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Yang Qi, Jeffrey W Martin, Adam W Barb, François Thélot, Anthony Yan, Bruce R Donald, Terrence G Oas
The flexibility of biological macromolecules is an important structural determinant of function. Unfortunately, the correlations between different motional modes are poorly captured by discrete ensemble representations. Here, we present new ways to both represent and visualize correlated interdomain motions. Interdomain motions are determined directly from residual dipolar couplings (RDCs), represented as a continuous conformational distribution, and visualized using the disk-on-sphere (DoS) representation...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Alexander Simonis, Alexandra Schubert-Unkmeir
Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a key enzyme in sphingolipid metabolism that converts sphingomyelin to ceramide, thereby modulating membrane structures and signal transduction. Bacterial pathogens can manipulate ASM activity and function, and use host sphingolipids during multiple steps of their infection process. An increase in ceramides upon infection results in the formation of ceramide-enriched membrane platforms that serve to cluster receptor molecules and organize intracellular signaling molecules, thus facilitating bacterial uptake...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Elisabeth Maurer, Caroline Hörtnagl, Michaela Lackner, Denise Grässle, Verena Naschberger, Patrizia Moser, Esther Segal, Margarita Semis, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Ulrike Binder
Mucorales can cause cutaneous to deep-seated infections, mainly in the immunocompromised host, resulting in high mortality rates due to late and inefficient treatment. In this study, Galleria mellonella larvae were evaluated as a heterologous invertebrate host to study pathogenicity of clinically relevant mucormycetes (Rhizopus spp., Rhizomucor spp., Lichtheimia spp., Mucor spp.). All tested species were able to infect G. mellonella larvae. Virulence potential was species-specific and correlated to clinical relevance...
June 19, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Dongfa Dai, Huizhu Wang, Xinmin Xu, Chen Chen, Chuan Song, Dong Jiang, Pengcheng Du, Yuanyuan Zhang, Hui Zeng
PURPOSE: Enterococcus faecalis is commonly found as a commensal gut bacteria, but some linages have caused increasing extra-gastrointestinal infections. In particular, strains with high-level virulence or antimicrobial resistance are prevalent in healthcare settings as nosocomial pathogens. This study was performed to elucidate the epidemiological characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of E. faecalis causing nosocomial infections in a Chinese general hospital over a 4-year period...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Matias Fingermann, Lucía Avila, Maria Belén De Marco, Luciana Vázquez, Darío Nicolás Di Biase, Andrea Verónica Müller, Mirta Lescano, José Christian Dokmetjian, Sonsire Fernández Castillo, José Luis Pérez Quiñoy
Strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can cause the severe Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxins are protein toxins that bind and kill microvascular cells, damaging vital organs. No specific therapeutics or vaccines have been licensed for use in humans yet. The most common route of infection is by consumption of dairy or farm products contaminated with STEC. Domestic cattle colonized by STEC strains represent the main reservoir, and thus a source of contamination. Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMV) obtained after detergent treatment of gram-negative bacteria have been used over the past decades for producing many licensed vaccines...
June 20, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Manli Sun, Yimei Zhang, Qinhu Wang, Chunlan Wu, Cong Jiang, Jin-Rong Xu
Deletion of Prp4, the only kinase among spliceosome components, is not lethal in Fusarium graminearum but Fgprp4 mutants have severe growth defects and produced spontaneous suppressors. To identify novel suppressor mutations of Fgprp4, we sequenced the genome of suppressor S37 that was normal in growth but only partially recovered for intron splicing and identified a tandem duplication of 9-aa in the tri-snRNP component FgSNU66. Among the 19 additional suppressor strains found to have mutations in FgSNU66 (out of 260 screened), five had the same 9-aa duplication event with S37 and another five had the R477H/C mutation...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Milada Dvořáčková, Filip Růžička, Martin Benešík, Roman Pantůček, Monika Dvořáková-Heroldová
Staphylococcus aureus may be a highly virulent human pathogen, especially when it is able to form a biofilm, and it is resistant to antibiotic. Infections caused by these bacteria significantly affect morbidity and mortality, primarily in hospitalized patients. Treatment becomes more expensive, more toxic, and prolonged. This is the reason why research on alternative therapies should be one of the main priorities of medicine and biotechnology. A promising alternative treatment approach is bacteriophage therapy...
June 20, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Reza Ranjbar, Omid Farahani
Background: Due to the widespread different pathogenic strains, Escherichia coli lead many severe to normal diseases worldwide. Finding the relation of clones with genomic content and clinical features is a key point to recognize the high potential-invasive strains. Specific virulence factors include adhesions, invasions, toxins, and capsule are the main determinants of pathogenic factors of E. coli strains. Methods: From Jun 2014 to Jun 2016, E. coli isolates recovered using standard bacteriological methods from wastewater sources in different hospitals in Tehran, Iran, were monitored to recognize the virulence genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Johanna Thelaus, Eva Lundmark, Petter Lindgren, Andreas Sjödin, Mats Forsman
Francisella tularensis , a highly virulent bacteria that causes the zoonotic disease tularemia, is considered a potential agent of biological warfare and bioterrorism. Although the host range for several species within the Francisella is known, little is known about the natural reservoirs of various Francisella species. The lack of knowledge regarding the environmental fates of these pathogens greatly reduces the possibilities for microbial risk assessments. The greater wax moth ( Galleria mellonella) is an insect of the order Lepidoptera that has been used as an alternative model to study microbial infection during recent years...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
A Selim, E Yang, E Rousset, R Thiéry, K Sidi-Boumedine
Coxiella burnetii is a small Gram-negative intracellular bacterium and is the causative agent of Q fever, which is a zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution. Domesticated ruminants are the main reservoir of the disease, but the bacterium is able to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, arthropods and invertebrates. Virulence studies of Coxiella strains usually require a suitable animal model. However, mammalian models are costly and are associated with many ethical constraints. An alternative infection model using Galleria mellonella has been used to study the virulence of several bacterial as well as fungal pathogens...
