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toxicology emergencies

Tiago Torres, Isabel Cunha, Rosário Martins, Miguel M Santos
Recently, several emerging pollutants, including Personal Care Products (PCPs), have been detected in aquatic ecosystems, in the ng/L or µg/L range. Available toxicological data is limited, and, for certain PCPs, evidence indicates a potential risk for the environment. Hence, there is an urgent need to gather ecotoxicological data on PCPs as a proxy to improve risk assessment. Here, the toxicity of three different PCPs (4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor (4-MBC), propylparaben and triclocarban) was tested using embryo bioassays with Danio rerio (zebrafish) and Paracentrotus lividus (sea urchin)...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hans-Uwe Dahms, Eun-Ji Won, Hui-Su Kim, Jeonghoon Han, Heum Gi Park, Sami Souissi, Sheikh Raisuddin, Jae-Seong Lee
Aquatic invertebrates contribute significantly to environmental impact assessment of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Much effort has been made to identify viable and ecologically relevant invertebrate test organisms to meet rigorous regulatory requirements. Copepods, which are ecologically important and widely distributed in aquatic organisms, offer a huge opportunity as test organisms for aquatic toxicity testing. They have a major role not only in the transfer of energy in aquatic food chains, but also as a medium of transfer of aquatic pollutants across the tropic levels...
October 14, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Shulin Zhuang, Xuan Lv, Liumeng Pan, Liping Lu, Zhiwei Ge, Jiaying Wang, Jingpeng Wang, Jinsong Liu, Weiping Liu, Chunlong Zhang
Benzotriazole ultraviolet stabilizers (BUVSs) are prominent chemicals widely used in industrial and consumer products to protect against ultraviolet radiation. They are becoming contaminants of emerging concern since their residues are frequently detected in multiple environmental matrices and their toxicological implications are increasingly reported. We herein investigated the antiandrogenic activities of eight BUVSs prior to and after human CYP3A4-mediated metabolic activation/deactivation by the two-hybrid recombinant human androgen receptor yeast bioassay and the in vitro metabolism assay...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Shawn M Davidson, Matthew G Vander Heiden
Lysosomes (or lytic bodies) were so named because they contain high levels of hydrolytic enzymes. Lysosome function and dysfunction have been found to play important roles in human disease, including cancer; however, the ways in which lysosomes contribute to tumorigenesis and cancer progression are still being uncovered. Beyond serving as a cellular recycling center, recent evidence suggests that the lysosome is involved in energy homeostasis, generating building blocks for cell growth, mitogenic signaling, priming tissues for angiogenesis and metastasis formation, and activating transcriptional programs...
October 12, 2016: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paul Owusu Donkor, Ying Chen, Liqin Ding, Feng Qiu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ligusticum species (Umbelliferae) have been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, Korean folk medicine and Native American medicine for their medicinal and nutritional value. Decoctions of the rhizomes are used in treatment and prophylaxis of migraine, anaemia and cardiovascular conditions including stroke. AIM OF STUDY: This review is intended to fully compile the constituents of locally and traditionally used Ligusticum species, present their bioactivities and highlight potential leads for future drug design, and thus, provide a reference for further research and application of these species...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Buddolla Viswanath, Sanghyo Kim
Currently, nanotechnology revolutionizing both scientific and industrial community due to their applications in the fields of medicine, environmental protection, energy, and space exploration. Despite of the evident benefits of nanoparticles, there are still open questions about the influence of these nanoparticles on human health and environment. This is one of the critical issues that have to be addressed in the near future, before massive production of nanomaterials. Manufactured nanoparticles, which are finding ever-increasing applications in industry and consumer products fall into the category of emerging contaminants with ecological and toxicological effects on populations, communities and ecosystems...
