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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684710/genomic-characterization-of-endemic-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-and-salmonella-enterica-serovar-i-4-5-12-i-isolated-in-malaysia
#1
Soo Tein Ngoi, Kien-Pong Yap, Kwai Lin Thong
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and the monophasic variant Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- are two clinically-important non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars worldwide. However, the genomic information of these two organisms, especially the monophasic variant, is still lacking in Malaysia. The objective of the study was to compare the genomic features of a monophasic variant and two endemic S. Typhimurium strains isolated from humans. All three strains were subjected to whole genome sequencing followed by comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses...
April 20, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684575/draft-genome-sequence-of-field-isolate-brucella-melitensis-strain-2007bm-1-from-india
#2
D K Singh, Bablu Kumar, Garima Shrinet, R P Singh, Aparajita Das, B G Mantur, Abhishek, Aruna Pandey, Piyali Mondal, B K Sajjanar, Soni Doimari, Vijayata Singh, Reena Kumari, A K Tiwari, Gandham Ravikumar
OBJECTIVES: Brucellosis, is among one of the most widespread important global zoonotic diseases which is endemic in many parts of India. Brucella melitensis is supposed to be the most pathogenic species for humans. Here, we report draft genome sequence of B. melitensis strain 2007BM/1 isolated from human in India. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from Brucella culture and was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq platform. The generated reads were assembled using three de novo assemblers and the draft genome was annotated...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684543/molecular-characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-isolated-from-carriage-and-association-of-its-pathogenicity-to-prevalent-toxic-genes
#3
Abdulwahab Ali Abuderman, Ayesha Mateen, Rabbani Syed, Mustafa Sawsan Aloahd
BACKGROUND: There are reports of non-toxigenic C. difficile strains from asymptomatic carriers are increasing source of transmission. Asymptomatic carriage transmission in the hospital or community settings might have changed over the years. Therefore, we initiated a prospective epidemiological study to define the risk factors and pathogenicity of asymptomatic C. difficile carriage. METHODS: Stools sample from 188 subjects with diarrhoea due to C. difficile toxin and colonization without diarrhoea was subjected to routine microbial culture, molecular characterization for identification of toxin genes and mechanisms of resistance in C...
April 20, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684116/biofilm-forming-ability-and-infection-potential-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strains-isolated-from-animals-and-humans
#4
Dusan Milivojevic, Neven Šumonja, Strahinja Medic, Aleksandar Pavic, Ivana Moric, Branka Vasiljevic, Lidija Senerovic, Jasmina Nikodinovic-Runic
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has been amongst top 10 'superbugs' worldwide and is causing infections with poor outcomes in both humans and animals. From 202 P. aeruginosa isolates (n = 121 animal and n = 81 human) 40 were selected on the basis of biofilm-forming ability and were comparatively characterized in terms of virulence determinants to the type strain P. aeruginosa PAO1. Biofilm formation, pyocyanin and hemolysins production and bacterial motility patterns were compared to the ability to kill human cell line A549 in vitro...
April 19, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684026/entomopathogenic-fungal-infection-leads-to-temporospatial-modulation-of-the-mosquito-immune-system
#5
José L Ramirez, Christopher A Dunlap, Ephantus J Muturi, Ana B F Barletta, Alejandro P Rooney
Alternative methods of mosquito control are needed to tackle the rising burden of mosquito-borne diseases while minimizing the use of synthetic insecticides, which are threatened by the rapid increase in insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. Fungal biopesticides show great promise as potential alternatives because of their ecofriendly nature and ability to infect mosquitoes on contact. Here we describe the temporospatial interactions between the mosquito Aedes aegypti and several entomopathogenic fungi...
April 23, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684023/in-vivo-insertion-pool-sequencing-identifies-virulence-factors-in-a-complex-fungal-host-interaction
#6
Simon Uhse, Florian G Pflug, Alexandra Stirnberg, Klaus Ehrlinger, Arndt von Haeseler, Armin Djamei
Large-scale insertional mutagenesis screens can be powerful genome-wide tools if they are streamlined with efficient downstream analysis, which is a serious bottleneck in complex biological systems. A major impediment to the success of next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based screens for virulence factors is that the genetic material of pathogens is often underrepresented within the eukaryotic host, making detection extremely challenging. We therefore established insertion Pool-Sequencing (iPool-Seq) on maize infected with the biotrophic fungus U...
April 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683274/drug-repositioning-to-alleviate-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-caused-by-gram-negative-bacterial-outer-membrane-vesicles
#7
Ji Hyun Kim, Jaewook Lee, Kyong-Su Park, Sung-Wook Hong, Yong Song Gho
Sepsis is characterized by systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) accompanied with infection. Gram-negative bacteria can evoke sepsis by activating the host immune system, such as the release of IL-6 and TNF-α, through their virulence factors. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), nanosized bilayered proteolipids derived from Gram-negative bacteria, harbor various virulence factors and are shown to induce SIRS. Here, drugs are repositioned to alleviate SIRS caused by Gram-negative bacterial OMVs. Using novel OMV-based drug screening systems, a total of 178 commercially available drugs are primarily screened, and a total of 18 repositioned drug candidates are found to effectively block IL-6 and TNF-α production from OMV-stimulated macrophages...
