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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458091/role-of-the-ssek1-gene-in-the-pathogenicity-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-enteritidis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#1
Yadong Yang, Chuan Yu, Ke Ding, Chunjie Zhang, Chengshui Liao, Yanyan Jia, Jing Li, Xiangchao Cheng
Salmonella enteritidis is a common food-borne pathogen associated with consumption of contaminated poultry meat and eggs, which frequently causes gastroenteritis in humans. Salmonella secreted effector K1 (SseK1), as a translocated and secreted protein has been identified to be essential for the virulence of Salmonella typhimurium in host cells. However, the role of the sseK1 gene in the pathogenicity of S. enteritidis remain unclear. In this study, a sseK1 deletion mutant of S. enteritidis was constructed and its biological characteristics were examined...
February 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458072/influence-of-xenorhabdus-gamma-proteobacteria-enterobacteriaceae-symbionts-on-gonad-postembryonic-development-in-steinernema-nematoda-steinernematidae-nematodes
#2
Alexandra C Roder, S Patricia Stock
Steinernema nematodes and their Xenorhabdus partners form an obligate mutualistic association. This partnership is insecticidal to a wide range of insects. Steinernema rely on their Xenorhabdus partner to produce toxins inside the insect cadaver to liberate nutrients from the insect, as well as antimicrobials to sterilize the cadaver, thus creating a suitable environment for reproduction. In return, Steinernema vector their Xenorhabdus between insect hosts. Disruption of this partnership may affect the success of both partners...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457960/phylogenetic-relationships-and-acaricidal-effects-of-beauveria-bassiana-obtained-from-cattle-farm-soils-against-rhipicephalus-microplus
#3
Agustin Fernández-Salas, Miguel Angel Alonso Díaz, Rogelio Alejandro Alonso Morales, Roberto Lezama-Gutierrez, José Antonio Cervantes-Chávez
The objectives of the present study were to isolate Beauveria bassiana strains from cattle farms soils, to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among the isolated fungi strains, and to determine the acaricidal effect of B. bassiana isolates on Rhipicephalus microplus engorged ticks, resistant or susceptible to chemical acaricides. Six strains of Beauveria bassiana were obtained and isolated from cattle farms soils by Galleria bait method in Mexican tropics and the acaricidal effect was assessed against 2 populations of R...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457297/the-impact-of-bacteriophages-on-phyllosphere-bacterial-abundance-and-composition
#4
Norma M Morella, Annika L Gomez, Grant Wang, Michelle S Leung, Britt Koskella
Interactions between bacteria and bacteriophage viruses (phages) are known to influence pathogen growth and virulence, microbial diversity, and even biogeochemical cycling. Lytic phages in particular infect and lyse their host cells, and can therefore have significant effects on cell densities as well as competitive dynamics within microbial communities. Despite the known impacts of lytic phages on the ecology and evolution of bacteria in free-living communities, little is known about the role of lytic phages in host-associated microbiomes...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456969/mutation-of-agr-is-associated-with-the-adaptation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-to-the-host-during-chronic-osteomyelitis
#5
Carlos M Suligoy, Santiago M Lattar, Mariángeles Noto Llana, Cintia D González, Lucía P Alvarez, D Ashley Robinson, Marisa I Gómez, Fernanda R Buzzola, Daniel O Sordelli
Selection pressures exerted on Staphylococcus aureus by host factors may lead to the emergence of mutants better adapted to the evolving conditions at the infection site. This study was aimed at identifying the changes that occur in S. aureus exposed to the host defense mechanisms during chronic osteomyelitis and evaluating whether these changes affect the virulence of the organism. Genome assessment of two S. aureus isolates collected 13 months apart (HU-85a and HU-85c) from a host with chronic osteomyelitis was made by whole genome sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456227/a-case-of-renal-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-following-intravesical-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-therapy
#6
Yosra Selmi, Rania Kheder-Elfekih, Hela Jebali, Lilia Ben Fatma, Wided Smaoui, Madiha Krid, Soumaya Beji, Lamia Rais, Mohamed Karim Zouaghi
Various adverse reactions may occur after intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy. Although the virulence of attenuated BCG is low, serious complications such as bacterial cystitis, bladder contractures, granulomatous prostatitis, epididymitis, orchitis, and systemic reactions such as fever and malaise have been described. Disseminated granulomatosis such as hepatitis and pneumonitis have also been described, but are rare. We report here the case of a 67-year-old patient who presented with renal granulomatosis with polyangiitis following intravesical BCG therapy for superficial bladder tumor...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455524/multiwall-carbon-nanotubes-induce-more-pronounced-transcriptomic-responses-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pg201-than-graphene-exfoliated-boron-nitride-or-carbon-black
#7
Monika Mortimer, Naresh Devarajan, Dong Li, Patricia A Holden
Carbonaceous and boron nitride (BN) nanomaterials have similar applications and hydrophobic properties suggesting common release pathways and exposure to bacteria. While high nanomaterial concentrations can be bactericidal or growth-inhibitory, little is known regarding bacterial transcriptional responses to non-growth-inhibitory nanomaterial concentrations. Here, using one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-a clinically and environmentally important bacterial taxon-we analyzed the comparative transcriptomic response to carbonaceous or BN nanomaterials...
