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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653518/-infants-poisoned-with-cannabis
#1
S Redant, N Genis, A Thiery, E Rebuffat, D Biarent
We reported three cases of infants poisoned with cannabis. These patients presented with acute neurological disorders such as drowsiness accompanied by hypotonia, mydriasis and seizure. Cannabis was found in all children either in the urine or in the blood. These cases illustrated that young age should not exclude toxicologic analysis in acute neurological disorders. Cannabis poisoning in infants is a rare reason for consultation. Clinical signs and symptoms are unspecific and severe manifesta- tions in pediatric age are not well known by emergency physicians and paediatricians...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645885/the-threshold-of-toxicological-concern-for-prenatal-developmental-toxicity-in-rats-and-rabbits
#2
B van Ravenzwaay, X Jiang, T Luechtefeld, T Hartung
The Threshold Toxicological Concern (TTC) is based on the concept that in absence of experimental data reasonable assurance of safety can be given if exposure is sufficiently low. Using the REACH database the low 5th percentile of the NO(A)EL distribution, for prenatal developmental toxicity (OECD guideline 414) was determined. For rats, (434 NO(A)ELs values) for maternal toxicity, this value was 10 mg/kg-bw/day. For developmental toxicity (469 NO(A)ELs): 13 mg/kg-bw/day. For rabbits, (100 NO(A)ELs), the value for maternal toxicity was 4 mg/kg-bw/day, for developmental toxicity, (112 NO(A)EL values): 10 mg/kg-bw/day...
June 20, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644688/intraosseous-administration-of-antidotes-a-systematic-review
#3
Audrée Elliott, Pierre-André Dubé, Amélie Cossette-Côté, Laura Patakfalvi, Eric Villeneuve, Martin Morris, Sophie Gosselin
CONTEXT: Intraosseous (IO) access is an established route of administration in resuscitation situations. Patients with serious poisoning presenting to the emergency department may require urgent antidote therapy. However, intravenous (IV) access is not always readily available. OBJECTIVE: This study reviews the current evidence for IO administration of antidotes that could be used in poisoning. The primary outcome was mortality as a surrogate of efficacy. Secondary outcomes included hemodynamic variables, electrocardiographic variables, neurological status, pharmacokinetics outcomes, and adverse effects as defined by each article...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642381/chemical-transformation-of-xenobiotics-by-the-human-gut-microbiota
#4
REVIEW
Nitzan Koppel, Vayu Maini Rekdal, Emily P Balskus
The human gut microbiota makes key contributions to the metabolism of ingested compounds (xenobiotics), transforming hundreds of dietary components, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals into metabolites with altered activities, toxicities, and lifetimes within the body. The chemistry of gut microbial xenobiotic metabolism is often distinct from that of host enzymes. Despite their important consequences for human biology, the gut microbes, genes, and enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism are poorly understood...
June 23, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633314/qualitative-identification-of-fentanyl-analogs-and-other-opioids-in-postmortem-cases-by-uhplc-ion-trap-msn
#5
Elisa N Shoff, M Elizabeth Zaney, Joseph H Kahl, George W Hime, Diane M Boland
Since 2013, the Miami-Dade County Medical Examiner Department has experienced an increase in the number of opioid-related deaths. The majority of cases coincided with the introduction of fentanyl into the local heroin supply. From 2014 to 2015, Miami-Dade County experienced a near 600% increase in fentanyl-related deaths, followed by an additional 200% increase in 2016. In 2015, two novel fentanyl analogs were identified in medical examiner cases: beta-hydroxythiofentanyl and acetyl fentanyl. In 2016, four additional fentanyl analogs emerged: para-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl, butyryl fentanyl, furanyl fentanyl and carfentanil, as well as the synthetic opioid U-47700...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625566/advances-in-bioremediation-of-1-4-dioxane-contaminated-waters
#6
Shu Zhang, Phillip B Gedalanga, Shaily Mahendra
1,4-Dioxane is a contaminant of emerging concern that has been found widespread in groundwater, surface water, and drinking water environments. Many states are implementing lower regulatory advisory levels based on the toxicological profile of 1,4-dioxane and the potential public health risks. However, the unique chemical properties of 1,4-dioxane, such as high water solubility, low Henry's law constant, and importantly, the co-occurrence with chlorinated solvents and other contaminants, increase the challenges to efficiently cleanup 1,4-dioxane...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624430/comparative-assessment-of-immune-complex-mediated-hypersensitivity-reactions-with-biotherapeutics-in-the-non-human-primate-critical-parameters-safety-and-lessons-for-future-studies
#7
Sven Kronenberg, Elisabeth Husar, Christine Schubert, Christian Freichel, Thomas Emrich, Martin Lechmann, Anna Maria Giusti, Franziska Regenass
With the emergence of novel biotherapeutic formats and immunostimulatory biotherapeutics in cancer immunotherapy, an understanding of immune-complex (IC) mediated hypersensitivity reactions in toxicology studies - and their differentiation from pharmacology - remains key to the preclinical evaluation of these drugs. In this review we provide an in-depth evaluation and comparison of case examples where IC-mediated hypersensitivity reactions were observed in cynomolgus monkeys. We provide details of the parameters evaluated in each study to substantiate and guide the interpretation of these findings...
