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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434172/lactobacillus-paracasei-strain-06tca19-suppresses-inflammatory-chemokine-induced-by-helicobacter-pylori-in-human-gastric-epithelial-cells
#1
Shiro Takeda, Keiji Igoshi, Chuluunbat Tsend-Ayush, Tsendesuren Oyunsuren, Ryoichi Sakata, Yasuhiro Koga, Yuo Arima, Masahiko Takeshita
Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection is an important risk factor for gastric cancer that causes gastric inflammation. Inflammatory chemokines such as interleukin (IL)-8 and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) are elevated in the gastric mucosa by H. pylori. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus paracasei strain 06TCa19, a probiotic strain, on IL-8 and RANTES expression and production induced by H. pylori using human gastric epithelial cell lines. Strain 06TCa19 was shown to suppress H...
April 22, 2017: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433796/genetic-diversity-and-virulence-genes-of-salmonella-enterica-subspecies-enterica-serotype-enteritidis-isolated-from-meats-and-eggs
#2
Fatemeh Fardsanei, Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal, Masoumeh Douraghi, Taghi Zahraei Salehi, Mahmood Mahmoodi, Hamed Memariani, Farhad Nikkhahi
Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is one of the leading causes of food-borne gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of contaminated food products of animal origin. Little is known about the genetic diversity and virulence content of S. Enteritidis isolated from poultry meats and eggs in Iran. A total of 34 S. Enteritidis strains were collected from different food sources of animal origin in Tehran from May 2015 to July 2016. All of the S. Enteritidis strains were serotyped, antimicrobial susceptibility tested, and characterized for virulence genes...
April 19, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432491/anti-biofilm-activity-of-polyazolidinammonium-modified-with-iodine-hydrate-ions-against-microbial-biofilms-of-uropathogenic-coliform-bacteria
#3
O V Nechaeva, E I Tikhomirova, D A Zayarsky, N V Bespalova, E V Glinskaya, N F Shurshalova, B M Al Bayati, A I Babailova
The dynamics of microbial biofilm formation by standard strain and by clinical strains of uropathogenic coliform bacteria was investigated in vitro and the effect of sublethal concentrations of the polymer compound polyazolidinammonium modified with iodine hydrate ions on the initial stages of biofilm formation was assessed. Treatment of immunological plate wells with the polymeric compound prevented film formation, especially in case of clinical E. coli strain carrying FimH virulence gene.
April 21, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432412/genotyping-by-sequencing-targeting-of-a-novel-downy-mildew-resistance-gene-pl-20-from-wild-helianthus-argophyllus-for-sunflower-helianthus-annuus-l
#4
G J Ma, S G Markell, Q J Song, L L Qi
Genotyping-by-sequencing revealed a new downy mildew resistance gene, Pl 20 , from wild Helianthus argophyllus located on linkage group 8 of the sunflower genome and closely linked to SNP markers that facilitate the marker-assisted selection of resistance genes. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most devastating and yield-limiting diseases of sunflower. Downy mildew resistance identified in wild Helianthus argophyllus accession PI 494578 was determined to be effective against the predominant and virulent races of P...
April 21, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432099/acute-hepatopancreatic-necrosis-disease-ahpnd-causing-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-strains-maintain-an-antibacterial-type-vi-secretion-system-with-versatile-effector-repertoires
#5
Peng Li, Lisa N Kinch, Ann Ray, Ankur B Dalia, Qian Cong, Linda M Nunan, Andrew Camilli, Nick V Grishin, Dor Salomon, Kim Orth
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a newly emerging shrimp disease that has severely damaged the global shrimp industry. AHPND is caused by toxic strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) that have acquired a "selfish plasmid" encoding the deadly binary toxins PirA(vp)/PirB(vp) To better understand the repertoire of virulence factors in AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus, we conducted a comparative analysis using genome sequences of the clinical strain RIMD2210633, environmental non-AHPND and toxic AHPND isolates of V...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432094/the-use-of-synthetic-hybrid-strains-to-determine-the-role-of-replicon-3-in-virulence-of-the-burkholderia-cepacia-complex
#6
Kirsty Agnoli, Roman Freitag, Margarida C Gomes, Christian Jenul, Angela Suppiger, Olga Mannweiler, Carmen Frauenknecht, Daniel Janser, Annette C Vergunst, Leo Eberl
The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) displays a wealth of metabolic diversity with great biotechnological potential, but the utilisation of these bacteria is limited by their opportunistic pathogenicity to humans. The third replicon of the Bcc, megaplasmid pC3 (0.5 to 1.4 Mb, previously chromosome 3), is important for various phenotypes, including virulence, antifungal and proteolytic activities, and the utilization of certain substrates. Approximately half of plasmid pC3 is well-conserved throughout sequenced Bcc members, while the other half is not...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431891/-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-an-old-disease-with-new-challenges
#7
María Soledad Miró, Emilse Rodríguez, Cecilia Vigezzi, Paula Alejandra Icely, Marcelo Gonzaga de Freitas Araújo, Fernando Oscar Riera, Lara Vargas, Claudio Abiega, Juan Pablo Caeiro, Claudia Elena Sotomayor
Vulvovaginal candidiasis is an old disease that, even in a modern world, continues to have a high incidence. Despite the therapeutic advances, treatments are not always effective, and our understanding of the pathogenesis of this fungal infection is still incomplete. A discussion is presented in this article on the most significant developments related to the fungal virulence factors, the role of the immunological mechanisms involved in the vaginal protection, and the genetic alterations that confer susceptibility to the recurrent form of this mycosis...