October 8, 2016: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Maurice Whelan, Chantra Eskes
Validation is essential for the translation of newly developed alternative approaches to animal testing into tools and solutions suitable for regulatory applications. Formal approaches to validation have emerged over the past 20 years or so and although they have helped greatly to progress the field, it is essential that the principles and practice underpinning validation continue to evolve to keep pace with scientific progress. The modular approach to validation should be exploited to encourage more innovation and flexibility in study design and to increase efficiency in filling data gaps...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yu-Ting Zuo, Yu Hu, Wei-Wei Lu, Jing-Jing Cao, Fan Wang, Xue Han, Wen-Qing Lu, Ai-Lin Liu
Scarce toxicological data are available for 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), an emerging water disinfection by-product (DBP) that is of potential public health concern. This study investigated the effects of DCBQ on the lethality, respiration rate, and DNA damage in the Caenorhabditis elegans nematode. Meanwhile, the toxic effects of five regulated DBPs, dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), monobromoacetic acid (MBA), dibromoacetic acid (DBA), and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), have also been evaluated...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Juergen Pauluhn
To characterize the accumulated hazards associated with the inhalation of gases typical of combustion products, a time-integrated value known as the fractional effective dose (FED) is used. This FED is maintained by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and made publicly available as the Standard ISO 13571. The current FED calculation related to asphyxiant gases is based on non-human primate data to estimate the 50% probability of humans to be incapacitated or not being able to execute any escape paradigm from fires...
September 21, 2016: Toxicology Letters
Sa'ed H Zyoud, W Stephen Waring, Samah W Al-Jabi, Waleed M Sweileh, Rahmat Awang
BACKGROUND: Analysis of the most influential publications within paracetamol poisoning treatment can be helpful in recognizing main and novel treatment issues within the field of toxicology. The current study was performed to recognize and describe the most highly cited articles related to paracetamol poisoning treatment. METHODS: The 100 most highly cited articles in paracetamol poisoning treatment were identified from the Scopus database in November 2015. All eligible articles were read for basic information, including total number of citations, average citations per year, authors' names, journal name, impact factors, document types and countries of authors of publications...
2016: SpringerPlus
Linson Lonappan, Satinder Kaur Brar, Ratul Kumar Das, Mausam Verma, Rao Y Surampalli
Diclofenac (DCF) is a prevalent anti-inflammatory drug used throughout the world. Intensive researches carried out in the past few decades have confirmed the global ubiquity of DCF in various environmental compartments. Its frequent occurrence in freshwater environments and its potential toxicity towards several organisms such as fish and mussels makes DCF an emerging environmental contaminant. At typical detected environmental concentrations, the drug does not exhibit toxic effects towards living organisms, albeit chronic exposure may lead to severe effects...
September 17, 2016: Environment International
Gillian A Beauchamp, Benjamin T Kerrey, Matthew R Mittiga, Andrea S Rinderknecht, Shan Yin
OBJECTIVE: Few studies of children with toxicological emergencies describe those undergoing acute resuscitation, and most describe exposures to single agents. We describe a 12-month sample of patients evaluated in the resuscitation area of a pediatric emergency department (ED) for a toxicological emergency. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients in a high-volume, academic pediatric ED. We identified patients evaluated in the ED resuscitation area for toxicological exposure and conducted structured chart reviews to collect relevant data...
September 20, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Lukas Bündgens, Frank Tacke, Christian Trautwein, Alexander Koch
Poisoning with impaired mental state is a frequent cause for hospital admission. The initial management includes assessment of vital functions and airway management followed by focussed diagnostics. Poison Emergency Centers can provide valuable assistance in acute intoxications. Clinically important agents causing mental state alterations include opiates, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants, alcohol, methanol and ethylene glycol, carbon monoxide and salicylates. Most important therapeutic measures comprise supportive care, decontamination or elimination...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Matilda Bäckberg, Luiza Tworek, Olof Beck, Anders Helander
INTRODUCTION: About a decade ago, synthetic cannabinoids (SC) started to appear as recreational drugs on the new psychoactive substance (NPS) market. This report from the STRIDA project describes analytically confirmed intoxications involving MDMB-CHMICA (methyl-2-(1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indol-3-ylcarbonylamino)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate), a SC that was first detected in 2014. STUDY DESIGN: This is an observational case series of patients from Sweden with suspected NPS exposure presenting in emergency departments and intensive care units...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Elham Bazmi, Behnam Behnoush, Maryam Akhgari, Leila Bahmanabadi
OBJECTIVE: Benzodiazepines are frequently screened drugs in emergency toxicology, drugs of abuse testing, and in forensic cases. As the variations of benzodiazepines concentrations in biological samples during bleeding, postmortem changes, and redistribution could be biasing forensic medicine examinations, hence selecting a suitable sample and a validated accurate method is essential for the quantitative analysis of these main drug categories. The aim of this study was to develop a valid method for the determination of four benzodiazepines (flurazepam, lorazepam, alprazolam, and diazepam) in vitreous humor using liquid-liquid extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography...