June 15, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621814/identification-and-characterization-of-the-zebrafish-glutathione-s-transferase-pi-1
#8
Maryam S Abunnaja, Katsuhisa Kurogi, Yasir I Mohammed, Yoichi Sakakibara, Masahito Suiko, Ezdihar A Hassoun, Ming-Cheh Liu
Zebrafish has in recent years emerged as a popular vertebrate model for use in pharmacological and toxicological studies. While there have been sporadic studies on the zebrafish glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), the zebrafish GST gene superfamily still awaits to be fully elucidated. We report here the identification of 15 zebrafish cytosolic GST genes in NCBI GenBank database and the expression, purification, and enzymatic characterization of the zebrafish cytosolic GST Pi-1 (GSTP1). The cDNA encoding the zebrafish GSTP1 was cloned from a 3-month-old female zebrafish, expressed in Eschelichia coli host cells, and purified...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617200/exposure-to-pfoa-and-pfos-and-fetal-growth-a-critical-merging-of-toxicological-and-epidemiological-data
#9
Eva Negri, Francesca Metruccio, Valentina Guercio, Luca Tosti, Emilio Benfenati, Rossella Bonzi, Carlo La Vecchia, Angelo Moretto
Toxicological and epidemiological evidence on the association between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) or perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and birth/fetal weight was assessed. An extensive search for toxicological information in rats and mice, and a systematic search for epidemiological evidence were conducted. The linear regression coefficient (LRC) of birth weight (BrthW) on PFOA/PFOS was considered, and separate random effects meta-analyses for untransformed (i.e. not mathematically transformed) and log-transformed values were performed...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617194/impact-of-online-toxicology-training-on-health-professionals-the-global-educational-toxicology-uniting-project-getup
#10
Anselm Wong, Rais Vohra, Andrew H Dawson, Andrew Stolbach
OBJECTIVE: The Global Educational Toxicology Uniting Project (GETUP), supported by the American College of Medical Toxicology, links countries with and without toxicology services via distance education with the aim to improve education. Due to the lack of toxicology services in some countries there is a knowledge gap in the management of poisonings. We describe our experience with the worldwide delivery of an online introductory toxicology curriculum to emergency doctors and other health professionals treating poisoned patients...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613973/the-association-of-cannabis-use-on-inpatient-psychiatric-hospital-outcomes
#11
Melanie Rylander, Helena R Winston, Haley Medlin, Madelyne Hull, Abraham Nussbaum
BACKGROUND: The associations between cannabis use and psychosis are well documented in numerous studies. There is a need to evaluate the impact of cannabis use on inpatient psychiatric utilization and outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of cannabis use on psychiatric hospital outcomes. METHODS: This study was conducted between April 20, 2015 and October 20, 2015. All patients (n = 120) admitted to Denver Health with psychotic symptoms were administered a urine toxicology screening testing for the presence of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH, the active metabolite of cannabis)...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594244/acute-cholinergic-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-mild-alzheimer-s-type-dementia-who-had-applied-a-large-number-of-rivastigmine-transdermal-patches-on-her-body
#12
Yoshiki Suzuki, Yoshito Kamijo, Tomohiro Yoshizawa, Yuji Fujita, Kiyotaka Usui, Tohru Kishino
CASE PRESENTATION: A 91-year-old woman was transferred to our Emergency Medical Center and Poison Center with somnolence, hypertension (186/61 mm Hg), and repeated vomiting. Three hours later, 10 transdermal patches, each containing 18 mg of rivastigmine (9.5 mg/24 h), were found on her lower back and both thighs, when miosis, facial and trunk sweating, enhanced bowel sound, hypertension, and sinus tachycardia were noted. She was diagnosed with acute cholinergic syndrome due to rivastigmine poisoning...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574588/protective-influence-of-healthful-nutrition-on-mechanisms-of-environmental-pollutant-toxicity-and-disease-risks
#13
REVIEW
Jessie B Hoffman, Bernhard Hennig
Human exposures to environmental contaminants around the world contribute to the global burden of disease and thus require urgent attention. Exploring preventive measures against environmental exposure and disease risk is essential. While a sedentary lifestyle and/or poor dietary habits can exacerbate the deleterious effects resulting from exposure to toxic chemicals, much emerging evidence suggests that positive lifestyle changes (e.g., healthful nutrition) can modulate and/or reduce the toxicity of environmental pollutants...
