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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053224/programmed-death-ligand-1-testing-of-lung-cancer-cytology-specimens-obtained-with-bronchoscopy
#1
Sean P Stoy, Lauren Rosen, Jeffrey Mueller, Septimiu Murgu
BACKGROUND: Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression testing is recommended by guidelines for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The primary objective of the current study was to determine the success rate of PD-L1 testing from cytology cell block samples obtained by bronchoscopic needle aspiration. The secondary objective was the assessment of the difference in specimen adequacy acquired via needles of different gauges. METHODS: Patients with NSCLC who underwent bronchoscopic needle aspirations for which PD-L1 testing was requested between November 1, 2016, and February 6, 2017, were included in the current analysis...
October 20, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032980/management-of-finger-deep-burns-the-interest-of-local-flaps
#2
Franck Duteille, Audrey Leduc, Julien Verdier, Michael Atlan, Pierre Perrot
INTRODUCTION: The management of finger deep burns is still problematic for the surgeon. Due to the fineness and the thickness of the subcutaneous tissue, after excision there is an important risk of exposure of the underlying tissue like bone, nerve or tendons. Local flaps (random pattern flap and pedicle flap) allowed ensuring a good quality covering with a tissue with many advantages (good thickness, sensitivity). On the contrary of all other techniques, flaps can be used independently from the vascular quality of the wound bed...
October 9, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032529/biological-and-analytical-techniques-used-for-detection-of-polyaromatic-hydrocarbons
#3
Sunil Kumar, Sangeeta Negi, Pralay Maiti
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contain two or more fused benzene rings that are considered as cosmo-pollutants ubiquitously found in the environment. The identification and monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of great interests for rapid and on-site detection. Therefore, many analytical and biological techniques have been proposed for the qualitative and quantitative assessments of PAHs. Non-biological analytical techniques such as infrared, Raman, and fluorescence spectroscopies are commonly exploited as non-destructive techniques while gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with multiple detectors are extensively employed for the separation and detection of an analyte...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031240/colonization-of-oropharynx-and-lower-respiratory-tract-in-critical-patients-risk-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#4
Ivany Machado de Carvalho Baptista, Frederico Canato Martinho, Gustavo Giacomelli Nascimento, Carlos Eduardo da Rocha Santos, Renata Falchete do Prado, Marcia Carneiro Valera
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial diversity existing in oral cavity and respiratory tract samples (from mini-bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), endotracheal aspirate, and orotracheal tube) of patients on mechanical ventilation by using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridisation. Also, the study aimed to evaluate whether the microbial profile in the oral cavity is found in respiratory tract samples, at different periods of mechanical ventilation time (12h, 48h, 96h) in attempt to identification of relationship between VAP (ventilator-associated pneumonia) and bacterial species studied...
October 2, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028796/bak1-is-involved-in-atralf1-induced-inhibition-of-root-cell-expansion
#5
Keini Dressano, Paulo H O Ceciliato, Aparecida L Silva, Juan Carlos Guerrero-Abad, Tábata Bergonci, Fausto Andrés Ortiz-Morea, Marco Bürger, Marcio C Silva-Filho, Daniel S Moura
The rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) peptide negatively regulates cell expansion, and an antagonistic relationship has been demonstrated between AtRALF1, a root-specific RALF isoform in Arabidopsis, and brassinosteroids (BRs). An evaluation of the response of BR signaling mutants to AtRALF1 revealed that BRI1-associated receptor kinase1 (bak1) mutants are insensitive to AtRALF1 root growth inhibition activity. BAK1 was essential for the induction of AtRALF1-responsive genes but showed no effect on the mobilization of Ca2+ and alkalinization responses...
October 13, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028353/activated-microglia-targeting-dendrimer-minocycline-conjugate-as-therapeutics-for-neuroinflammation
#6
Rishi Sharma, Soo-Young Kim, Anjali Sharma, Zhi Zhang, Siva Pramodh Kambhampati, Sujatha Kannan, Rangaramanujam M Kannan
Brain related disorders have outmatched cancer and cardiovascular diseases worldwide as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The lack of effective therapies and the relatively dry central nervous system (CNS) drug pipeline pose formidable challenge. Superior, targeted delivery of current clinically approved drugs may offer significant potential. Minocycline has shown promise for the treatment of neurological diseases owing to its ability to penetrate the blood brain barrier (BBB), and potency. Despite its potential in the clinic, and in preclinical models, the high doses needed to affect a positive therapeutic response has led to side effects...
October 13, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022194/potential-for-cometabolic-biodegradation-of-1-4-dioxane-in-aquifers-with-methane-or-ethane-as-primary-substrates
#7
Paul B Hatzinger, Rahul Banerjee, Rachael Rezes, Sheryl H Streger, Kevin McClay, Charles E Schaefer
The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential for two gases, methane and ethane, to stimulate the biological degradation of 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) in groundwater aquifers via aerobic cometabolism. Experiments with aquifer microcosms, enrichment cultures from aquifers, mesophilic pure cultures, and purified enzyme (soluble methane monooxygenase; sMMO) were conducted. During an aquifer microcosm study, ethane was observed to stimulate the aerobic biodegradation of 1,4-D. An ethane-oxidizing enrichment culture from these samples, and a pure culture capable of growing on ethane (Mycobacterium sphagni ENV482) that was isolated from a different aquifer also biodegraded 1,4-D...