July 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
Emad Kordbacheh, Shahram Nazarian, Davoud Sadeghi, Abbas Hajizadeh
Objectives: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is known as the most common bacterial causes of diarrheal diseases related to morbidity and mortality. Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) is a part of major virulence factors in ETEC pathogenesis. Antigen entrapment into nanoparticles (NPs) can protect them and enhance their immunogenicity. Materials and Methods: In the present study, recombinant LTB protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and purified by an Ni-NTA agarose column...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Ahmed Mohammed Turkey, Khadija Khalil Barzani, Ahmed Abdul Jabbar Suleiman, Jenan Jameel Abed
Background and Objectives: Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes a variety of diseases. Staphylococcal biofilms are a source of chronic and continual infections. This study was conducted to estimate the distribution of agr among different isolates of S. aureus and their relationship with biofilm. Also, it was aimed to check the association of operon agr with virulence factors ( seb, eta, spa and tst v8 ) and study the effect of biosynthesis silver nanoparticles on the function of the agr system...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Krishnan Mahalakshmi, Padma Krishnan, S C Chandrasekaran
Background: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been reported in higher proportions in subgingival microbiota of individuals with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) compared with those with chronic periodontitis (ChP) and healthy controls. The major virulence factors are the ones that help in colonization and evasion of host's defenses. Hence, this study was aimed to assess the prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans 16S rRNA and its virulent genotypes (leukotoxin [ lktA ] and fimbria-associated protein [ fap ])...
May 2018: Dental Research Journal
Negar Seyed, Nathan C Peters, Sima Rafati
Leishmaniasis is a health-threatening vector-borne disease in almost 90 different countries. While a prophylactic human vaccine is not yet available, the fact that recovery from leishmaniasis establishes lifelong immunity against secondary infection suggests that a vaccine is attainable. In the past, deliberate infection with virulent parasites, termed Leishmanization, was used as a live-vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis and effectively protected against vector-transmitted disease in endemic areas. However, the practice was discontinued due to major complications including non-healing skin lesions, exacerbation of skin diseases, and the potential impact of immunosuppression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ming Chu, Mingya Zhou, Caihong Jiang, Xi Chen, Likai Guo, Mingbo Zhang, Zhengyun Chu, Yuedan Wang
Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) have recently emerged as key virulence determinants, particularly in highly aggressive Staphylococcus aureus isolates. These peptides contribute to the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections, participating in multiple inflammatory responses. Here, we report a new role for S. aureus PSMs in high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) induced inflammation by modulating toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway. Direct ligation of TLR4 with S. aureus PSMα1-α3 and PSMβ1-β2 was identified by surface plasmon resonance...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Wenjing Yang, Hao Wu, Zhangxun Wang, Qian Sun, Lintao Qiao, Bo Huang
The APSES family is a unique family of transcription factors with a basic helix-loop-helix structure (APSES: Asm1p, Phd1p, Sok2p, Efg1p , and StuAp ), which are key regulators of cell development and sporulation-related processes. However, the functions of the APSES family of genes in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii have not been reported. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the MrStuA gene, a member of the APSES family, in M. robertsii . The selected gene was identified as StuA in M...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Emma Reece, Sean Doyle, Peter Greally, Julie Renwick, Siobhán McClean
Many cystic fibrosis (CF) airway infections are considered to be polymicrobial and microbe-microbe interactions may play an important role in disease pathology. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus are the most prevalent bacterial and fungal pathogens isolated from the CF airway, respectively. We have previously shown that patients co-colonized with these pathogens had comparable outcomes to those chronically colonized with P. aeruginosa . Our objective was to examine the interactions between A...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Pankaj Sharma, Amos Samkumar, Mahesh Rao, Vijay V Singh, Lakshman Prasad, Dwijesh C Mishra, Ramcharan Bhattacharya, Navin C Gupta
White mold or stem rot disease are ubiquitously distributed throughout the world and the causal organism of this disease Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is known to infect over 400 plant species. Sclerotinia stem rot is one of the most devastating fungal diseases and poses a serious threat to the worldwide cultivation of oilseed Brassica including India. S. sclerotiorum pathogen usually infects the stem but in severe cases leaves and pods also affected at different developmental stages that deteriorate not only the oil quality but also causing the seed and oil yield losses up to 90% depending on the severity of the disease infestation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sofia V Poimenidou, Marion Dalmasso, Konstantinos Papadimitriou, Edward M Fox, Panagiotis N Skandamis, Kieran Jordan
The prfA -virulence gene cluster ( p VGC) is the main pathogenicity island in Listeria monocytogenes , comprising the prfA, plcA, hly, mpl, actA , and plcB genes. In this study, the p VGC of 36 L. monocytogenes isolates with respect to different serotypes (1/2a or 4b), geographical origin (Australia, Greece or Ireland) and isolation source (food-associated or clinical) was characterized. The most conserved genes were prfA and hly , with the lowest nucleotide diversity (π) among all genes ( P < 0.05), and the lowest number of alleles, substitutions and non-synonymous substitutions for prfA ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bukola A Onarinde, Ronald A Dixon
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an environmental organism normally found in subtropical estuarine environments which can cause seafood-related human infections. Clinical disease is associated with diagnostic presence of tdh and/or trh virulence genes and identification of these genes in our preliminary isolates from retail shellfish prompted a year-long surveillance of isolates from a temperate estuary in the north of England. The microbial and environmental analysis of 117 samples of mussels, seawater or sediment showed the presence of V...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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