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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528362/budesonide-fluticasone-propionate-and-azithromycin-do-not-modulate-the-membrane-vesicle-release-by-thp-1-macrophages-and-respiratory-pathogens-during-macrophage-infection
#1
Charlotte Volgers, Gert E Grauls, Pauline H M Hellebrand, Paul H M Savelkoul, Frank R M Stassen
Patients with more severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease frequently experience exacerbations and it is estimated that up to 50% of these exacerbations are associated with bacterial infections. The mainstay treatment for these infection-related exacerbations constitutes the administration of glucocorticoids, alone or in combination with antibiotics. A recent line of evidence demonstrates that many hormones including the steroid beclomethasone can also directly affect bacterial growth, virulence, and antibiotic resistance...
May 20, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527686/local-innate-responses-and-protective-immunity-after-intradermal-immunization-with-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-e2-protein-formulated-with-a-combination-adjuvant-in-cattle
#2
Sams M A Sadat, Marlene Snider, Ravendra Garg, Robert Brownlie, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most serious pathogens in cattle. Recently, we developed a novel adjuvant platform (TriAdj) that includes a toll-like receptor 3 agonist, poly (I:C); an innate defense regulatory peptide; and water-soluble polymer, poly[di(sodiumcarboxylatoethylphenoxy)]-phosphazene (PCEP). To develop a needle-free intradermal (ID) subunit vaccine, the BVDV type-2 E2 protein was formulated with TriAdj, and immune protection was evaluated in calves against a BVDV-2 strain. Intradermal delivery of E2/TriAdj elicited robust virus neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses including CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses...
May 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527287/-identification-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-beijing-lineage-in-ecuador
#3
Patricia Jiménez, Karina Calvopiña, Diana Herrera, Carlos Rojas, Laura Pérez-Lago, Marcelo Grijalva, Remedios Guna, Darío García-de Viedma
INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage isolates are considered to be especially virulent, transmissible and prone to acquire resistances. Beijing strains have been reported worldwide, but studies in Latin America are still scarce. The only multinational study performed in the region indicated a heterogeneous distribution for this lineage, which was absent in Chile, Colombia and Ecuador, although further studies found the lineage in Chile and Colombia. OBJECTIVE: To search for the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador, the only country in the region where it remains unreported...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527285/-genetic-diversity-of-extraintestinal-escherichia-coli-strains-producers-of-beta-lactamases-tem-shv-and-ctx-m-associated-with-healthcare
#4
Yasmin Varela, Beatriz Millán, María Araque
INTRODUCTION: There are few reports from Venezuela describing the genetic basis that sustains the pathogenic potential and phylogenetics of Escherichia coli extraintestinal strains isolated in health care units. OBJECTIVE: To establish the genetic diversity of extraintestinal E. coli strains producers of betalactamases TEM, SHV and CTX-M associated with healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied a collection of 12 strains of extraintestinal E...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527283/-frequency-of-helicobacter-pylori-nitroreductase-rdxa-mutations-for-metronidazole-activation-in-a-population-in-the-cauca-department-colombia
#5
Claudia Patricia Acosta, Andrés Javier Quiroga, Carlos H Sierra, Alba Alicia Trespalacios
INTRODUCTION: Resistance to metronidazole is a key factor associated with Helicobacter pylori treatment failure. Even though resistance is mostly associated with RdxA nitroreductase mutations, studies of this H. pylori protein in Popayán (Colombia) are still incipient. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of mutations in the RdxA nitroreductase in a population of patients with H. pylori-positive gastrointestinal disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We amplified the DNA of 170 gastric biopsies by PCR to detect mutations in the RdxA nitroreductase...
June 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527130/pulse-generation-in-the-quorum-machinery-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Cicik Alfiniyah, Martin A Bees, A Jamie Wood
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that is responsible for a wide range of infections in humans. Colonies employ quorum sensing (QS) to coordinate gene expression, including for virulence factors, swarming motility and complex social traits. The QS signalling system of P. aeruginosa is known to involve multiple control components, notably the las, rhl and pqs systems. In this paper, we examine the las system and, in particular, the repressive interaction of rsaL, an embedded small regulative protein, employing recent biochemical information to aid model construction...