April 18, 2017: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431495/iron-regulated-small-rna-expression-as-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-fa-1090-transitions-into-stationary-phase-growth
#8
Lydgia A Jackson, Michael Day, Jennie Allen, Edgar Scott, David W Dyer
BACKGROUND: For most pathogens, iron (Fe) homeostasis is crucial for maintenance within the host and the ability to cause disease. The primary transcriptional regulator that controls intracellular Fe levels is the Fur (ferric uptake regulator) protein, which exerts its action on transcription by binding to a promoter-proximal sequence termed the Fur box. Fur-regulated transcriptional responses are often fine-tuned at the post-transcriptional level through the action of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs)...
April 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431199/staphylococcus-aureus-nitric-oxide-synthase-sanos-modulates-aerobic-respiratory-metabolism-and-cell-physiology
#9
Austin B Mogen, Ronan K Carroll, Kimberly L James, Genevy Lima, Dona Silva, Jeffrey A Culver, Christopher Petucci, Lindsey N Shaw, Kelly C Rice
Nitric oxide (NO) is generated from arginine and oxygen via NO synthase (NOS). Staphylococcus aureus NOS (saNOS) has previously been shown to affect virulence and resistance to exogenous oxidative stress, yet the exact mechanism is unknown. Herein, we report a previously-undescribed role of saNOS in S. aureus aerobic physiology. Specifically, aerobic S. aureus nos mutant cultures presented with elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide levels, as well as increased membrane potential, increased respiratory dehydrogenase activity, and slightly elevated oxygen consumption...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431114/molecular-characterization-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-isolated-from-the-environment-in-beijing-china
#10
Hongtao Dou, Huizhu Wang, Shaowei Xie, Xinxin Chen, Zhipeng Xu, Yingchun Xu
The molecular type of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans in Beijing was not clear. Our study aims to reveal the molecular characterization of C. neoformans complex from environment in Beijing, China. A total of 435 samples of pigeon droppings from 11 different homes in Beijing were collected from August to November in 2015. Pigeon droppings were inoculated onto caffeic acid cornmeal agar (CACA) to screen C. neoformans complex. Bruker Biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was performed for species identification...
April 20, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430818/comparative-genomics-of-burkholderia-multivorans-a-ubiquitous-pathogen-with-a-highly-conserved-genomic-structure
#11
Charlotte Peeters, Vaughn S Cooper, Philip J Hatcher, Bart Verheyde, Aurélien Carlier, Peter Vandamme
The natural environment serves as a reservoir of opportunistic pathogens. A well-established method for studying the epidemiology of such opportunists is multilocus sequence typing, which in many cases has defined strains predisposed to causing infection. Burkholderia multivorans is an important pathogen in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) and its epidemiology suggests that strains are acquired from non-human sources such as the natural environment. This raises the central question of whether the isolation source (CF or environment) or the multilocus sequence type (ST) of B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430797/effect-of-quinoline-based-1-2-3-triazole-and-its-structural-analogues-on-growth-and-virulence-attributes-of-candida-albicans
#12
Mohammad Irfan, Shadab Alam, Nikhat Manzoor, Mohammad Abid
Candida albicans, along with some other non-albicans Candida species, is a group of yeast, which causes serious infections in humans that can be both systemic and superficial. Despite the fact that extensive efforts have been put into the discovery of novel antifungal agents, the frequency of these fungal infections has increased drastically worldwide. In our quest for the discovery of novel antifungal compounds, we had previously synthesized and screened quinoline containing 1,2,3-triazole (3a) as a potent Candida spp inhibitor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430168/classical-swine-fever-an-updated-review
#13
REVIEW
Sandra Blome, Christoph Staubach, Julia Henke, Jolene Carlson, Martin Beer
Classical swine fever (CSF) remains one of the most important transboundary viral diseases of swine worldwide. The causative agent is CSF virus, a small, enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus. Based on partial sequences, three genotypes can be distinguished that do not, however, directly correlate with virulence. Depending on both virus and host factors, a wide range of clinical syndromes can be observed and thus, laboratory confirmation is mandatory. To this means, both direct and indirect methods are utilized with an increasing degree of commercialization...
