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rapid on-site evaluation

Zhou Gong, Charles D Schwieters, Chun Tang
Paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) has been established as a powerful tool in NMR for investigating protein structure and dynamics. The PRE is usually measured with a paramagnetic probe covalently attached at a specific site of an otherwise diamagnetic protein. The present work provides the numerical formulation for probing protein structure and conformational dynamics based on the solvent PRE (sPRE) measurement, using two alternative approaches. An inert paramagnetic cosolute randomly collides with the protein, and the resulting sPRE manifests the relative solvent exposure of protein nuclei...
April 12, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Kim-Kee Tan, Noor Syahida Azizan, Che Norainon Yaacob, Nurul Asma Anati Che Mat Seri, Nur Izyan Samsudin, Boon-Teong Teoh, Sing-Sin Sam, Sazaly AbuBakar
BACKGROUND: A method for rapid detection of dengue virus using the reverse-transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) was recently developed, evaluated and made ready for deployment. However, reliance solely on the evaluation performed by experienced researchers in a well-structured and well-equipped reference laboratory may overlook the potential intrinsic problems that may arise during deployment of the assay into new application sites, especially for users unfamiliar with the test...
April 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
M A Vissani, M S Tordoya, Y-L Tsai, P-Y A Lee, Y-H Shen, F-C Lee, H-T T Wang, V Parreño, M Barrandeguy
Equine coital exanthema (ECE) is an infectious, venereally transmitted muco-cutaneous disease affecting mares and stallions, caused by equid alphaherpesvirus 3 (EHV3). Diagnostic tools for rapid identification of EHV3 are of primary importance to diminish the risk of EHV3 dissemination at the time of breeding. In the last years, it has been shown that the performance of the insulated-isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) is comparable to virus isolation, nested PCR and real-time PCR (qPCR) in detecting pathogens of various animal species...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Zewdie Birhanu, Yemane Ye-Ebiyo Yihdego, Delenasaw Yewhalaw
BACKGROUND: In the context of reduced transmission of malaria, it is essential to re-evaluate and determine the level of transmission as it guides re-orientation of control measures which is appropriate to local disease epidemiology. However, little is known about level of malaria transmission in Ethiopia. The present study aimed to investigate the level of malaria transmission through combined application of classical methods and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) in low transmission settings of Ethiopia...
April 4, 2018: Malaria Journal
Sebastian Abel, Jarkko Akkanen
The in-situ remediation of aquatic sediments with activated carbon (AC) based thin layer capping is a promising alternative to traditional methods, such as sediment dredging. Applying a strong sorbent like AC directly to the sediment can greatly reduce the bioavailability of organic pollutants. To evaluate the method under realistic field conditions, a 300 m2 plot in the PCB-contaminated lake Kernaalanjärvi, Finland, was amended with an AC cap (1.6 kgAC/m2 ). The study lake showed highly dynamic sediment movements over the monitoring period of 14 months...