May 19, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526785/effects-of-arginine-on-growth-virulence-gene-expression-and-stress-tolerance-by-streptococcus-mutans
#7
Brinta Chakraborty, Robert A Burne
Streptococcus mutans is a common constituent of oral biofilms and a primary etiologic agent of human dental caries. The bacteria associated with dental caries have a potent ability to produce organic acids from dietary carbohydrates and to grow and metabolize in acidic conditions. In contrast, many commensal bacteria produce ammonia through the arginine deiminase system (ADS), which moderates the pH of oral biofilms. Arginine metabolism by the ADS is a significant deterrent to the initiation and progression of dental caries...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525755/antibodies-from-a-human-survivor-define-sites-of-vulnerability-for-broad-protection-against-ebolaviruses
#8
Anna Z Wec, Andrew S Herbert, Charles D Murin, Elisabeth K Nyakatura, Dafna M Abelson, J Maximilian Fels, Shihua He, Rebekah M James, Marc-Antoine de La Vega, Wenjun Zhu, Russell R Bakken, Eileen Goodwin, Hannah L Turner, Rohit K Jangra, Larry Zeitlin, Xiangguo Qiu, Jonathan R Lai, Laura M Walker, Andrew B Ward, John M Dye, Kartik Chandran, Zachary A Bornholdt
Experimental monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies have shown promise for treatment of lethal Ebola virus (EBOV) infections, but their species-specific recognition of the viral glycoprotein (GP) has limited their use against other divergent ebolaviruses associated with human disease. Here, we mined the human immune response to natural EBOV infection and identified mAbs with exceptionally potent pan-ebolavirus neutralizing activity and protective efficacy against three virulent ebolaviruses. These mAbs recognize an inter-protomer epitope in the GP fusion loop, a critical and conserved element of the viral membrane fusion machinery, and neutralize viral entry by targeting a proteolytically primed, fusion-competent GP intermediate (GPCL) generated in host cell endosomes...
May 18, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525337/molecular-characterization-and-detection-of-enterotoxins-methicillin-resistance-genes-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-staphylococcus-aureus-from-fish-and-ground-beef
#9
S Arslan, F Özdemir
A total of 120 samples including 40 freshwaterfish(Oncorhynchus mykiss), 40 seawater fish (Sparus aurata) and 40 ground beef samples were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests and a PCR for the species-specific fragment (Sa442) and thermonuclease gene (nucA). The presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sec, sed and see), toxin genes (eta, etb, tsst), methicillin resistance gene (mecA) and some phenotypic virulence factors was also tested...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525308/toxin-antitoxin-systems-implications-for-plant-disease
#10
T Shidore, L R Triplett
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are gene modules that are ubiquitous in freeliving prokaryotes. Diverse in structure, cellular function, and fitness roles, TA systems are defined by the presence of a toxin gene that suppresses bacterial growth and a toxin-neutralizing antitoxin gene, usually encoded in a single operon. Originally viewed as DNA maintenance modules, TA systems are now thought to function in many roles, including bacterial stress tolerance, virulence, phage defense, and biofilm formation. However, very few studies have investigated the significance of TA systems in the context of plant-microbe interactions...
May 19, 2017: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525287/occurrence-of-enterococcus-faecalis-and-enterococcus-faecium-in-various-clinical-infections-detection-of-their-drug-resistance-and-virulence-determinants
#11
Ali Jahansepas, Mohammad Aghazadeh, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Alka Hasani, Yaeghob Sharifi, Toofan Aghazadeh, Jalal Mardaneh
The aim of this study was to characterize virulence determinants and antibiotic resistance profiles in enterococci obtained from various clinical sources in the northwest of Iran. A total of 160 enterococcal clinical isolates from various wards of University Teaching Hospitals were collected and specified by biochemical test, from September 2014 to July 2015. Identification of enterococci was confirmed by multiplex PCR in the genus and species level. Antibiotic resistance properties and virulence determinants were examined by phenotypic and molecular methods...
May 19, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525266/gliotoxin-biosynthesis-structure-mechanism-and-metal-promiscuity-of-carboxypeptidase-glij
#12
Antoine Marion, Michael Groll, Daniel H Scharf, Kirstin Scherlach, Manuel Glaser, Holger Sievers, Michael Schuster, Christian Hertweck, Axel A Brakhage, Iris Antes, Eva M Huber
The formation of glutathione (GSH) conjugates, best known from the detoxification of xenobiotics, is a widespread strategy to incorporate sulfur into biomolecules. The biosynthesis of gliotoxin, a virulence factor of the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, involves attachment of two GSH molecules and their sequential decomposition to yield two reactive thiol groups. The degradation of the GSH moieties requires the activity of the Cys-Gly carboxypeptidase GliJ, for which we describe the X-ray structure here...