February 19, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455419/further-aspects-of-toxoplasma-gondii-elimination-in-the-presence-of-metals
#8
Laís Pessanha de Carvalho, Edésio José Tenório de Melo
Toxoplasma gondii, the etiological agent of toxoplasmosis, infects nucleated cells and then resides and multiplies within a parasitophorous vacuole. For this purpose, the parasite secretes many virulence factors for the purpose of invading and subverting the host microbicidal defenses in order to facilitate its survival in the intracellular milieu. Essential metals are structural components of proteins and enzymes or cofactors of enzymatic reactions responsible for these parasitic survival mechanisms. However, an excess of non-essential or essential metals can lead to parasite death...
February 18, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455334/septicemia-from-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-from-a-probiotic-enriched-yogurt-in-a-patient-with-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation
#9
Satoshi Koyama, Hiroyuki Fujita, Takeshi Shimosato, Aki Kamijo, Yasufumi Ishiyama, Eri Yamamoto, Yoshimi Ishii, Yukako Hattori, Maki Hagihara, Etsuko Yamazaki, Naoto Tomita, Hideaki Nakajima
Probiotic-rich foods are consumed without much restriction. We report here, a case of septic shock caused by yogurt derived Lactobacillus species in a 54-year-old male patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia, in second complete remission, and who was an autologous stem cell transplantation recipient. He received high dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. He ingested commercially available probiotic-enriched yogurt because of severe diarrhea. One week later, he developed septic shock, and the pathogen was determined by strain-specific PCR analysis as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103), which was found to be identical with the strain in the yogurt he consumed...
February 17, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455065/foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-type-o-specific-mutations-determine-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-fidelity-and-virus-attenuation
#10
Chen Li, Haiwei Wang, Tiangang Yuan, Andrew Woodman, Decheng Yang, Guohui Zhou, Craig E Cameron, Li Yu
Previous studies have shown that the FMDV Asia1/YS/CHA/05 high-fidelity mutagen-resistant variants are attenuated (Zeng et al., 2014). Here, we introduced the same single or multiple-amino-acid substitutions responsible for increased 3Dpol fidelity of type Asia1 FMDV into the type O FMDV O/YS/CHA/05 infectious clone. The rescued viruses O-DA and O-DAMM are lower replication fidelity mutants and showed an attenuated phenotype. These results demonstrated that the same amino acid substitution of 3Dpol in different serotypes of FMDV strains had different effects on viral fidelity...
February 15, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455001/evolution-and-molecular-mechanism-of-pitas-in-iron-transport-of-streptococcus-species
#11
Kun Cao, Jing Zhang, Xin-Yu Miao, Qiu-Xia Wei, Xin-Lu Zhao, Qing-Yu He, Xuesong Sun
Iron is an essential element for almost all bacteria. The iron ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters located on the cell membrane affects bacterial virulence and infection. Although a variety of Fe3+ -transporters have been found in bacteria, their evolutionary processes are rarely studied. Pneumococcal iron ABC transporter (PitA), a highly conserved Fe3+ -transporter in most pathogenic bacteria, influences the capsule formation and virulence of bacteria. However, multiple sequence alignment revealed that PitA is expressed in four different variants in bacteria, and the structural complexity of these variants increases progressively...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454892/fexaramine-as-an-entry-blocker-for-feline-caliciviruses
#12
Yunjeong Kim, Kyeong-Ok Chang
Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a small non-enveloped virus containing a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome of approximately 7.7 kb. FCV is a highly infectious pathogen of cats and typically causes moderate, self-limiting acute oral and upper respiratory tract diseases or chronic oral diseases. In addition, in recent years, virulent, systemic FCV (vs-FCV) strains causing severe systemic diseases with a high mortality rate of up to 67% have been reported in cats. Although FCV vaccines are commercially available, their efficacy is limited due to antigenic diversity of FCV strains and short duration of immunity...
February 15, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454879/application-of-genetically-encoded-redox-biosensors-to-measure-dynamic-changes-in-the-glutathione-bacillithiol-and-mycothiol-redox-potentials-in-pathogenic-bacteria
#13
REVIEW
Quach Ngoc Tung, Nico Linzner, Vu Van Loi, Haike Antelmann
Gram-negative bacteria utilize glutathione (GSH) as their major LMW thiol. However, most Gram-positive bacteria do not encode enzymes for GSH biosynthesis and produce instead alternative LMW thiols, such as bacillithiol (BSH) and mycothiol (MSH). BSH is utilized by Firmicutes and MSH is the major LMW thiol of Actinomycetes. LMW thiols are required to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm, but are also involved in virulence mechanisms in human pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica subsp...