2016: SAGE Open Medicine
Lang Qiu, Zhanfeng Dong, Huan Sun, Hongxiang Li, Chein-Chi Chang
Part I: Occurrence, Fate, and Transport (this review) is a sequel of Emerging Pollutants. This review compiles research in 2015 for investigating emerging pollutants in wastewater and environmental sources of emerging pollutants. It investigates the occurrence, fate, transport of emerging pollutants in the environment. This review further discusses the monitoring approaches, modeling, and toxicological impacts of these compounds that are relevant to wastewater.
October 2016: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Kim L Lavoie, Joshua A Rash, Tavis S Campbell
Widespread acceptance of evidence-based medicine has led to the proliferation of clinical practice guidelines as the primary mode of communicating current best practices across a range of chronic diseases. Despite overwhelming evidence supporting the benefits of their use, there is a long history of poor uptake by providers. Nonadherence to clinical practice guidelines is referred to as clinical inertia and represents provider failure to initiate or intensify treatment despite a clear indication to do so. Here we review evidence for the ubiquity of clinical inertia across a variety of chronic health conditions, as well as the organizational and system, patient, and provider factors that serve to maintain it...
September 7, 2016: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Christiane Gruber-Dorninger, Barbara Novak, Veronika Nagl, Franz Berthiller
Modern analytical techniques can determine a multitude of fungal metabolites contaminating food and feed. In addition to known mycotoxins, for which maximum levels in food are enforced, also currently unregulated, so-called "emerging mycotoxins" were shown to occur frequently in agricultural products. The aim of this review is to critically discuss the relevance of selected emerging mycotoxins to food and feed safety. Acute and chronic toxicity as well as occurrence data are presented for enniatins, beauvericin, moniliformin, fusaproliferin, fusaric acid, culmorin, butenolide, sterigmatocystin, emodin, mycophenolic acid, alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and tenuazonic acid...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Madalena Cipriano, Nora Freyer, Fanny Knöspel, Nuno G Oliveira, Rita Barcia, Pedro E Cruz, Helder Cruz, Matilde Castro, Jorge M Santos, Katrin Zeilinger, Joana P Miranda
3D cultures of human stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) have emerged as promising models for short- and long-term maintenance of hepatocyte phenotype in vitro cultures by better resembling the in vivo environment of the liver and consequently increase the translational value of the resulting data. In this study, the first stage of hepatic differentiation of human neonatal mesenchymal stem cells (hnMSCs) was performed in 2D monolayer cultures for 17 days. The second stage was performed by either maintaining cells in 2D cultures for an extra 10 days, as control, or alternatively cultured in 3D as self-assembled spheroids or in multicompartment membrane bioreactor system...
September 2, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Tomáš Hložek, Miroslava Bursová, Pavel Coufal, Radomír Čabala
A simple, sensitive and robust method for simultaneous determination of antiepileptic drugs (gabapentin, pregabalin and vigabatrin) in human serum using GC-MS was developed and validated for clinical toxicology purposes. This method employs an emerging class of derivatization agents - alkyl chloroformates allowing the efficient and rapid derivatization of both the amino and carboxylic groups of the tested antiepileptic drugs within seconds. The derivatization protocol was optimized using the Design of Experiment statistical methodology, and the entire sample preparation requires less than 5 min...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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