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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222029/rapid-regulation-of-substrate-use-for-oxidative-phosphorylation-during-a-single-session-of-high-intensity-interval-or-aerobic-exercises-in-different-rat-skeletal-muscles
#1
Eduarda Lopes Martins, Juliana Carvalho Ricardo, Eduardo de-Souza-Ferreira, Juliana Camacho-Pereira, Dionizio Ramos-Filho, Antonio Galina
Different exercise protocols lead to long-term adaptations that are related to increased mitochondrial content through the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis. However, immediate mitochondrial response to exercise and energetic substrate utilization is still unknown. We evaluate the mitochondrial physiology of two types rat skeletal muscle fibres immediately after a single session of high intensity interval exercise (HIIE) or aerobic exercise (AER). We found AER was able to reduce the ATP synthesis dependent oxygen flux in the tibialis (TA) when stimulated by complex I and II substrates...
December 5, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213260/increased-denitrification-rates-associated-with-shifts-in-prokaryotic-community-composition-caused-by-varying-hydrologic-connectivity
#2
Abigail Tomasek, Christopher Staley, Ping Wang, Thomas Kaiser, Nicole Lurndahl, Jessica L Kozarek, Miki Hondzo, Michael J Sadowsky
While modern developments in agriculture have allowed for increases in crop yields and rapid human population growth, they have also drastically altered biogeochemical cycles, including the biotransformation of nitrogen. Denitrification is a critical process performed by bacteria and fungi that removes nitrate in surface waters, thereby serving as a potential natural remediation strategy. We previously reported that constant inundation resulted in a coupling of denitrification gene abundances with denitrification rates in sediments, but these relationships were not maintained in periodically-inundated or non-inundated environments...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212582/benefits-of-intraluminal-agarose-stents-during-end-to-end-intestinal-anastomosis-in-new-zealand-white-rabbits
#3
Wen-Yao Kuo, Hsiao-Chun Huang, Shih-Wei Huang, Kuan-Hua Yu, Feng-Pang Cheng, Jiann-Hsiung Wang, Jui-Te Wu
In the present study, we evaluated the utility of an intraluminal agarose stent (IAS) for end-to-end intestinal anastomoses in rabbits. Female New Zealand white rabbits (n = 14) underwent conventional sutured anastomosis (CSA) with or without an IAS. IAS were used to maintain the luminal diameter for more rapid and accurate suturing, and then was squeezed transluminally to crush it into fragments, which passed through the intestines and were eliminated. The rabbits were euthanized on postoperative day 21. At necropsy, the anastomoses were assessed for adhesion formation, stenosis, and bursting pressure and were examined histologically for collagen content and blood vessel formation...
December 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210791/design-and-evaluation-of-a-closed-loop-anesthesia-system-with-robust-control-and-safety-system
#4
Nicholas West, Klaske van Heusden, Matthias Görges, Sonia Brodie, Aryannah Rollinson, Christian L Petersen, Guy A Dumont, J Mark Ansermino, Richard N Merchant
BACKGROUND: Closed-loop control of anesthesia involves continual adjustment of drug infusion rates according to measured clinical effect. The NeuroSENSE monitor provides an electroencephalographic measure of depth of hypnosis (wavelet-based anesthetic value for central nervous system monitoring [WAVCNS]). It has previously been used as feedback for closed-loop control of propofol, in a system designed using robust control engineering principles, which implements features specifically designed to ensure patient safety...
