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rapid on-site evaluation

Ragab M Fereig, Hanan H Abdelbaky, Fumiaki Ihara, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
Cryptosporidium parvum is a major cause of diarrhea among human and calves, resulting in severe health hazards and drastic economic losses, respectively. Although C. parvum infection leads to high morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients and bovine calves, this infection remains a neglected disease. Currently available diagnostic tests for C. parvum are primarily based on detection of oocysts, DNA, or secreted antigens in fecal specimens. Demonstration of specific antibodies with a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) will be advantageous not only in providing a simple, rapid, accurate, and affordable tool but also in surveillance because of the ability to recognize recent and past infections...
June 19, 2018: Acta Tropica
Rachel Walker, Jan Poleszczuk, Shari Pilon-Thomas, Sungjune Kim, Alexander A R A Anderson, Brian J Czerniecki, Louis B Harrison, Eduardo G Moros, Heiko Enderling
Complex interactions occur between tumor and host immune system at each site in the metastatic setting, the outcome of which can determine behavior ranging from dormancy to rapid growth. An additional layer of complexity arises from the understanding that cytotoxic T cells can traffic through the host circulatory system. Coupling mathematical models of local tumor-immune dynamics and systemic T cell trafficking allows us to simulate the evolution of tumor and immune cell populations in anatomically distant sites following local therapy and thus computationally evaluate immune interconnectivity...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Viviana Vastolo, Immacolata Cristina Nettore, Marco Ciccarelli, Luigi Albano, Gregory Alexander Raciti, Michele Longo, Francesco Beguinot, Paola Ungaro
BACKGROUND: The impact of nutrition on the evolution towards type 2 diabetes has recently received increasing attention because of the effect on chromatin structure and gene expression. PURPOSE: Evaluate the effect of high-fat diet on chromatin remodelling and expression of Ped/Pea-15, a gene commonly overexpressed in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We used mouse and cell models to investigate Ped/Pea-15 transcriptional regulation by high-fat diet and glucose, respectively...
June 18, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
I N Shchanitsyn, M R Sharafutdinov, R A Iakubov, I V Larin
A femoral approach is the main access in stenting of carotid arteries, mainly due to rapid training in how to perform the procedure and a possibility of using large-diameter catheters. However, this approach is not always feasible in atherosclerosis, tortuosity of lower-limb arteries and in certain anatomical peculiarities of the aortic arch. Using a transradial approach is based on the desire to diminish the incidence rate of haemorrhagic complications in the zone of the puncture and to avoid the necessity of a long-term bed rest...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
Rebecca Elvey, Simon Bailey, Kath Checkland, Anne McBride, Stephen Parkin, Katy Rothwell, Damian Hodgson
BACKGROUND: Current health policy focuses on improving accessibility, increasing integration and shifting resources from hospitals to community and primary care. Initiatives aimed at achieving these policy aims have supported the implementation of various 'new models of care', including general practice offering 'additional availability' appointments during evenings and at weekends. In Greater Manchester, six 'demonstrator sites' were funded: four sites delivered additional availability appointments, other services included case management and rapid response...
June 19, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Sallam Al-Madhagi, Hamdi Joda, Miriam Jauset-Rubio, Mayreli Ortiz, Ioanis Katakis, Ciara K O'Sullivan
DNA biosensors are attractive tools for genetic analysis as there is an increasing need for rapid and low-cost DNA analysis, primarily driven by applications in personalized pharmacogenomics, clinical diagnostics, rapid pathogen detection, food traceability and forensics. A rapid electrochemical genosensor detection methodology exploiting a combination of modified primers for solution-phase isothermal amplification, followed by rapid detection via hybridization on gold electrodes is reported. Modified reverse primers, exploiting a C18 spacer between the primer-binding site and an engineered single stranded tail, are used in a recombinase polymerase amplification reaction to produce an amplicon with a central duplex flanked by two single stranded tails...