May 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524019/in-vitro-ability-of-mastitis-causing-pathogens-to-form-biofilms
#13
Sarah Schönborn, Nicole Wente, Jan-Hendrik Paduch, Volker Krömker
This Research Communication describes the study of in vitro biofilm formation of mastitis causing pathogens. Biofilms are communities of bacteria that are attached to a surface and to each other and are embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Biofilm formation is an important virulence factor that may result in recurrent or persistent udder infections and treatment failure through increased resistance to antibiotics and protection against host defences. In the present study 252 bacterial isolates from milk samples from bovine udder quarters with intramammary infections were examined with Congo Red agar (CRA) method and tube method (TM) for their ability to form biofilms...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523925/genetic-and-pathologic-characteristics-of-infectious-bursal-disease-viruses-isolated-from-broiler-chickens-in-iran-during-2014-2015
#14
H Norouzian, G Farjanikish, H Hosseini
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus causes a highly contagious immunosuppressive disease in chickens. A total number of 12 pooled bursal samples were collected during 2014-2015 from broiler farms in different regions of Iran. Typical macroscopical and histopathological lesions of the bursa of Fabricius were found similar to reports by other researchers. A 474-bp part of hypervariable region of VP2 (hvVP2) was sequenced and analyzed. Ten isolates had the characteristic amino acid residues of very virulent IBD (vvIBD) viruses and the other two were identified as attenuated (vaccine) strains...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523838/an-unsaturated-quinolone-n-oxide-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-modulates-growth-and-virulence-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Dávid Szamosvári, Thomas Böttcher
The pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces over 50 different quinolones, 16 of which belong to the class of 2-alkyl-4-quinolone N-oxides (AQNOs) with various chain lengths and degrees of saturation. We present the first synthesis of a previously proposed unsaturated compound that is confirmed to be present in culture extracts of P. aeruginosa, and its structure is shown to be trans-Δ(1) -2-(non-1-enyl)-4-quinolone N-oxide. This compound is the most active agent against S.  aureus, including MRSA strains, by more than one order of magnitude whereas its cis isomer is inactive...
May 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523739/mechanisms-of-peptide-sex-pheromone-regulation-of-conjugation-in-enterococcus-faecalis
#16
Yuqing Chen, Arpan Bandyopadhyay, Briana K Kozlowicz, Heather A H Haemig, Albert Tai, Wei-Shou Hu, Gary M Dunny
In many gram positive bacteria, horizontal transfer and virulence are regulated by peptide-mediated cell-cell signaling. The heptapeptide cCF10 (C) activates conjugative transfer of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pCF10, whereas the iCF10 (I) peptide inhibits transfer. Both peptides bind to the same domain of the master transcription regulator PrgX, a repressor of transcription of the prgQ operon encoding conjugation genes. We show that repression of prgQ by PrgX tetramers requires formation of a pCF10 DNA loop where each of two PrgX DNA-binding sites is occupied by a dimer...
May 19, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523521/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-characterization-of-a-novel-h1n1-2009-influenza-virus-reassortant-with-an-ns-gene-from-a-highly-pathogenic-h5n1-virus-isolated-from-a-human
#17
Shengbing Liu, Liangyan Zhang, Zhidong Yao, Li Xing, Kun Liu
The triple-reassortant H1N1/2009 influenza A virus, which caused the first influenza pandemic of the 21(st) century, is generally associated with mild disease and a relatively low mortality rate comparable to that of seasonal influenza virus outbreaks. There is a growing concern about the potential for reassortment between the low-mortality H1N1/2009 and other high-mortality influenza viruses. Here, we describe and characterize a novel reassortant H1N1/2009 influenza virus, isolated from a human sample, that contained an NS gene from a highly pathogenic H5N1 virus...
May 18, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523422/usefulness-of-the-non-conventional-caenorhabditis-elegans-model-to-assess-candida-virulence
#18
Marcelo Ortega-Riveros, Iker De-la-Pinta, Cristina Marcos-Arias, Guillermo Ezpeleta, Guillermo Quindós, Elena Eraso
Invasive candidiasis is caused mainly by Candida albicans, but other Candida species have increasing etiologies. These species show different virulence and susceptibility levels to antifungal drugs. The aims of this study were to evaluate the usefulness of the non-conventional model Caenorhabditis elegans to assess the in vivo virulence of seven different Candida species and to compare the virulence in vivo with the in vitro production of proteinases and phospholipases, hemolytic activity and biofilm development capacity...
May 18, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523388/detection-and-genetic-characterization-of-pasteurella-multocida-from-alpaca-vicugna-pacos-pneumonia-cases
#19
Rocío Rímac, Luis Luna, Raquel Hurtado, Raúl Rosadio, Lenin Maturrano
Pasteurella multocida is a common constituent of upper respiratory tract microbiota but is frequently isolated of alpaca lung tissues from pulmonary infections. Despite its importance, very little is known about this bacteria at molecular level. In order to characterize P. multocida isolates, 24 isolates recovered from 46 mortal acute cases in young alpacas with suspected pneumonia were analyzed, using biochemical and molecular tests for capsule and LPS typing, virulence factors detection, and ERIC-PCR genetic diversity analysis...
May 18, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523030/detection-and-genotyping-of-helicobacter-pylori-among-gastric-ulcer-and-cancer-patients-from-saudi-arabia
#20
Fehmida Bibi, Sana Akhtar Alvi, Sara Ali Sawan, Muhammad Yasir, Ali Sawan, Asif A Jiman-Fatani, Esam I Azhar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is cause of several gastrointestinal diseases in humans. Virulence genes of H. pylori are associated with severity of disease and vary geographically. The aim of present study was to detect H. pylori in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and further investigate prevalence of babA2, cagA, iceA1, iceA2, vacA s1/s2 and vacA m1/m2 genotypes in H. pylori from gastric cancer (GC) and gastric ulcer (GU) patients' biopsy samples...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
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