October 11, 2017: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020709/absorbaseal%C3%A2-vascular-closure-device-a-novel-device-for-hemostasis-following-interventional-peripheral-vascular-procedures
#8
Emily Benham, Koen Deloose, Joren Callaert, Marc Bosiers, Tiffany Cox, Amy Lincourt, B Todd Heniford
INTRODUCTION: Vascular closure devices (VCDs) are designed to achieve rapid hemostasis during percutaneous coronary and peripheral vascular procedures. Studies demonstrate that VCDs improve time to hemostasis (TTH) and time to ambulation (TTA) in comparison to standard manual compression. The available products, however, typically have 13-17 steps in their application, often require hemostatic collagen or other agents as part of the process, and can result in significant scarring at the puncture site that can impact future access...
October 12, 2017: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020440/influence-of-dna-lesions-on-polymerase-mediated-dna-replication-at-single-molecule-resolution
#9
Hailey Gahlon, Louis J Romano, David Rueda
Faithful replication of DNA is a critical aspect in maintaining genome integrity. DNA polymerases are responsible for replicating DNA, and high fidelity polymerases do this rapidly and at low error rates. For example, the holoenzyme of DNA polymerase III in E. coli can replicate at speeds of 600-1,000 bases per second and an error rate of 1 mistake per million nucleotides inserted.1-2 Upon exposure to exogenous or endogenous substances, DNA can become damaged and this can alter the speed and fidelity of a DNA polymerase...
October 11, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019352/hot-news-gene-therapy-with-crispr-cas9-coming-to-age-for-hiv-cure
#10
Vicente Soriano
The huge success of current antiretroviral therapy is mediated by a triple effect: (i) Halting progression to AIDS in infected persons; (ii) reducing the risk of transmission to contacts (treatment as prevention); and (iii) minimizing the risk of HIV acquisition treating uninfected persons at risk (pre-exposure prophylaxis). However, UNAIDS has estimated that only 70% of infected people globally are diagnosed, only 53% are treated, and overall 44% have undetectable viral load, which is the necessary request for ensuring any antiretroviral benefit...
October 11, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016634/conventional-early-infant-diagnosis-in-lesotho-from-specimen-collection-to-results-usage-to-manage-patients-where-are-the-bottlenecks
#11
Appolinaire Tiam, Michelle M Gill, Heather J Hoffman, Anthony Isavwa, Mafusi Mokone, Matokelo Foso, Jeffrey T Safrit, Lynne M Mofenson, Thorkild Tylleskär, Laura Guay
INTRODUCTION: Early infant diagnosis is an important step in identifying children infected with HIV during the perinatal period or in utero. Multiple factors contribute to delayed antiretroviral treatment initiation for HIV-infected children, including delays in the early infant HIV diagnosis cascade. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate early infant diagnosis turnaround times in Lesotho. Trained staff reviewed records of HIV-exposed infants (aged-6-8 weeks) who received an HIV test during 2011...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990574/an-evidence-based-evaluation-on-the-use-of-platelet-rich-plasma-in-orthopedics-a-review-of-the-literature
#12
Nasir Hussain, Herman Johal, Mohit Bhandari
Within orthopedics, the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been rapidly increasing in popularity, however, its true effectiveness has yet to be fully established. Several studies find that injecting PRP to the site of injury does not provide any significant benefit with respect to clinical outcomes; however, many others report the contrary. Due to the conflicting evidence and multiple meta-analyses conducted on the topic, a literature review of high-quality evidence on the use of PRP for common orthopaedic conditions was performed...
2017: SICOT-J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988194/observational-study-of-the-populations-accessing-rapid-point-of-care-hiv-testing-in-winnipeg-manitoba-canada-through-a-retrospective-chart-review-of-site-records
#13
James Blain Johnston, Joss N Reimer, John L Wylie, Jared Bullard
OBJECTIVES: HIV point-of-care testing (POCT) has been available in Manitoba since 2008. This study evaluated the effectiveness of POCT at identifying individuals with previously unknown HIV status, its effects on clinical outcomes and the characteristics of the populations reached. METHODS: A retrospective database review was conducted for individuals who received HIV POCT from 2011 to 2014. Time to linkage to care and viral load suppression were compared between individuals who tested positive for HIV using POCT and controls identified as positive through standard screening...
October 7, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985633/role-of-negative-pressure-therapy-as-damage-control-in-soft-tissue-reconstruction-for-open-tibial-fractures
#14
Mario Cherubino, Luigi Valdatta, Pierluigi Tos, Salvatore D'Arpa, Luigi Troisi, Pellegatta Igor, Federica Corradi, Umraz Khan
The concept of damage control orthopaedics (DCO) is a strategy that focuses on managing orthopaedic injuries in polytrauma patients who are in an unstable physiological state. The concept of DCO is an extension of damage control surgery or damage limitation surgery (DCS/DLS). Recently, it has become clear that certain patients, following extensive soft tissue trauma, could benefit from the idea of DCS. In the management of severe lower extremity trauma with exposed fracture sites, aggressive early wound excision debridement, early internal fixation, and vascularized wound coverage within a few days after trauma were proposed...