June 16, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
Paola Scognamiglio, Giacomina Chiaradia, Marta Giovanetti, Emidio Albertini, Antonella Camposeragna, Massimo Farinella, Daniela Lorenzetti, Massimo Oldrini, Laura Rancilio, Anna Caraglia, Francesco Paolo Maraglino, Giuseppe Ippolito, Enrico Girardi
BACKGROUND: Globally the access to HIV testing has greatly increased over the past 30 years. Nonetheless, a high proportion of people living with HIV remains undiagnosed, even in resource rich countries. To increase the proportion of people aware of their HIV serostatus and their access to medical care, several strategies have been proposed including HIV rapid test programs offered outside health facilities. The aim of this project was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the HIV rapid testing offered in community and outreach settings in Italy...
June 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
Bindiya Meggi, Lara Vojnov, Nedio Mabunda, Adolfo Vubil, Alcina Zitha, Ocean Tobaiwa, Chishamiso Mudenyanga, Dadirayi Mutsaka, Timothy Bollinger, Osvaldo Loquiha, Trevor F Peter, Ilesh V Jani
BACKGROUND: Failure to timely diagnose HIV in infants is a major barrier for scaling-up paediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART). WHO recommends birth testing for earlier diagnosis and to improve test coverage, but current diagnosis takes 2-3 weeks to complete, thereby limiting the ability of care givers to provide follow-on care, especially in low-resource settings. We evaluated the benefit of implementing rapid diagnosis of HIV at birth in primary health care maternity wards in Mozambique...
2018: PloS One
Aminallah Tahmasebi, Alireza Afsharifar, Ahmad Heydari, Mohammad Mehrabadi
The cysteine-rich 8K protein of Potato mop-top virus (PMTV) suppresses host RNA silencing. In this study, evolutionary analysis of 8K sequences of PMTV isolates was studied on the basis of nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Twenty-one positively selected sites were identified in 8K coding regions. Recombination events were found in the 8K of PMTV isolates with a rate of 1.8. Totally 30 haplotypes were detected with haplotype diversity ranging from 0.8 to 1.0 and nucleotide diversity from 7.58 to 13.62. The positions 33 and 30 indicated the highly positive and negative selection (with the highest and the lowest dN-dS values), respectively...
March 2018: Molecular Biology Research Communications
N A Nixon, M B Hannouf, S Verma
Cancer therapy has evolved significantly with increased adoption of biologic agents ("biologics"). That evolution is especially true for her2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor-2)-positive breast cancer with the introduction of trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody against the her2 receptor, which, in combination with chemotherapy, significantly improves survival in both metastatic and early disease. Although the efficacy of biologics is undeniable, their expense is a significant contributor to the increasing cost of cancer care...
June 2018: Current Oncology
Srinivasan Sivasubramanian, Sambasivam Mohana, Paulraj Maheswari, Victor Victoria, Ramar Thangam, Jayashri Mahalingam, Gayathri Chandrasekar-Janebjer, Vincent Savariar, Balaraman Madhan, Palani Gunasekaran, Satish S Kitambi
Background: Deformities and neuropathic chronic ulcers are the common features associated with leprosy-cured individuals that impact their quality of life and impair rehabilitation efforts. The challenging aspects for treatment of chronic wounds are the factors that inhibit healing. We reasoned that limited success of various therapeutic interventions could be due to the fact that leprosy-cured individual's physiology gets acclimatized to having a chronic wound that any therapeutic intervention is counterbalanced to maintain status quo at the wound site...
