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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212413/scarless-deletion-of-up-to-seven-methyl-accepting-chemotaxis-genes-with-an-optimized-method-highlights-key-function-of-chem-in-salmonella-typhimurium
#1
Stefanie Hoffmann, Christiane Schmidt, Steffi Walter, Jennifer K Bender, Roman G Gerlach
Site-directed scarless mutagenesis is an essential tool of modern pathogenesis research. We describe an optimized two-step protocol for genome editing in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to enable multiple sequential mutagenesis steps in a single strain. The system is based on the λ Red recombinase-catalyzed integration of a selectable antibiotics resistance marker followed by replacement of this cassette. Markerless mutants are selected by expressing the meganuclease I-SceI which induces double-strand breaks in bacteria still harboring the resistance locus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212396/plants-promote-mating-and-dispersal-of-the-human-pathogenic-fungus-cryptococcus
#2
Deborah J Springer, Rajinikanth Mohan, Joseph Heitman
Infections due to Cryptococcus are a leading cause of fungal infections worldwide and are acquired as a result of environmental exposure to desiccated yeast or spores. The ability of Cryptococcus to grow, mate, and produce infectious propagules in association with plants is important for the maintenance of the genetic diversity and virulence factors important for infection of animals and humans. In the Western United States and Canada, Cryptococcus has been associated with conifers and tree species other than Eucalyptus; however, to date Cryptococcus has only been studied on live Arabidopsis thaliana, Eucalyptus sp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212376/the-legionella-pneumophila-genome-evolved-to-accommodate-multiple-regulatory-mechanisms-controlled-by-the-csra-system
#3
Tobias Sahr, Christophe Rusniok, Francis Impens, Giulia Oliva, Odile Sismeiro, Jean-Yves Coppée, Carmen Buchrieser
The carbon storage regulator protein CsrA regulates cellular processes post-transcriptionally by binding to target-RNAs altering translation efficiency and/or their stability. Here we identified and analyzed the direct targets of CsrA in the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila. Genome wide transcriptome, proteome and RNA-Co-immunoprecipitaion followed by deep sequencing of a wild type and a csrA mutant strain identified 479 RNAs with potential CsrA interaction sites located in the untranslated and/or coding regions of mRNAs or of known non-coding sRNAs...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212314/a-gin4-like-protein-kinase-gil1-involvement-in-hyphal-growth-asexual-development-and-pathogenesis-in-fusarium-graminearum
#4
Dan Yu, Shijie Zhang, Xiaoping Li, Jin-Rong Xu, Zachary Schultzhaus, Qiaojun Jin
Fusarium graminearum is the main causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat and barley. In a previous study, a GIN4-like protein kinase gene, GIL1, was found to be important for plant infection and sexual reproduction. In this study we further characterized the functions of GIL1 kinase in different developmental processes. The Δgil1 mutants were reduced in growth, conidiation, and virulence, and formed whitish and compact colonies. Although phialide formation was rarely observed in the mutants, deletion of GIL1 resulted in increased hyphal branching and increased tolerance to cell wall and cell membrane stresses...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212285/transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-selective-metabolic-adaptation-of-streptococcus-suis-to-porcine-blood-and-cerebrospinal-fluid
#5
Anna Koczula, Michael Jarek, Christian Visscher, Peter Valentin-Weigand, Ralph Goethe, Jörg Willenborg
Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that can cause severe pathologies such as septicemia and meningitis in its natural porcine host as well as in humans. Establishment of disease requires not only virulence of the infecting strain but also an appropriate metabolic activity of the pathogen in its host environment. However, it is yet largely unknown how the streptococcal metabolism adapts to the different host niches encountered during infection. Our previous isotopologue profiling studies on S. suis grown in porcine blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed conserved activities of central carbon metabolism in both body fluids...