February 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454850/dissemination-of-panton-valentine-leukocidin-positive-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-usa300-clone-in-multiple-hospitals-in-tokyo-japan
#14
Shunsuke Takadama, Hidemasa Nakaminami, Asami Sato, Manami Shoshi, Takeshi Fujii, Norihisa Noguchi
OBJECTIVE: Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene (lukS/F-PV)-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), particularly the USA300 clone, is a health concern worldwide. Recently, CA-MRSA clones have been found to spread and persist in hospital settings. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiological features of lukS/F-PV-positive MRSA in Japanese hospitals. METHODS: A total of 3,433 MRSA isolated from nine hospitals in 2011-2015 were used...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454824/candida-albicans-biology-molecular-characterization-pathogenicity-and-advances-in-diagnosis-and-control-an-update
#15
REVIEW
Maryam Dadar, Ruchi Tiwari, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Sandip Chakraborty, Youcef Shahali, Kuldeep Dhama
Candida albicans is an emerging multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen representing an important source of invasive disease in humans and generating high healthcare costs worldwide. This fungus is frequently found in different anatomical sites of healthy persons and could induce systemic and superficial infections under optimal environmental conditions. Invasive candidiasis (IC) is an important nosocomial infection with high morbidity and mortality rates in hospitalized children. It represents a major source of prolonged infections in intensive care unit (ICU), particularly in immunosuppressed or elderly patients...
February 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454809/the-hidden-lipoproteome-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
Anica Graf, Richard J Lewis, Stephan Fuchs, Martin Pagels, Susanne Engelmann, Katharina Riedel, Jan Pané-Farré
Lipoproteins are attached to the outer leaflet of the membrane by a di- or tri-acylglyceryl moiety and are thus positioned in the membrane-cell wall interface. Consequently, lipoproteins are involved in many surface associated functions, including cell wall synthesis, electron transport, uptake of nutrients, surface stress response, signal transduction, and they represent a reservoir of bacterial virulence factors. Inspection of 123 annotated Staphylococcus aureus genome sequences in the public domain revealed that this organism devotes about 2-3% of its coding capacity to lipoproteins, corresponding to about 70 lipoproteins per genome...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454517/intradermal-immunization-with-inactivated-swine-influenza-virus-and-adjuvant-polydi-sodium-carboxylatoethylphenoxy-phosphazene-pcep-induced-humoral-and-cell-mediated-immunity-and-reduced-lung-viral-titres-in-pigs
#17
Royford Magiri, Ken Lai, Alyssa Chaffey, Yan Zhou, Hyun-Mi Pyo, Volker Gerdts, Heather L Wilson, George Mutwiri
Swine influenza virus is endemic worldwide and it is responsible for significant economic losses to the swine industry. A vaccine that stimulates a rapid and long-lasting protective immune response to prevent this infection is highly sought. Poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)-phosphazene (PCEP) has demonstrated adjuvant activity when formulated as part of multiple vaccines in mice and pigs. In this study we examined the magnitude and type of immune response induced in pigs vaccinated via the intramuscular or intradermal routes with inactivated swine influenza virus (SIV) H1N1 vaccine formulated with PCEP...
February 14, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454346/agrobacterium-mediated-and-electroporation-mediated-transformation-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii-a-comparative-study
#18
Paola Mini, Olivia Costantina Demurtas, Silvia Valentini, Patrizia Pallara, Giuseppe Aprea, Paola Ferrante, Giovanni Giuliano
BACKGROUND: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an unicellular green alga used for functional genomics studies and heterologous protein expression. A major hindrance in these studies is the low level and instability of expression of nuclear transgenes, due to their rearrangement and/or silencing over time. RESULTS: We constructed dedicated vectors for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation carrying, within the T-DNA borders, the Paromomycin (Paro) selectable marker and an expression cassette containing the Luciferase (Luc) reporter gene...
February 17, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454192/phytophthora-sojae-effectors-orchestrate-warfare-with-host-immunity
#19
REVIEW
Yan Wang, Yuanchao Wang
Phytophthora sojae is one of the most damaging plant pathogens of soybean. To aid establishment of a compatible interaction with its host, P. sojae deploys many secreted effectors. These effectors act either in the apoplastic space to cope with hostile conditions or inside of host cells to reprogram host physiology favoring pathogen growth. Effectors have been used as molecular probes, which revealed in Phytophthora that effectors execute their virulence function via manipulating host targets. In addition, recent studies have discovered 'pseudo-effectors' in Phytophthora that act as decoys to shield virulence effectors from host defense, a new paradigm in plant-pathogen interactions...
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454005/a-quest-to-find-good-primers-for-gene-expression-analysis-of-candida-albicans-from-clinical-samples
#20
Gabriela C Alonso, Ana C Pavarina, Tábata V Sousa, Marlise I Klein
Biofilm production contributes to several human diseases, including oral candidiasis. Among the Candida species, Candida albicans is the most prevalent. The expression of virulence genes is implicated in the pathogenic potential of Candida biofilms. However, the evaluation of microbial gene expression from in vivo biofilm samples is not trivial, specifically, assessment via quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be a challenge because of several species present in clinical samples. Hence, the necessity of primers specificity...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
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