November 22, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209511/effectiveness-of-composting-as-a-biosecure-disposal-method-for-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-pedv-infected-pig-carcasses
#5
Sarah Vitosh-Sillman, John Dustin Loy, Bruce Brodersen, Clayton Kelling, Kent Eskridge, Amy Millmier Schmidt
Background: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an enteric disease of swine that has emerged as a worldwide threat to swine herd health and production. Substantial research has been conducted to assess viability of the virus on surfaces of vehicles and equipment, in feed and water, and on production building surfaces, but little is known about the persistence in PEDV-infected carcasses and effective disposal methods thereof. This study was conducted to quantify the persistence of PEDV RNA via quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) at various time-temperature combinations and in infected piglet carcasses subjected to composting...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207304/evaluating-statistical-model-performance-in-water-quality-prediction
#6
Rodelyn Avila, Beverley Horn, Elaine Moriarty, Roger Hodson, Elena Moltchanova
Exposure to contaminated water while swimming or boating or participating in other recreational activities can cause gastrointestinal and respiratory disease. It is not uncommon for water bodies to experience rapid fluctuations in water quality, and it is therefore vital to be able to predict them accurately and in time so as to minimise population's exposure to pathogenic organisms. E. coli is commonly used as an indicator to measure water quality in freshwater, and higher counts of E. coli are associated with increased risk to illness...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196748/cell-free-dna-kinetics-in-a-pre-clinical-model-of-head-and-neck-cancer
#7
Nidal Muhanna, Marco A Di Grappa, Harley H L Chan, Tahsin Khan, Cheng S Jin, Yangqiao Zheng, Jonathan C Irish, Scott V Bratman
In cancer patients, circulating tumour-derived DNA (ctDNA) levels imperfectly reflect disease burden apparent on medical imaging. Further evaluation of ctDNA levels over time is needed to better understand the correlation with tumour growth and therapeutic response. We describe ctDNA kinetics within an orthotopic, immunocompetent preclinical rabbit model of local-regionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Monitoring primary tumour and metastatic lymph node volume by computed tomography (CT), we observed a correlation between ctDNA levels and tumour burden...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190713/operational-evaluation-of-rapid-diagnostic-testing-for-ebola-virus-disease-in-guinean-laboratories
#8
Amanda VanSteelandt, Josephine Aho, Kristyn Franklin, Jacques Likofata, Jean Baptiste Kamgang, Sakoba Keita, Lamine Koivogui, N'Faly Magassouba, Lise D Martel, Anicet George Dahourou
BACKGROUND: Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) for Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) at the point of care have the potential to increase access and acceptability of EVD testing and the speed of patient isolation and secure burials for suspect cases. A pilot program for EVD RDTs in high risk areas of Guinea was introduced in October 2015. This paper presents concordance data between EVD RDTs and PCR testing in the field as well as an assessment of the acceptability, feasibility, and quality assurance of the RDT program...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184436/continuous-wound-infusion-with-chloroprocaine-in-a-pig-model-of-surgical-lesion-drug-absorption-and-effects-on-inflammatory-response
#9
Massimo Allegri, Dario Bugada, Manuela De Gregori, Maria A Avanzini, Annalisa De Silvestri, Anna Petroni, Angelo Sala, Claudia Filisetti, Antonia Icaro Cornaglia, Lorenzo Cobianchi
Continuous wound infusion (CWI) may protect from inflammation, hyperalgesia and persistent pain. Current local anesthetics display suboptimal pharmacokinetic profile during CWI; chloroprocaine (CP) has ideal characteristics, but has never been tested for CWI. We performed an animal study to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile and anti-inflammatory effect of CP during CWI. A total of 14 piglets received an infusion catheter after pararectal laparotomy and were randomly allocated to one of three groups: 5 mL/h infusion of saline (group A), CP 1...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180362/limited-effects-of-variable-retention-harvesting-on-fungal-communities-decomposing-fine-roots-in-coastal-temperate-rainforests
#10
Timothy J Philpott, Jason S Barker, Cindy E Prescott, Sue J Grayston
Fine root litter is the principal source of carbon stored in forest soils and a dominant source of carbon for fungal decomposers. Differences in decomposer capacity between fungal species may be important determinants of fine-root decomposition rates. Variable-retention harvesting (VRH) provides refuge for ectomycorrhizal fungi, but its influence on fine-root decomposers is unknown, as are the effects of functional shifts in these fungal communities on carbon cycling. We compared fungal communities decomposing fine-roots (in litter bags) under VRH, clearcut, and uncut stands at two sites (6- and 13-years post-harvest), and two decay stages (43-days and 1 year after burial), in Douglas-fir forests in coastal British Columbia, Canada...