April 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430102/variable-virulence-phenotype-of-xenorhabdus-bovienii-%C3%AE-proteobacteria-enterobacteriaceae-in-the-absence-of-their-vector-hosts
#14
John G McMullen, Rebecca McQuade, Jean-Claude Ogier, Sylvie Pagès, Sophie Gaudriault, S Patricia Stock
Xenorhabdus bovienii bacteria have a dual lifestyle: they are mutualistic symbionts to many species of Steinernema nematodes and are pathogens to a wide array of insects. Previous studies have shown that virulence of X.bovienii-Steinernema spp. pairs decreases when the nematodes associate with non-cognate bacterial strains. However, the virulence of the X. bovienii strains alone has not been fully investigated. In this study, we characterized the virulence of nine X. bovienii strains in Galleria mellonella and Spodoptera littoralis and performed a comparative genomic analysis to correlate observed phenotypes with strain genotypes...
April 22, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429871/potentiation-of-antibiotic-against-psedomonas-aeruginosa-biofilm-a-study-with-plumbagin-and-gentamicin
#15
Priya Gupta, Arpita Sarkar, Padmani Sandhu, Akshay Daware, Manash C Das, Yusuf Akhter, Surajit Bhattacharjee
AIM: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the fatal biofilm forming pathogens which pose to be a problem in clinical infections, contamination of food and marine ecosystems. In this report a napthoquinone - Plumbagin has been explored for its antimicrobial (antibacterial and antibiofilm) activity against P. aeruginosa biofilm. The ability of Plumbagin to enhance the bioactivity of a known broad spectrum antibiotic was further assayed by combining the sub-MIC doses of Plumbagin with sub-MIC doses of Gentamicin against P...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429797/sirtuins-in-the-phylum-basidiomycota-a-role-in-virulence-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#16
Samantha D M Arras, Jessica L Chitty, Maha S I Wizrah, Paige E Erpf, Benjamin L Schulz, Milos Tanurdzic, James A Fraser
Virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans is regulated by a range of transcription factors, and is also influenced by the acquisition of adaptive mutations during infection. Beyond the temporal regulation of virulence factor production by transcription factors and these permanent microevolutionary changes, heritable epigenetic modifications such as histone deacetylation may also play a role during infection. Here we describe the first comprehensive analysis of the sirtuin class of NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases in the phylum Basidiomycota, identifying five sirtuins encoded in the C...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428950/endogenous-and-exogenous-kdpf-peptide-increases-susceptibility-of-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-to-nitrosative-stress-and-reduces-intramacrophage-replication
#17
Mariana Rosas Olvera, Eric Vivès, Virginie Molle, Anne-Béatrice Blanc-Potard, Laila Gannoun-Zaki
Emerging antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria like Mycobacterium sp., poses a threat to human health and therefore calls for the development of novel antibacterial strategies. We have recently discovered that bacterial membrane peptides, such as KdpF, possess anti-virulence properties when overproduced in pathogenic bacterial species. Overproduction of the KdpF peptide in Mycobacterium bovis BCG decreased bacterial replication within macrophages, without presenting antibacterial activity. We propose that KdpF functions as a regulatory molecule and interferes with bacterial virulence, potentially through interaction with the PDIM transporter MmpL7...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428781/analysis-of-the-listeria-monocytogenes-population-structure-among-isolates-from-1931-to-2015-in-australia
#18
Amy V Jennison, Jesse J Masson, Ning-Xia Fang, Rikki M Graham, Mark I Bradbury, Narelle Fegan, Kari S Gobius, Trudy M Graham, Christine J Guglielmino, Janelle L Brown, Edward M Fox
Listeriosis remains among the most important bacterial illnesses, with a high associated mortality rate. Efforts to control listeriosis require detailed knowledge of the epidemiology of the disease itself, and its etiological bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes. In this study we provide an in-depth analysis of the epidemiology of 224 L. monocytogenes isolates from Australian clinical and non-clinical sources. Non-human sources included meat, dairy, seafood, fruit, and vegetables, along with animal and environmental isolates...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428775/genomics-reveals-a-unique-clone-of-burkholderia-cenocepacia-harboring-an-actively-excising-novel-genomic-island
#19
Prashant P Patil, Swapna Mali, Samriti Midha, Vikas Gautam, Lona Dash, Sunil Kumar, Jayanthi Shastri, Lipika Singhal, Prabhu B Patil
Burkholderia cenocepacia is a clinically dominant form among the other virulent species of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). In the present study, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of seven nosocomial Bcc isolates, five of which were isolated from the bloodstream infections and two isolates were recovered from the hospital setting during the surveillance. Genome-based species identification of the Bcc isolates using a type strain explicitly identified the species as B. cenocepacia. Moreover, single nucleotide polymorphism analysis revealed that the six isolates were clonal and phylogenetically distinct from the other B...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428772/molecular-characterization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-bovine-mastitis-and-close-human-contacts-in-south-african-dairy-herds-genetic-diversity-and-inter-species-host-transmission
#20
Tracy Schmidt, Marleen M Kock, Marthie M Ehlers
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common etiological agents of contagious bovine mastitis worldwide. The purpose of this study was to genetically characterize a collection of S. aureus isolates (bovine = 146, human = 12) recovered from cases of bovine mastitis and nasal swabs of close human contacts in the dairy environment. Isolates were screened for a combination of clinically significant antimicrobial and virulence gene markers whilst the molecular epidemiology of these isolates and possible inter-species host transmission was investigated using a combination of genotyping techniques...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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