February 15, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212280/biofilm-formation-and-immunomodulatory-activity-of-proteus-mirabilis-clinically-isolated-strains
#6
Alessandra Fusco, Lorena Coretti, Vittoria Savio, Elisabetta Buommino, Francesca Lembo, Giovanna Donnarumma
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs) are the principal hospital-acquired infections. Proteus mirabilis is characterized by several virulence factors able to promote adhesion and biofilm formation and ameliorate the colonization of urinary tract and the formation of crystalline biofilms on the abiotic surface of the urinary catheters. Since, to date, the role of P. mirabilis in the etiopathogenesis of different types of urinary tract infections is not well established, in this study we sought to characterize two different clinically isolated strains of P...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212151/antibody-mediated-rejection-in-the-cardiac-allograft-diagnosis-treatment-and-future-considerations
#7
M Elizabeth H Hammond, Abdallah G Kfoury
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the latest publications dealing with antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and defines areas of controversy and future steps that may improve the outcome for patients with this virulent form of rejection. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent progress includes publication of standardized pathologic criteria for acute AMR by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) and guidelines for treatment of acute AMR by the American Heart Association, endorsed by ISHLT as well...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211474/dissection-of-genomic-features-and-variations-of-three-pathotypes-of-puccinia-striiformis-through-whole-genome-sequencing
#8
Kanti Kiran, Hukam C Rawal, Himanshu Dubey, R Jaswal, Subhash C Bhardwaj, P Prasad, Dharam Pal, B N Devanna, Tilak R Sharma
Stripe rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the important diseases of wheat. We used NGS technologies to generate a draft genome sequence of two highly virulent (46S 119 and 31) and a least virulent (K) pathotypes of P. striiformis from the Indian subcontinent. We generated ~24,000-32,000 sequence contigs (N50;7.4-9.2 kb), which accounted for ~86X-105X sequence depth coverage with an estimated genome size of these pathotypes ranging from 66.2-70.2 Mb. A genome-wide analysis revealed that pathotype 46S 119 might be highly evolved among the three pathotypes in terms of year of detection and prevalence...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211009/pneumococcal-predictive-proteins-selected-by-microbial-genomic-approach-are-serotype-cross-reactive-and-bind-to-host-extracellular-matrix-proteins
#9
Ana Paula Corrêa Argondizzo, Cláudio Marcos Rocha-de-Souza, Marta de Almeida Santiago, Ricardo Galler, Joice Neves Reis, Marco Alberto Medeiros
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a colonizer of the human nasopharynx, which accounts for most of the community-acquired pneumonia cases and can cause non-invasive and invasive diseases. Current available vaccines are serotype-specific and the use of recombinant proteins associated with virulence is an alternative to compose vaccines and to overcome these problems. In a previous work, we describe the identification of proteins in S. pneumoniae by reverse vaccinology and the genetic diversity of these proteins in clinical isolates...
February 17, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210633/potential-usefulness-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-extracellular-membrane-vesicles-as-antibacterial-vaccines
#10
Chi-Won Choi, Edmond Changkyun Park, Sung Ho Yun, Sang-Yeop Lee, Seung Il Kim, Gun-Hwa Kim
The secretion of extracellular membrane vesicles (EMVs) is a common phenomenon that occurs in archaea, bacteria, and mammalian cells. The EMVs of bacteria play important roles in their virulence, biogenesis mechanisms, and host cell interactions. Bacterial EMVs have recently become the focus of attention because of their potential as highly effective vaccines that cause few side effects. Here, we isolated the EMVs of Streptococcus pneumoniae and examined their potential as new vaccine candidates. Although the S...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210247/genome-insight-and-comparative-pathogenomic-analysis-of-nesterenkonia-jeotgali-strain-cd08_7-isolated-from-duodenal-mucosa-of-celiac-disease-patient
#11
Atul M Chander, Ramesan G Nair, Gurwinder Kaur, Rakesh Kochhar, Devinder K Dhawan, Sanjay K Bhadada, Shanmugam Mayilraj
Species of the genus Nesterenkonia have been isolated from different ecological niches, especially from saline habitats and reported as weak human pathogens causing asymptomatic bacteraemia. Here, for the first time we are reporting the genome sequence and pathogenomic analysis of a strain designated as CD08_7 isolated from the duodenal mucosa of a celiac disease patient, identified as Nesterenkonia jeotgali. To date, only five strains of the genus Nesterenkonia (N. massiliensis strain NP1(T), Nesterenkonia sp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209897/host-cell-attachment-elicits-posttranscriptional-regulation-in-infecting-enteropathogenic-bacteria
#12
Naama Katsowich, Netanel Elbaz, Ritesh Ranjan Pal, Erez Mills, Simi Kobi, Tamar Kahan, Ilan Rosenshine
The mechanisms by which pathogens sense the host and respond by remodeling gene expression are poorly understood. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the cause of severe intestinal infection, employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject effector proteins into intestinal epithelial cells. These effectors subvert host cell processes to promote bacterial colonization. We show that the T3SS also functions to sense the host cell and to trigger in response posttranscriptional remodeling of gene expression in the bacteria...
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209876/touchdown-for-gut-pathogen-virulence
#13
EDITORIAL
Caroline Ash
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209828/draft-genome-sequence-of-edwardsiellapiscicida-strain-acc35-1-isolated-from-diseased-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus-in-europe
#14
Noemí Buján, Alicia E Toranzo, Beatriz Magariños
Edwardsiella piscicida is a bacterial fish pathogen with a high degree of virulence. The strain ACC35.1 was isolated from diseased turbot in Europe. The draft genome sequence comprises 3.84 Mb with a G+C content of 59.8% and >3,450 protein-coding genes.
