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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053853/genome-sequence-analysis-of-a-distinctive-italian-infectious-bursal-disease-virus
#1
V Felice, G Franzo, E Catelli, A Di Francesco, M Bonci, M Cecchinato, G Mescolini, D Giovanardi, P Pesente, C Lupini
In a recent study, an emerging infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) genotype (ITA) was detected in IBDV-live vaccinated broilers without clinical signs of infectious bursal disease (IBD). VP2 sequence analysis showed that strains of the ITA genotype clustered separately from vaccine strains and from other IBDV reference strains, either classic or very virulent. In order to obtain a more exhaustive molecular characterization of the IBDV ITA genotype and speculate on its origin, genome sequencing of the field isolate IBDV/Italy/1829/2011, previously assigned to the ITA genotype, was performed, and the sequences obtained were compared to the currently available corresponding sequences...
October 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053823/effect-of-maternally-derived-antibody-on-sequential-infection-with-highly-virulent-bursal-disease-virus-in-newly-hatched-broilers
#2
W J Jeon, H J Lee, I S Roh, Y S Yoon, J H Kim, K S Choi
Maternally derived antibodies (MDAs) are important for protection against very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV). In this study, 5-day-old commercial broilers with non-uniform MDA titers (with a coefficient of variation of 50%) were challenged with vvIBDV and given free contact with each other during a 2-week period. The chicks were assigned to four MDA-titer subgroups, GI-1 (very low MDA), GI-2 (low MDA), GI-3 (medium MDA), and GI-4 (high MDA). Transient symptoms of infection were observed in 35...
October 5, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053421/development-of-a-novel-herbal-formulation-to-inhibit-biofilm-formation-in-toxigenic-vibrio-cholerae
#3
Diana Jose, N Lekshmi, A K Goel, R Ajay Kumar, Sabu Thomas
Vibrio cholerae, a causative agent of the waterborne disease cholera, still threatens a large proportion of world's population. The role of biofilm formation in V. cholerae pathogenesis is well established, as it provides the bacterium enhanced tolerance to antimicrobial agents and increased transmission. In the present study, four medicinal plants used in traditional medicines with antidiarrheal properties were evaluated for its antibiofilm activity. Methanol extracts of these plants (Centella asiatica, Elephantopus scaber, Camellia sinensis, and Holarrhena antidysenterica) showed promising antibiofilm activity against V...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053356/the-evolution-of-clutch-size-in-hosts-of-avian-brood-parasites
#4
Iliana Medina, Naomi E Langmore, Robert Lanfear, Hanna Kokko
Coevolution with avian brood parasites shapes a range of traits in their hosts, including morphology, behavior, and breeding systems. Here we explore whether brood parasitism is also associated with the evolution of host clutch size. Several studies have proposed that hosts of highly virulent parasites could decrease the costs of parasitism by evolving a smaller clutch size, because hosts with smaller clutches will lose fewer progeny when their clutch is parasitized. We describe a model of the evolution of clutch size, which challenges this logic and shows instead that an increase in clutch size (or no change) should evolve in hosts...
November 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052333/label-free-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-membrane-proteins-of-pulmonary-alveolar-macrophages-infected-with-highly-pathogenic-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-and-its-attenuated-strain
#5
Zehui Qu, Fei Gao, Liwei Li, Yujiao Zhang, Yifeng Jiang, Lingxue Yu, Yanjun Zhou, Hao Zheng, Wu Tong, Guoxin Li, Guangzhi Tong
Significant differences exist between the highly pathogenic (HP) porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and its attenuated pathogenic (AP) strain in the ability to infect host cells. The mechanisms by which different virulent strains invade host cells remain relatively unknown. In this study, pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) were infected with HP-PRRSV (HuN4) and AP-PRRSV (HuN4-F112) for 24 h, then harvested and subjected to label-free quantitative mass spectrometry. A total of 2849 proteins were identified, including 95 that were differentially expressed...