November 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178981/translating-computer-aided-design-and-surgical-planning-into-successful-mandibular-reconstruction-using-a-vascularized-iliac-crest-flap
#11
Lei Zheng, Xiaoming Lv, Jie Zhang, Shuming Liu, Jianguo Zhang, Yi Zhang
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the computer-aided approach to the reconstruction of mandibular defects using a vascularized iliac-crest flap. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From December 2015 to October 2016, 14 patients (8 men and 6 women) 18 to 64 years old (median age, 29 yr) were treated at the Peking University School and Stomatology Hospital (Beijing, China). Biopsy specimens from all patients were subjected to histologic examination before segmental mandibulectomy...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174736/protein-kinase-a-mediates-scopolamine-induced-mtor-activation-and-an-antidepressant-response
#12
Jianyang Dong, Qinji Zhou, Zhisheng Wei, Shi Yan, Fangfang Sun, Xiang Cai
BACKGROUND: Clinical reports have shown that scopolamine produces a rapid (3-4 d) and potent anti-depressive response without severe adverse effects. Animal experiments have proven that scopolamine induces mTOR pathway activation in an AMPAR dependent manner. The present study aimed to determine the role of PKA in scopolamine-induced potentiation of AMPAR, as well as in mTOR pathway activation and rapid antidepressant effects. METHODS: We utilized electrophysiological recording, Western blotting, and behavior tests to examine the effects of scopolamine, the selective M2 cholinergic receptor antagonist methoctramine, and H89, a PKA specific inhibitor on AMPAR potentiation, mTOR pathway activation, and behavioral responses in a rat depression model of learned helplessness...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171275/single-use-polyetheretherketone-peek-solid-phase-microextraction-transmission-mode-spme-tm-devices-for-rapid-screening-and-quantitation-of-drugs-of-abuse-in-oral-fluid-and-urine-via-direct-analysis-in-real-time-tandem-mass-spectrometry-dart-ms-ms
#13
Tijana Vasiljevic, German Augusto Gómez-Riós, Janusz Pawliszyn
The analysis of oral fluid (OF) and urine samples to detect recent drug consumption has garnered considerable attention as alternative and less invasive biological matrices. Indeed, several groups have demonstrated that efficiently combining microex-traction and ambient ionization technologies can facilitate the rapid determination of target compounds in such biofluids at trace levels (low or sub ng mL-1). However, there is still a need for biocompatible devices that can both be implemented for in-vivo sampling and easily interfaced with mass-spectrometry (MS) analyzers...
November 24, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160572/rapid-on-site-evaluation-of-routine-biochemical-parameters-to-predict-right-ventricular-dysfunction-in-and-the-prognosis-of-patients-with-acute-pulmonary-embolism-upon-admission-to-the-emergency-room
#14
Dong Jia, Fan Liu, Qin Zhang, Guang-Qiao Zeng, Xue-Lian Li, Gang Hou
INTRODUCTION: Patients with acute pulmonary embolism(APE)who present with right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) have a worse prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the value of routine biochemical parameters in predicting RVD and 30-day mortality in patients with APE. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the clinical data for 154 enrolled patients, including the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), D-dimer, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154972/impact-of-rapid-on-site-cytological-evaluation-rose-on-the-diagnostic-yield-of-transbronchial-needle-aspiration-during-mediastinal-lymph-node-sampling-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Inderpaul Singh Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria, Ashutosh Nath Aggarwal, Ritesh Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Whether the use of rapid onsite cytological evaluation (ROSE) increases the diagnostic yield of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) remains unclear. Herein, we perform a systematic review of studies describing the utility of ROSE in subjects undergoing TBNA. METHODS: Systematic review of PubMed, EmBase and Scopus databases for RCTs investigating the diagnostic yield of conventional TBNA (c-TBNA) or endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-TBNA, with or without ROSE, in subjects with mediastinal lymphadenopathy...