October 2017: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985388/leaf-surface-traits-and-water-storage-retention-affect-photosynthetic-responses-to-leaf-surface-wetness-among-wet-tropical-forest-and-semiarid-savanna-plants
#15
Luiza M T Aparecido, Gretchen R Miller, Anthony T Cahill, Georgianne W Moore, Hiroaki Ishii
While it is reasonable to predict that photosynthetic rates are inhibited while leaves are wet, leaf gas exchange measurements during wet conditions are challenging to obtain due to equipment limitations and the complexity of canopy-atmosphere interactions in forested environments. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate responses of seven tropical and three semiarid savanna plant species to simulated leaf wetness and test the hypotheses that (i) leaf wetness reduces photosynthetic rates (Anet), (ii) leaf traits explain different responses among species and (iii) leaves from wet environments are better adapted for wet leaf conditions than those from drier environments...
July 17, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980278/do-we-need-retarded-delivery-of-bone-growth-factors-in-facial-bone-repair-an-experimental-study-in-rats
#16
N Moser, N Lohse, J Golstein, P Kauffmann, B Sven, M Epple, H Schliephake
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different dosages of retarded vs. rapid release of bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) at different recipient sites. Porous composite poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA)/CaCO3 scaffolds were loaded with three different dosages of rhBMP2 (24 µg, 48 µg and 96 µg) and implanted, together with blank controls, both into non-healing defects of the mandibles and into the gluteal muscles of 24 adult male Wistar rats. After 26 weeks, bone formation and expression of bone specific markers [alkaline phosphatase (AP) and Runx2] were evaluated by histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry...
October 5, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979263/cytotoxic-cd4-t-cells-drive-multiple-sclerosis-progression
#17
Liesbet M Peeters, Marjan Vanheusden, Veerle Somers, Bart Van Wijmeersch, Piet Stinissen, Bieke Broux, Niels Hellings
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the leading cause of chronic neurological disability in young adults. The clinical disease course of MS varies greatly between individuals, with some patients progressing much more rapidly than others, making prognosis almost impossible. We previously discovered that cytotoxic CD4+ T cells (CD4+ CTL), identified by the loss of CD28, are able to migrate to sites of inflammation and that they contribute to tissue damage. Furthermore, in an animal model for MS, we showed that these cells are correlated with inflammation, demyelination, and disability...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976115/penetrance-and-phenotypic-effects-of-c-t-polymorphism-at-1595-position-in-exon-5-of-the-trail-gene-among-prostate-cancer-patients-in-pakistani-population
#18
Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Qaisar Mansoor, Sundas Fayyaz, Muhammad Ismail
It is becoming progressively more understandable that variations within the sequence of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes may contribute to cancer progression. Increasingly it is being realized that cancer cells get resistant to pro-apoptotic signals and evidence has started to shed light on the fact that nucleotide polymorphisms may lead to suboptimal apoptotic capacity and therefore increased cancer risk. It has previously been shown that there is a relationship between C/T polymorphism at 1595 position in exon 5 of the TRAIL gene and cancer however rapidly accumulating data cannot be extrapolated to other populations due to intra- and inter-ethnic variability...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972736/design-and-functionalization-of-the-nir-responsive-photothermal-semiconductor-nanomaterials-for-cancer-theranostics
#19
Xiaojuan Huang, Wenlong Zhang, Guoqiang Guan, Guosheng Song, Rujia Zou, Junqing Hu
Despite the development of medical technology, cancer still remains a great threat to the survival of people all over the world. Photothermal therapy (PTT) is a minimally invasive method for selective photothermal ablation of cancer cells without damages to normal cells. Recently, copper chalcogenide semiconductors have emerged as a promising photothermal agent attributed to strong absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR) region and high photothermal conversion efficiency. An earlier study witnessed a rapid increase in their development for cancer therapy, including CuS, Cu2-xSe and CuTe nanocrystals...
October 3, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970331/preclinical-evaluation-of-18-f-ro6958948-11-c-ro6931643-and-11-c-ro6924963-as-novel-radiotracers-for-imaging-aggregated-tau-in-ad-with-positron-emission-tomography
#20
Michael Honer, Luca Gobbi, Henner Knust, Hiroto Kuwabara, Dieter Muri, Matthias Koerner, Heather Valentine, Robert F Dannals, Dean F Wong, Edilio Borroni
Tau aggregates and amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques are key histopathological features in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and are considered as targets for therapeutic intervention as well as biomarkers for diagnostic in vivo imaging agents. This study describes the preclinical in vitro and in vivo characterization of the 3 novel compounds RO6958948, RO6931643 and RO6924963 that bind specifically to tau aggregates and have the potential to become PET tracers for future human use. Methods: RO6958948, RO6931643 and RO6924963 were identified as high affinity competitors at the (3)H-T808 binding site on native tau aggregates in human late stage AD brain tissue...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
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