October 20, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051754/a-cellular-fusion-cascade-regulated-by-laea-is-required-for-sclerotial-development-in-aspergillus-flavus
#6
Xixi Zhao, Joseph E Spraker, Jin Woo Bok, Thomas Velk, Zhu-Mei He, Nancy P Keller
Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic soil fungus that poses a serious threat worldwide as it contaminates many food and feed crops with the carcinogenic mycotoxin called aflatoxin. This pathogen persists as sclerotia in the soil which enables fungal survival in harsh environmental conditions. Sclerotia formation by A. flavus depends on successful cell communication and hyphal fusion events. Loss of LaeA, a conserved developmental regulator in fungi, abolishes sclerotia formation in this species whereas overexpression (OE) of laeA results in enhanced sclerotia production...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051752/icesag37-a-novel-integrative-and-conjugative-element-carrying-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-and-potential-virulence-factors-in-streptococcus-agalactiae
#7
Kaixin Zhou, Lianyan Xie, Lizhong Han, Xiaokui Guo, Yong Wang, Jingyong Sun
ICESag37, a novel integrative and conjugative element carrying multidrug resistance and potential virulence factors, was characterized in a clinical isolate of Streptococcus agalactiae. Two clinical strains of S. agalactiae, Sag37 and Sag158, were isolated from blood samples of new-borns with bacteremia. Sag37 was highly resistant to erythromycin and tetracycline, and susceptible to levofloxacin and penicillin, while Sag158 was resistant to tetracycline and levofloxacin, and susceptible to erythromycin. Transfer experiments were performed and selection was carried out with suitable antibiotic concentrations...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051747/pirab-vp-bearing-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-and-vibrio-campbellii-pathogens-isolated-from-the-same-ahpnd-affected-pond-possess-highly-similar-pathogenic-plasmids
#8
Xuan Dong, Dexi Bi, Hailiang Wang, Peizhuo Zou, Guosi Xie, Xiaoyuan Wan, Qian Yang, Yanping Zhu, Mengmeng Chen, Chengcheng Guo, Zhen Liu, Wenchao Wang, Jie Huang
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a severe shrimp disease originally shown to be caused by virulent strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND). Rare cases of AHPND caused by Vibrio species other than V. parahaemolyticus were reported. We compared an AHPND-causing V. campbellii (VCAHPND) and a VPAHPND isolate from the same AHPND-affected pond. Both strains are positive for the virulence genes pirAB(vp) . Immersion challenge test with Litopenaeus vannamei indicated the two strains possessed similar pathogenicity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051656/antimicrobial-resistance-in-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-from-ready-to-eat-foods
#9
Cíntia Matos Lima, Ingrid Evelyn Gomes Lima Souza, Taila Dos Santos Alves, Clícia Capibaribe Leite, Norma Suely Evangelista-Barreto, Rogeria Comastri de Castro Almeida
Certain subgroups of Escherichia coli have congenital or acquired virulence properties that allow them to cause a wide spectrum of disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of diarrheagenic E. coli strains in ready-to-eat (RTE) foods produced in institutional, commercial and hotel restaurants in Salvador, Brazil. The presence of virulent isolates and antimicrobial resistance were evaluated. Four hundred forty-six samples were collected and grouped into cereals and vegetables, meat-based preparations, cooked salads, raw salads, garnishes, soups and sauces, desserts and juices...
