrosis...
October 31, 2016: Der Pathologe
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