April 1, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Bashkim Kadriu, Shiwen Yuan, Cristan Farmer, Allison C Nugent, Marc S Lener, Mark J Niciu, Minkyung Park, Aaron Yazdian, Elizabeth D Ballard, Fritz A Henn, Ioline D Henter, Lawrence T Park, Carlos A Zarate
BACKGROUND: Some glutamatergic modulators have demonstrated rapid and relatively sustained antidepressant properties in patients with major depressive disorder. Because the potassium channel activator diazoxide increases glutamate uptake via potassium channel activation, we hypothesized that it might exert antidepressant effects by increasing the removal of glutamate from the synaptic cleft, thereby reducing excessive glutamate transmission. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, single-site inpatient clinical study was conducted at the National Institute of Mental Health to assess the efficacy and safety of a 3-week course of diazoxide (200-400 mg daily, twice a day) versus a 3-week course of placebo in 6 participants with treatment-refractory major depressive disorder...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Michael Markert, Thomas Trautmann, Florian Krause, Marius Cioaga, Sebastien Mouriot, Miriam Wetzel, Brian D Guth
INTRODUCTION: A newly developed total implant telemetry system for cardiovascular (CV), electrophysiological and body temperature measurement was evaluated. A cloud-based transmission of the physiological signals allowed an assessment of the quality of the physiological signals despite the physical separation between the instrumented animals and the evaluating home laboratory. The new system is intended to be used for safety pharmacological evaluations of drug candidates in various species...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Elvis Temfack, Charles Kouanfack, Leonella Mossiang, Angela Loyse, Marie C Fonkoua, Síle F Molloy, Sinata Koulla-Shiro, Eric Delaporte, Françoise Dromer, Thomas Harrison, Olivier Lortholary
Background: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a major cause of AIDS-related mortality in Africa. Detection of serum cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) predicts development of CM in antiretroviral (ART) naïve HIV-infected patients with severe immune depression. Systematic pre-ART CrAg screening and pre-emptive oral fluconazole is thus recommended. We postulated that a semi-quantitative CrAg screening approach could offer clinically relevant advantages. Methods: ART-naïve asymptomatic adult outpatients with <100 CD4 cells/mm3 presenting to the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon were screened for CrAg using the IMMY lateral flow assay (LFA)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yuming Zhu, Gening Jiang
Recently, uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has developed rapidly and has become the main theme of global surgical development. The specific, standardized and systematic training of this technology has become an important topic. Specific training in the uniportal VATS approach is crucial to ensure safety and radical treatment. Such training approach, including a direct interaction with experienced surgeons in high-volume centers, is crucial and represents an indispensable step. Another form of training that usually occurs after preceptorship is proctorship: an experienced mentor can be invited to a trainee's own center to provide specific on-site tutelage...
April 20, 2018: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Hakim Louati, Hans K Uhthoff, Kathryn Culliton, Odette Laneuville, Peter Lapner, Guy Trudel
BACKGROUND: Arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs are mostly secured with suture anchors and often supplemented by footprint decortication. The objectives of this study were to characterize the strength of bone-tendon healing following anchor repair and assess the effect of channeling the supraspinatus (SSP) humeral footprint 1 week ahead of reattachment surgery. METHODS: One hundred twelve rabbits underwent unilateral detachment of one SSP tendon and were randomly assigned to two groups: channeling the footprint at time of detachment and no channeling...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Bettina Glahn-Martínez, Elena Benito-Peña, Francesca Salis, Ana B Descalzo, Guillermo Orellana, Maria C Moreno-Bondi
In this article, we describe a fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) using a new label - near-infrared fluorescent dye. The developed FPIA method was optimized for the rapid analysis of free mycophenolic acid (MPA) in plasma of transplanted patients. The approach is based on the fluorescence competitive assay between the target immunosuppressant and a novel emissive near-infrared fluorescent dye-tagged MPA, MPA-AO, for the binding sites of the anti-MPA antibody. The fluorescent analogue of MPA exhibits emission at 654 nm upon excitation at 629 nm (λexc,max) shows a good photochemical stability and a significant emission quantum yield (0...
March 26, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Xiwei Sun, Yi Han, Liyuan Zhou, Enguo Chen, Bingjian Lu, Yong Liu, Xiaoqing Pan, Allen W Cowley, Mingyu Liang, Qingbiao Wu, Yan Lu, Pengyuan Liu
Motivation: The rapid development of next-generation sequencing technology provides an opportunity to study genome-wide DNA methylation at single-base resolution. However, depletion of unmethylated cytosines brings challenges for aligning bisulfite-converted sequencing reads to a large reference. Software tools for aligning methylation reads have not yet been comprehensively evaluated, especially for the widely used reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) that involves enrichment for CpG islands (CGIs)...