November 15, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149726/protein-structure-based-drug-design-from-docking-to-molecular-dynamics
#16
REVIEW
Paweł Śledź, Amedeo Caflisch
Recent years have witnessed rapid developments of computer-aided drug design methods, which have reached accuracy that allows their routine practical applications in drug discovery campaigns. Protein structure-based methods are useful for the prediction of binding modes of small molecules and their relative affinity. The high-throughput docking of up to 106 small molecules followed by scoring based on implicit-solvent force field can robustly identify micromolar binders using a rigid protein target. Molecular dynamics with explicit solvent is a low-throughput technique for the characterization of flexible binding sites and accurate evaluation of binding pathways, kinetics, and thermodynamics...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144298/flood-forecasting-within-urban-drainage-systems-using-narx-neural-network
#17
Yves Abou Rjeily, Oras Abbas, Marwan Sadek, Isam Shahrour, Fadi Hage Chehade
Urbanization activity and climate change increase the runoff volumes, and consequently the surcharge of the urban drainage systems (UDS). In addition, age and structural failures of these utilities limit their capacities, and thus generate hydraulic operation shortages, leading to flooding events. The large increase in floods within urban areas requires rapid actions from the UDS operators. The proactivity in taking the appropriate actions is a key element in applying efficient management and flood mitigation...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139598/preparation-and-comparative-evaluation-of-99m-tc-hynic-cngr-and-99m-tc-hynic-peg2-cngr-as-tumor-targeting-molecular-imaging-probes
#18
Kusum Vats, Drishty Satpati, Rohit Sharma, Chandan Kumar, Haladhar Dev Sarma, Sharmila Banerjee
The tripeptide sequence NGR (asparagine-glycine-arginine) specifically recognizes aminopeptidase N (APN or CD13) receptors highly expressed on tumor cells as well as tumor vasculature. Thus NGR peptides can precisely deliver therapeutic and diagnostic compounds to CD13 expressing cancer sites. In this regard two NGR peptide ligands, HYNIC-c(NGR) and HYNIC-PEG2 -c(NGR) were synthesized, radiolabeled with (99m) Tc and evaluated in CD13-positive human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 tumor xenografts. The radiotracers, (99m) Tc-HYNIC-c(NGR) and (99m) Tc-HYNIC-PEG2 -c(NGR) could be prepared in ~95% radiochemical purity (RCP) and exhibited excellent in vitro and in vivo stability...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131539/molecular-testing-on-endobronchial-ultrasound-ebus-fine-needle-aspirates-fna-impact-of-triage
#19
Simon Sung, John P Crapanzano, David DiBardino, David Swinarski, William A Bulman, Anjali Saqi
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) is performed to diagnose and stage lung cancer. Multiple studies have described the value of Rapid On-Site Evaluation (ROSE), but often the emphasis is upon diagnosis than adequacy for molecular testing (MT). The aim was to identify variable(s), especially cytology-related, that can improve MT. METHODS: A search for EBUS-FNAs with ROSE was conducted for lung adenocarcinomas or when this diagnosis could not be excluded...
November 12, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128639/degradation-of-pesticides-with-rsdl-%C3%A2-reactive-skin-decontamination-lotion-kit-lotion-lc-ms-investigation
#20
Messele Fentabil, Mulu Gebremedhin, J Garfield Purdon, Laura Cochrane, Virginia Streusand Goldman
This study examined the degradation of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate pesticides using RSDL(®) (Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion Kit) lotion. Degradation occurs from a nucleophilic substitution (SN) reaction between an ingredient in the RSDL lotion, potassium 2,3-butanedione monoximate (KBDO), with susceptible sites in the pesticides. Evaluation at several molar ratios of KBDO:test articles using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques was performed. The OP test articles, parathion, paraoxon, parathion-methyl, paraoxon-methyl and chlorpyrifos were effectively degraded at molar ratios of four and above in less than 6minutes contact time...
November 8, 2017: Toxicology Letters
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