February 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209817/genome-sequence-of-a-unique-magnaporthe-oryzae-rmg-dl-isolate-from-india-that-causes-blast-disease-in-diverse-cereal-crops-obtained-using-pacbio-single-molecule-and-illumina-hiseq2500-sequencing
#15
Aundy Kumar, Neelam Sheoran, Ganesan Prakash, Arpita Ghosh, Surendra K Chikara, Hosahatti Rajashekara, Uday Dhari Singh, Rashmi Aggarwal, Rakesh Kumar Jain
The whole-genome assembly of a unique rice isolate from India, Magnaporthe oryzae RMg-Dl that causes blast disease in diverse cereal crops is presented. Analysis of the 34.82 Mb genome sequence will aid in better understanding the genetic determinants of host range, host jump, survival, pathogenicity, and virulence factors of M. oryzae.
February 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209712/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-esxl-inhibit-mhc-ii-expression-by-promoting-hypermethylation-in-class-ii-transactivator-loci-in-macrophages
#16
Srabasti Sengupta, Saba Naz, Ishani Das, Abdul Ahad, Avinash Padhi, Sumanta Naik, Geetanjali Ganguli, Kaliprasad Patnaik, Sunil Kumar Raghav, Vinay Nandicoori, Avinash Sonawane
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is known to modulate the host immune responses to facilitate its persistence inside the host cells. One of the key mechanisms includes repression of class-II transactivator (CIITA) and MHC-II expression in infected macrophages. However, the precise mechanism of CIITA and MHC-II down-regulation is not well studied. Mtb 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6) is a known potent virulence and antigenic determinant. Mtb genome encodes 23 such ESAT-6 family proteins. We herein report that Mtb and M...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209611/genetic-manipulation-of-helicobacter-pylori-virulence-function-by-host-carcinogenic-phenotypes
#17
Giovanni Suarez, Judith Romero-Gallo, Johanna C Sierra, M Blanca Piazuelo, Uma Krishna, Martin Alonso Gomez, Keith T Wilson, Richard M Peek
Helicobacter pylori is the strongest risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, yet only a minority of infected persons ever develop this malignancy. One cancer-linked locus is the cag type 4 secretion system (cagT4SS), which translocates an oncoprotein into host cells. A structural component of the cagT4SS is CagY, which become rapidly altered during in vivo adaptation in mice and rhesus monkeys, rendering the cagT4SS nonfunctional; however, these models rarely develop gastric cancer. We previously demonstrated that the H...
February 16, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209403/small-molecules-that-sabotage-bacterial-virulence
#18
REVIEW
Benjamin K Johnson, Robert B Abramovitch
The continued rise of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections has motivated alternative strategies for target discovery and treatment of infections. Antivirulence therapies function through inhibition of in vivo required virulence factors to disarm the pathogen instead of directly targeting viability or growth. This approach to treating bacteria-mediated diseases may have advantages over traditional antibiotics because it targets factors specific for pathogenesis, potentially reducing selection for resistance and limiting collateral damage to the resident microbiota...
February 13, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209206/rethinking-the-role-of-alpha-toxin-in-clostridium-perfringens-associated-enteric-diseases-a-review-on-bovine-necro-haemorrhagic-enteritis
#19
REVIEW
Evy Goossens, Bonnie R Valgaeren, Bart Pardon, Freddy Haesebrouck, Richard Ducatelle, Piet R Deprez, Filip Van Immerseel
Bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis is an economically important disease caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains. The disease mainly affects calves under intensive rearing conditions and is characterized by sudden death associated with small intestinal haemorrhage, necrosis and mucosal neutrophil infiltration. The common assumption that, when causing intestinal disease, C. perfringens relies upon specific, plasmid-encoded toxins, was recently challenged by the finding that alpha toxin, which is produced by all C...
February 16, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208853/genotypic-characterization-of-virulence-factors-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-patients-with-acute-cystitis-pyelonephritis-and-asymptomatic-bacteriuria
#20
Mohsen Tabasi, Mohammad Reza Asadi Karam, Mehri Habibi, Ehsan Mostafavi, Saeid Bouzari
INTRODUCTION: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) caused by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are among the most common infections worldwide. It is well-documented that the pathogenesis of UPEC is mediated by the production of a wide variety of Virulence Factors (VFs). Thus, detection of these VFs and evaluation of their association with different clinical types of UTIs could help to understand the role of these factors in pathogenesis of UPEC isolates. AIM: To investigate the genotypic characteristics of UPEC isolates and to examine the relationship between VFs and different clinical symptoms of UTI...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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