June 2, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562095/the-advancement-of-multidimensional-qsar-for-novel-drug-discovery-where-are-we-headed
#14
Tao Wang, Xin-Song Yuan, Mian-Bin Wu, Jian-Ping Lin, Li-Rong Yang
The Multidimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (multidimensional-QSAR) method is one of the most popular computational methods employed to predict interesting biochemical properties of existing or hypothetical molecules. With continuous progress, the QSAR method has made remarkable success in various fields, such as medicinal chemistry, material science and predictive toxicology. Areas covered: In this review, the authors cover the basic elements of multidimensional -QSAR including model construction, validation and application...
June 8, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560628/fate-of-selected-drugs-in-the-wastewater-treatment-plants-wwtps-for-domestic-sewage
#15
Agostina Chiavola, Pierpaolo Tedesco, Maria Rosaria Boni
The wide diffusion of Emerging Organic Micropollutants (EOMs) in the environment is receiving increasing attention due to their potential toxicological effects on living organisms. So far, the Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) have not been designed with the purpose to remove these contaminants; therefore, they can represent the major source of release into the environment both through the effluent and the wasted sludge. The fate of EOMs in the WWTPs is still not completely known; further investigations are therefore needed to assess if it is possible to exploit the existing treatment units to reduce EOM concentrations or which processes must be implemented to this purpose...
May 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554660/nanotechnology-in-agriculture-opportunities-toxicological-implications-and-occupational-risks
#16
Ivo Iavicoli, Veruscka Leso, Donald H Beezhold, Anna A Shvedova
Nanotechnology has the potential to make a beneficial impact on several agricultural, forestry, and environmental challenges, such as urbanization, energy constraints, and sustainable use of resources. However, new environmental and human health hazards may emerge from nano-enhanced applications. This raises concerns for agricultural workers who may become primarily exposed to such xenobiotics during their job tasks. The aim of this review is to discuss promising solutions that nanotechnology may provide in agricultural activities, with a specific focus on critical aspects, challenging issues, and research needs for occupational risk assessment and management in this emerging field...
May 26, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553710/black-phosphorus-quantum-dot-induced-oxidative-stress-and-toxicity-in-living-cells-and-mice
#17
Xiaoyu Mu, Jun-Ying Wang, Xueting Bai, Fujuan Xu, Haixia Liu, Jiang Yang, Yaqi Jing, Lingfang Liu, Xuhui Xue, Haitao Dai, Qiang Liu, Yuan-Ming Sun, Changlong Liu, Xiao-Dong Zhang
Black phosphorus (BP), as an emerging successor to layered two-dimensional materials, has attracted extensive interest in cancer therapy. Toxicological studies on BP are of great importance for potential biomedical applications, yet not systemically explored. Herein, toxicity and oxidative stress of BP quantum dots (BPQDs) at cellular, tissue, and whole-body levels are evaluated by performing the systemic in vivo and in vitro experiments. In vitro investigations show that BPQDs at high concentration (200 μg/mL) exhibit significant apoptotic effects on HeLa cells...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549272/acute-toxicity-of-emerging-atmospheric-pollutants-from-wood-lignin-due-to-biomass-burning
#18
Maryline Pflieger, Ana Kroflič
Guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) is an important atmospheric pollutant. It is the major component of wood lignin and is essentially emitted to the atmosphere during biomass burning. Its aging in the tropospheric aqueous phase leads to the generation of the following ring-retaining transformation products, also during nighttime: 4-nitroguaiacol, 6-nitroguaiacol, and dinitroguaiacol. This study presents the first toxicological data of guaiacol and its nitro derivatives and reveals their harmful potential for the ecosystem...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540608/ethics-and-medical-toxicology-research
#19
Jeremy Sugarman, Andrew Stolbach
Optimizing care in medical toxicology necessitates designing and conducting ethical research. Nevertheless, the context of medical toxicology can make clinical research ethically challenging for a variety of reasons: medical toxicology is typified by relative rare conditions; making precise and rapid diagnoses is often fraught with uncertainty; emergent and urgent clinical exigencies make consent difficult or impossible; and some exposures are stigmatized or related to illegal activities that can compromise collecting accurate data from patients...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535130/home-manufacture-of-drugs-an-online-investigation-and-a-toxicological-reality-check-of-online-discussions-on-drug-chemistry
#20
Evelyn Hearne, Emanuele Amorim Alves, Marie Claire Van Hout, Jean-Paul C Grund
Emerging trends in market dynamics and the use of new psychoactive substances are both a public health concern and a complex regulatory issue. One novel area of investigation is the availability of homemade opioids, amphetamines and dissociatives, and the potential fueling of interest in clandestine home manufacture of drugs via the Internet. We illustrate here how online communal folk pharmacology of homemade drugs on drug website forums may actually inform home manufacture practices or contribute to the reduction of harms associated with this practice...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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