October 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051559/comparative-sphingolipidomics-of-disease-causing-trypanosomatids-reveal-unique-lifecycle-and-taxonomy-specific-lipid-chemistries
#10
Xue Li Guan, Pascal Mäser
Trypanosomatids are parasitic protozoa which cause a spectrum of diseases, including trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis, affecting millions of humans and animals worldwide. The surface of most protozoan parasites is heavily decorated with lipids and lipid-anchored molecules, forming protective barriers and acting as virulence factors during infection. Sphingolipids (SP) are major components of eukaryotic biomembranes, which play important roles in structural integrity, energy homeostasis and signaling. However, the precise chemical composition of SP in pathogens as well as their biochemical pathways and functions remain poorly characterized...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051525/virulence-characteristics-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-from-patients-with-necrotizing-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#11
Fiorella Krapp, Andrew R Morris, Egon A Ozer, Alan R Hauser
Two types of Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) strains are currently emerging: hypervirulent (hvKP) strains and carbapenem-resistant (CR-KP) strains. To date, these two strain types rarely overlap. Recent reports, however, suggest that CR-KP strains are increasing in virulence. hvKP strains frequently present as highly invasive infections, such as necrotizing skin and soft tissue infections (NSSTI). To examine whether CR-KP strains with features of hvKP were present in our U.S. hospital, we retrospectively identified four cases of CR-KP NSSTI diagnosed between January 2012 and January 2016...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051238/draft-genome-sequence-of-an-atypical-highly-virulent-rabbit-staphylococcus-aureus-strain
#12
Zoltán Német, Ervin Albert, Tibor Nagy, Ferenc Olasz, Endre Barta, János Kiss, Ádám Dán, Krisztián Bányai, Katleen Hermans, Imre Biksi
Rabbit staphylococcosis is one of the most important diseases in industrial rabbit production. We report here the draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus strain 380/11, an atypical highly virulent (aHV) rabbit Staphylococcus aureus strain.
October 19, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051057/mannheimia-haemolytica-a2-secretes-different-proteases-into-the-culture-medium-and-in-outer-membrane-vesicles
#13
Gerardo Ramírez Rico, Moisés Martínez-Castillo, Cynthia González-Ruíz, Sarahí Luna-Castro, Mireya de la Garza
Respiratory diseases in ruminants have a significantly negative impact on the worldwide economy. The bacterium Mannheimia haemolytica is involved in pneumonic infections in bovine and ovine. In gram-negative bacteria, six secretion systems related to the colonization process and host tissue damage have been reported. In addition, in the last two decades, the production of outer membrane vesicles has been studied as a different bacterial strategy to release virulence factors, such as exotoxins, lipopolysaccharides, and proteases...
October 17, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050961/simple-strategies-to-enhance-discovery-of-acetylation-post-translational-modifications-by-quadrupole-orbitrap-lc-ms-ms
#14
REVIEW
Andrew J Manning, Jiyoung Lee, Donald J Wolfgeher, Stephen J Kron, Jean T Greenberg
Enzyme-dependent post-translational modifications (PTMs) mediate the cellular regulation of proteins and can be discovered using proteomics. However, even where the peptides of interest can be enriched for analysis with state-of-the-art LC-MS/MS tools and informatics, only a fraction of peptide ions can be identified confidently. Thus, many PTM sites remain undiscovered and unconfirmed. In this minireview, we use a case study to discuss how the use of inclusion lists, turning off isotopic exclusion, and manual validation significantly increased depth of coverage, facilitating discovery of acetylation sites in targets of an acetyltransferase virulence factor...
October 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050833/molecular-manipulation-of-the-mating-type-system-and-development-of-a-new-approach-for-characterizing-pathogen-virulence-in-pyrenophora-tritici-repentis
#15
Gazala Ameen, Gayan Kariyawasam, Gongjun Shi, Timothy L Friesen, Justin D Faris, Shaukat Ali, Jack B Rasmussen, Zhaohui Liu
The ascomycete Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Ptr) is an important fungal pathogen worldwide that causes tan spot of wheat. The fungus is self-fertile because each isolate contains both mating type (MAT) idiomorphs. In this work, we developed knockouts of the MAT genes in Ptr and tested fertility of the knockout strains and outcrossing between the knockout strains carrying the opposite mating type. The fungal strains with deletions of either MAT1-1-1 or MAT1-2-1 did not form mature pseudothecia making them functionally heterothallic...