March 22, 2018: Bioinformatics
Oscar Lin, Dorota Rudomina, Rusmir Feratovic, S Joseph Sirintrapun
BACKGROUND: Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) with cytology preparations plays a critical role in minimally invasive procedures. The time spent by a pathologist performing ROSE is unpredictable and could be used for more cost-effective activities. The solution encountered by several institutions to address this issue is the use of telecytology (TC). This study analyzes the experience of using telecytology for ROSE in a major cancer center over a period of over 2 years. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all remote TC evaluations for adequacy on fine needle aspiration (FNA) and touch preparations (TP) of core biopsies (CB) performed at a major cancer center was performed...
March 25, 2018: Diagnostic Cytopathology
Julian A Skidmore, Clara M Malo, Elizabeth G Crichton, Jane M Morrell, Budhan S Pukazhenthi
Artificial insemination (AI) in domestic animals is an important tool to maximise the use of genetically superior males and thereby insure rapid genetic progress. However, the application of AI in camelids has been hindered by the difficulties involved in collecting, as well as handling the semen due to the viscous nature of the seminal plasma. This review describes the challenges of semen collection and discusses the role of seminal plasma as well as the reasons for the viscosity and how to liquefy it so that ejaculates can be more accurately evaluated...
March 13, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Sharon Hewner, Suzanne S Sullivan, Guan Yu
BACKGROUND: Efforts to improve care transitions require coordination across the healthcare continuum and interventions that enhance communication between acute and community settings. AIMS: To improve post-discharge utilization value using technology to identify high-risk individuals who might benefit from rapid nurse outreach to assess social and behavioral determinants of health with the goal of reducing inpatient and emergency department visits. METHODS: The project employed a before and after comparison of the intervention site with similar primary care practice sites using population-level Medicaid claims data...
March 23, 2018: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
Georgios Samiotis, Eleni Trikoilidou, Lazaros Tsikritzis, Elisavet Amanatidou
In this work, a comparative study on the water quality characteristics of two in-line water reservoirs (artificial lakes) in Aliakmon River (Western Macedonia, Greece) is performed. Polyfytos Reservoir and Ilarion Reservoir were created in 1975 and 2012 respectively, in order to serve the homonymous hydroelectric stations. In young artificial lakes, severe deterioration of water quality may occur; thus, the monitoring and assessment of their water quality characteristics and their statistical interpretation are of great importance...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jinfeng Wang, Jianchang Wang, Ruoxi Zhang, Libing Liu, Ruihan Shi, Qingan Han, Wanzhe Yuan
A rapid and specific real-time reverse-transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay (RT-RPA) was developed to detect the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) in this study. The primers and exo probe were designed to be specific for a portion of spike (S) gene conserved in TGEV, but absent in the closely related porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV). The amplification was performed at 40 °C for 20 min. The assay could only detect the TGEV, and there was no cross-reaction with other pathogens tested...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Oscar Lin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of the American Society of Cytopathology
Long Chen, Wen Tang, Nigel W John, Tao Ruan Wan, Jian Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) offers considerable benefits to patients, it also imposes big challenges on a surgeon's performance due to well-known issues and restrictions associated with the field of view (FOV), hand-eye misalignment and disorientation, as well as the lack of stereoscopic depth perception in monocular endoscopy. Augmented Reality (AR) technology can help to overcome these limitations by augmenting the real scene with annotations, labels, tumour measurements or even a 3D reconstruction of anatomy structures at the target surgical locations...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Tarisai Chiyaka, Phillis Mushati, Bernadette Hensen, Sungai Chabata, James R Hargreaves, Sian Floyd, Isolde J Birdthistle, Frances M Cowan, Joanna R Busza
Young women (aged 15-24) who exchange sex for money or other support are among the highest risk groups for HIV acquisition, particularly in high prevalence settings. To prepare for introduction and evaluation of the DREAMS programme in Zimbabwe, which provides biomedical and social interventions to reduce adolescent girls' and young women's HIV vulnerability, we conducted a rapid needs assessment in 6 towns using a "social mapping" approach. In each site, we talked to adult sex workers and other key informants to identify locations where young women sell sex, followed by direct observation, group discussions and interviews...
2018: PloS One
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