April 23, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682545/curcumin-as-a-promising-antibacterial-agent-effects-on-metabolism-and-biofilm-formation-in-s-mutans
#8
Bingchun Li, Xinlong Li, Huancai Lin, Yan Zhou
Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) has been proved to be the main aetiological factor in dental caries. Curcumin, a natural product, has been shown to exhibit therapeutic antibacterial activity, suggesting that curcumin may be of clinical interest. The objective of this study is to evaluate the inhibitory effects of curcumin on metabolism and biofilm formation in S. mutans using a vitro biofilm model in an artificial oral environment. S. mutans biofilms were treated with varying concentrations of curcumin. The biofilm metabolism and biofilm biomass were assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and the crystal violet assay...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682537/the-potential-virulence-factors-of-providencia-stuartii-motility-adherence-and-invasion
#9
Naziia Kurmasheva, Vyacheslav Vorobiev, Margarita Sharipova, Tatyana Efremova, Ayslu Mardanova
Providencia stuartii is the most common Providencia species capable of causing human infections. Currently P. stuartii is involved in high incidence of urinary tract infections in catheterized patients. The ability of bacteria to swarm on semisolid (viscous) surfaces and adhere to and invade host cells determines the specificity of the disease pathogenesis and its therapy. In the present study we demonstrated morphological changes of P. stuartii NK cells during migration on the viscous medium and discussed adhesive and invasive properties utilizing the HeLa-M cell line as a host model...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682484/adaptive-immunity-to-francisella-tularensis-and-considerations-for-vaccine-development
#10
REVIEW
Lydia M Roberts, Daniel A Powell, Jeffrey A Frelinger
Francisella tularensis is an intracellular bacterium that causes the disease tularemia. There are several subspecies of F. tularensis whose ability to cause disease varies in humans. The most virulent subspecies, tularensis , is a Tier One Select Agent and a potential bioweapon. Although considerable effort has made to generate efficacious tularemia vaccines, to date none have been licensed for use in the United States. Despite the lack of a tularemia vaccine, we have learned a great deal about the adaptive immune response the underlies protective immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681458/characterization-of-profunda-femoris-vein-thrombosis
#11
Tana L Repella, Olga Lopez, Cherrie Z Abraham, Amir F Azarbal, Timothy K Liem, Erica L Mitchell, Gregory J Landry, Gregory L Moneta, Enjae Jung
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of and risk factors for profunda femoris vein (PFV) thrombosis are poorly characterized. We prospectively identified patients with PFV deep venous thrombosis (DVT) to characterize the demographics and anatomic distribution of proximal DVT in patients with PFV DVT. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted of patients at a tertiary care university hospital with DVT diagnosed by venous duplex ultrasound scanning between June 2014 and June 2015...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681409/recombinant-bcg-rv2645-elicits-enhanced-protective-immunity-compared-to-bcg-in-vivo-with-induced-isgylation-related-genes-and-th1-and-th17-responses
#12
Wei Luo, Zilu Qu, Lingyun Zhang, Yan Xie, Fengling Luo, Yang Tan, Qin Pan, Xiao-Lian Zhang
There is a need to develop protective vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). Recently, we identified an immunodominant T-cell antigen, Rv2645, from the region of deletion 13 (RD13) of M. tuberculosis (M. tb) H37Rv, which is absent in Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Here, a recombinant BCG expressing Rv2645, namely, BCG::Rv2645, was constructed. Compared to BCG, we found that BCG::Rv2645 improved the antigen presentation capacity of dendritic cells (DCs) and elicited much stronger Th1 and Th17 responses, higher CD44high CD62low effector memory CD4+ T cells (TEM ), and fewer T regulated cells (Treg) and regulatory B10 in mice...
April 19, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681390/the-skin-commensal-yeast-malassezia-globosa-thwarts-bacterial-biofilms-to-benefit-the-host
#13
Giuseppe Ianiri, Joseph Heitman, Annika Scheynius
Malassezia are abundant, lipid-dependent, commensal yeasts in the skin microbiome that also have a pathogenic lifestyle associated with several common skin disorders. Malassezia genomes encode myriad lipases and proteases thought to mediate lipid utilization and pathogenesis. Li et al. report the biochemical characterization of a unique secreted aspartyl protease produced by Malassezia globosa, MgSAP1, and demonstrate its active role in hindering biofilm formation of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Because biofilms are an established virulence attribute of S...