October 16, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050759/modeling-tuberculosis-pathogenesis-through-ex-vivo-lung-tissue-infection
#16
Pilar Carranza-Rosales, Irma Edith Carranza-Torres, Nancy Elena Guzmán-Delgado, Gerardo Lozano-Garza, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Carmen Molina-Torres, Javier Vargas Villarreal, Lucio Vera-Cabrera, Jorge Castro-Garza
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide. Several in vitro and in vivo experimental models have been used to study TB pathogenesis and induction of immune response during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Precision cut lung tissue slices (PCLTS) is an experimental model, in which all the usual cell types of the organ are found, the tissue architecture and the interactions amongst the different cells are maintained. PCLTS in good physiological conditions, monitored by MTT assay and histology, were infected with either virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv or the TB vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG...
December 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050666/the-contribution-of-bacteriophages-to-the-biology-and-virulence-of-pathogenic-clostridia
#17
Louis-Charles Fortier
Bacteriophages are key players in the evolution of most bacteria. Temperate phages have been associated with virulence of some of the deadliest pathogenic bacteria. Among the most notorious cases, the genes encoding the botulinum neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum types C and D and the α-toxin (TcnA) produced by Clostridium novyi are both encoded within prophage genomes. Clostridium difficile is another important human pathogen and the recent identification of a complete binary toxin locus (CdtLoc) carried on a C...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050664/sodium-chloride-does-not-ensure-microbiological-safety-of-foods-cases-and-solutions
#18
Nam Hee Kim, Tae Jin Cho, Min Suk Rhee
Addition of salt or salt-containing water to food is one of the oldest and most effective preservation methods in history; indeed, salt-cured foods are generally recognized as microbiologically safe due to their high salinity. However, a number of microbiological risks remain. The microbiological hazards and risks associated with salt-cured foods must be addressed more in-depth as they are likely to be underestimated by previous studies. This review examined a number of scientific reports and articles about the microbiological safety of salt-cured foods, which included salted, brined, pickled, and/or marinated vegetables, meat, and seafood...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050256/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-effects-of-suloctidil-on-growth-and-biofilm-formation-of-the-opportunistic-fungus-candida-albicans
#19
Beini Zeng, Jiachen Li, Yajie Wang, Pengxiang Chen, Xiaohong Wang, Jianfeng Cui, Lidong Liu, Xiaoyan Hu, Qian Cao, Ying Xiao, Junlu Dong, Yundong Sun, Yabin Zhou
As the most frequent fungal pathogen in humans, Candida albicans can develop serious drug resistance because its biofilms are resistant to most antifungal agents; this leads to an urgent need to develop novel antifungals. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of an antithrombotic drug, suloctidil, against C. albicans biofilms in vitro and in vivo. We found that suloctidil is effective to inhibit C. albicans biofilm, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC80) of 4 μg/mL, a biofilm inhibiting concentration (BIC80) of 16 μg/mL and a biofilm eradicating concentration (BEC80) of 64 μg/mL...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049360/the-bacterial-virulence-factor-caga-induces-microbial-dysbiosis-that-contributes-to-excessive-epithelial-cell-proliferation-in-the-drosophila-gut
#20
Tiffani Alvey Jones, Diane Z Hernandez, Zoë C Wong, Anica M Wandler, Karen Guillemin
Gut microbiota facilitate many aspects of human health and development, but dysbiotic microbiota can promote hyperplasia and inflammation and contribute to human diseases such as cancer. Human patients infected with the gastric cancer-causing bacterium Helicobacter pylori have altered microbiota; however, whether dysbiosis contributes to disease in this case is unknown. Many H. pylori human disease phenotypes are associated with a potent virulence protein, CagA, which is translocated into host epithelial cells where it alters cell polarity and manipulates host-signaling pathways to promote disease...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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