April 2018: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Lixuan Zhang, Daozhang Cai, Hanming Guo
Serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels may be helpful for the diagnosis of infections during the perioperative period of arthroplasty. However, there is much debate in the literature regarding the appropriate cut-off value for different types of surgery and local bacterial infection. The present study aimed to evaluate serum PCT levels in patients undergoing arthroplasty and to determine the cut-off value that may represent perioperative pneumonia, urinary infections and superficial surgical site infections. The present retrospective study included a total of 500 patients treated between July 2014 and August 2015...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Clarissa Rocha Dos Santos, Richard da Rocha Filgueiras, Patrícia Furtado Malard, Andre Rodrigues da Cunha Barreto-Vianna, Kaique Nogueira, Carolina da Silva Leite, Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima
BACKGROUND: The cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR) is the most commonly encountered orthopedic condition in dogs. Among the various techniques to treat this condition, tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) has been used to obtain rapid recovery of the affected knee. The objective of this study was to evaluate the viability of the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) implanted in the osteotomy site obtained by TTA in nine dogs diagnosed with CCLR. METHODS: The MSC were isolated from the adipose tissue of the dogs and cultured for eight days, the animals were divided into two groups...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
R K Douglas, S Nawar, S Cipullo, M C Alamar, F Coulon, A M Mouazen
This study investigated the sensitivity of visible near-infrared spectroscopy (vis-NIR) to discriminate between fresh and weathered oil contaminated soils. The performance of random forest (RF) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) for the estimation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) throughout the time was also explored. Soil samples (n = 13) with 5 different textures of sandy loam, sandy clay loam, clay loam, sandy clay and clay were collected from 10 different locations across the Cranfield University's Research Farm (UK)...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ping Chen, Xinyun Jing, Jian Ren, Han Cao, Pei Hao, Xuan Li
Motivation: The launch of the BioNano next-generation mapping system has greatly enhanced the performance of physical map construction, thus rapidly expanding the application of optical mapping in genome research. Data biases have profound implications for downstream applications. However, very little is known about the properties and biases of BioNano data, and the very factors that contribute to whole-genome optical map assembly. Results: We generated BioNano molecule data from eight organisms with diverse base compositions...
June 11, 2018: Bioinformatics
Toshiki G Nakashige, Sarah E J Bowman, Emily M Zygiel, Catherine L Drennan, Elizabeth M Nolan
Calprotectin (CP, S100A8/S100A9 oligomer, MRP-8/MRP-14 oligomer) is a host-defense protein that sequesters nutrient transition metals from microbes. Each S100A8/S100A9 heterodimer contains four EF-hand domains and two transition-metal-binding sites. We investigate the effect of Ca(II) ions on the structure and Ni(II)-binding properties of human CP. By employing energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, we evaluate the metal content of Ni(II)-bound CP-Ser (oligomer of S100A8(C42S) and S100A9(C3S)) crystals obtained in the absence and presence of Ca(II)...
June 11, 2018: Biochemistry
Paul M Cantle, Matthew J Hurley, Michael D Swartz, John B Holcomb
BACKGROUND: Noncompressible truncal hemorrhage (NCTH) after injury is associated with a mortality increase that is unchanged during the past 20 years. Current treatment consists of rapid transport and emergent intervention. Three early hemorrhage control interventions that may improve survival are placement of a resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA), injection of intracavitary self-expanding foam, and application of the Abdominal Aortic Junctional Tourniquet (AAJT™)...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Ian Ferguson, Hatem Alkhouri, Toby Fogg, Anders Aneman
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to quantify the proportion of patients undergoing rapid sequence intubation using ketamine in Australian and New Zealand EDs between 2010 and 2015. METHODS: The Australian and New Zealand Emergency Department Airway Registry is a multicentre airway registry prospectively capturing data from 43 sites. Data on demographics and physiology, the attending staff and indication for intubation were recorded. The primary outcome was the annual percentage of patients intubated with ketamine...
June 11, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Thiago J Izzo, Maria Teresa Fernandez Piedade, Wesley Dáttilo
Background and Aims: Even when adapted to flooding environments, the spatial distribution, growing strategies and anti-herbivore defences of plants face stressful conditions. Here we describe the effects of flooding on carbon allocation on growth, domatia and leaf production, and the herbivory on the myrmecophyte domatia-bearing Tococa coronata Benth. (Melastomataceae) growing along river banks in the Amazon region. Methods: In an area of 80 000 m2 of riparian forest along the Juruena River we actively searched for individuals of T...
June 7, 2018: Annals of Botany
Lauren Pearson, Rachel E Factor, Sandra K White, Brandon S Walker, Lester J Layfield, Robert L Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) has been shown to improve adequacy rates and reduce needle passes. ROSE is often performed by cytopathologists who have limited availability and may be costlier than alternatives. Several recent studies examined the use of alternative evaluators (AEs) for ROSE. A summary of this information could help inform guidelines regarding the use of AEs. The objective was to assess the accuracy of AEs compared to cytopathologists in assessing the adequacy of specimens during ROSE...
June 6, 2018: Acta Cytologica
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