May 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680931/cinnamic-acid-attenuates-quorum-sensing-associated-virulence-factors-and-biofilm-formation-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#14
Jobina Rajkumari, Subhomoi Borkotoky, Ayaluru Murali, Kitlangki Suchiang, Saswat Kumar Mohanty, Siddhardha Busi
OBJECTIVE: Anti-quorum sensing and anti-biofilm efficacy of Cinnamic acid against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was comparatively assessed with respect to potent quorum sensing inhibitor, Baicalein. RESULTS: At sub-lethal concentration, Cinnamic acid effectively inhibited both the production of the QS-dependent virulence factors and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa without affecting the viability of the bacterium. The phytocompound interfered with the initial attachment of planktonic cells to the substratum thereby causing reduction in biofilm development...
April 21, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680378/characterisation-of-bergeyella-spp-isolated-from-the-nasal-cavities-of-piglets
#15
M Lorenzo de Arriba, S Lopez-Serrano, N Galofre-Mila, V Aragon
The aim of this study was to characterise bacteria in the genus Bergeyella isolated from the nasal passages of healthy piglets. Nasal swabs from 3 to 4 week-old piglets from eight commercial domestic pig farms and one wild boar farm were cultured under aerobic conditions. Twenty-nine Bergeyella spp. isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and 11 genotypes were discriminated by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR. Bergeyella zoohelcum and Bergeyella porcorum were identified within the 11 genotypes...
April 2018: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680125/host-sensing-by-pathogenic-fungi
#16
Sarah L Sherrington, Pizga Kumwenda, Courtney Kousser, Rebecca A Hall
The ability to cause disease extends from the ability to grow within the host environment. The human host provides a dynamic environment to which fungal pathogens must adapt to in order to survive. The ability to grow under a particular condition (i.e., the ability to grow at mammalian body temperature) is considered a fitness attribute and is essential for growth within the human host. On the other hand, some environmental conditions activate signaling mechanisms resulting in the expression of virulence factors, which aid pathogenicity...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679745/integrated-genomic-and-metabolomic-profiling-of-isc1-an-emerging-leishmania-donovani-population-in-the-indian-subcontinent
#17
Bart Cuypers, Maya Berg, Hideo Imamura, Franck Dumetz, Géraldine De Muylder, Malgorzata A Domagalska, Suman Rijal, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Ilse Maes, Mandy Sanders, James A Cotton, Pieter Meysman, Kris Laukens, Jean-Claude Dujardin
Leishmania donovani is the responsible agent for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent (ISC). The disease is lethal without treatment and causes 0.2 to 0.4 million cases each year. Recently, reports of VL in Nepalese hilly districts have increased as well as VL cases caused by L. donovani from the ISC1 genetic group, a new and emerging genotype. In this study, we perform for the first time an integrated, untargeted genomics and metabolomics approach to characterize ISC1, in comparison with the Core Group (CG), main population that drove the last outbreak of VL in the ISC...
April 18, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679057/a-legionella-pneumophila-amylase-is-essential-for-intracellular-replication-in-human-macrophages-and-amoebae
#18
Ashley Best, Christopher Price, Mateja Ozanic, Marina Santic, Snake Jones, Yousef Abu Kwaik
Legionella pneumophila invades protozoa with an "accidental" ability to cause pneumonia upon transmission to humans. To support its nutrition during intracellular residence, L. pneumophila relies on host amino acids as the main source of carbon and energy to feed the TCA cycle. Despite the apparent lack of a requirement for glucose for L. pneumophila growth in vitro and intracellularly, the organism contains multiple amylases, which hydrolyze polysaccharides into glucose monomers. Here we describe one predicted putative amylase, LamB, which is uniquely present only in L...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678979/observational-cross-sectional-study-of-nasal-staphylococcal-species-of-medical-students-of-diverse-geographical-origin-prior-to-healthcare-exposure-prevalence-of-scc-mec-fusc-fusb-and-the-arginine-catabolite-mobile-element-acme-in-the-absence-of-selective-antibiotic
#19
Paulo E Budri, Anna C Shore, David C Coleman, Peter M Kinnevey, Hilary Humpreys, Deirdre Fitzgerald-Hughes
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate co-located nasal Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (mainly Staphylococcus epidermidis ), recovered from healthy medical students in their preclinical year, prior to exposure to the healthcare environment, for the carriage of genes and genetic elements common to both species and that may contribute to S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) evolution. DESIGN: Prospective observational cross-sectional study...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678917/genomic-inference-of-recombination-mediated-evolution-in-xanthomonas-euvesicatoria-and-x-perforans
#20
Mustafa O Jibrin, Neha Potnis, Sujan Timilsina, Gerald V Minsavage, Gary E Vallad, Pamela D Roberts, Jeffrey B Jones, Erica M Goss
Recombination is a major driver of evolution in bacterial populations because it can spread and combine independently evolved beneficial mutations. Recombinant lineages of plant bacterial pathogens are typically associated with colonization of novel hosts and emergence of new diseases. Here, we show that recombination between evolutionarily and phenotypically distinct plant pathogenic lineages generated recombinant lineages with unique combinations of pathogenicity and virulence factors. X. euvesicatoria ( Xe ) and X...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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