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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821943/xcc2366-a-gene-encoding-a-putative-tetr-family-transcriptional-regulator-is-required-for-acriflavin-resistance-and-virulence-of-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris
#1
Chao-Tsai Liao, Hsueh-Hsia Lo, Weng-Ting Peng, Wan-Ling Song, Shin-Chiao Du, Yi-Min Hsiao
Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is the phytopathogen that causes black rot disease in cruciferous plants. The XCC2366 gene product is annotated as a protein belonging to the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. In this study, we evaluated the function and expression of the XCC2366 gene. Mutational analysis demonstrated that XCC2366 is involved in the resistance to acriflavin and is necessary for virulence in Xcc. In addition, the XCC2366 transcription initiation site was mapped at nucleotide A, 63 nucleotide upstream of the XCC2366 translation start codon...
August 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821836/porv-is-an-outer-membrane-shuttle-protein-for-the-type-ix-secretion-system
#2
Michelle D Glew, Paul D Veith, Dina Chen, Dhana G Gorasia, Ben Peng, Eric C Reynolds
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen associated with chronic periodontitis. Major virulence factors named gingipains (cysteine proteinases, RgpA, RgpB and Kgp) are secreted via the Type IX Secretion System (T9SS). These, together with approximately 30 other proteins, are secreted to the cell surface and anchored to the outer membrane by covalent modification to anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) via the novel Gram negative sortase, PorU. PorU is localised on the cell surface and cleaves the C-terminal domain signal (CTD) of T9SS substrates and conjugates their new C-termini to A-LPS...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821621/protein-kinase-g-confers-survival-advantage-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-during-latency-like-conditions
#3
Mehak Zahoor Khan, Ashima Bhaskar, Sandeep Upadhyay, Pooja Kumari, Raju S Rajmani, Preeti Jain, Amit Singh, Dhiraj Kumar, Neel Sarovar Bhavesh, Vinay Kumar Nandicoori
Protein Kinase G (PknG), a thioredoxin-fold containing eukaryotic like serine/threonine protein kinase (STPK), is a virulence factor in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis, required for inhibition of phago-lysosomal fusion. Here, we unravelled novel functional facets of PknG during latency like conditions. We find that PknG mediates persistence under stressful conditions like hypoxia and abets drug tolerance. PknG mutant displayed minimal growth in nutrient limiting conditions suggesting its role in modulating cellular metabolism...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821551/coordinated-regulation-of-the-eii-man-and-frurki-operons-of-streptococcus-mutans-by-global-and-fructose-specific-pathways
#4
Lin Zeng, Brinta Chakraborty, Tanaz Farivar, Robert A Burne
The glucose/mannose-PTS permease EII(Man) encoded by manLMN in the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans has a dominant influence on sugar-specific, CcpA-independent catabolite repression (CR). Mutations in manL affect energy metabolism and virulence-associated traits, including biofilm formation, acid tolerance and competence. Using promoter:reporter fusions, expression of the manLMN and the fruRKI operons, encoding a transcriptional regulator, a fructose-1-P kinase and a fructose-PTS permease EII(Fru), respectively, was monitored in response to carbohydrate source and in mutants lacking CcpA, FruR, and components of EII(Man) Expression of genes for EII(Man) and EII(Fru) was directly regulated by CcpA and CR, as evinced by in vivo and in vitro methods...
August 18, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821458/dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-and-quorum-sensing-signaling-in-biofilm-related-virulence-of-prevotella-aurantiaca
#5
Dareen Fteita, Ahmed Ali Musrati, Eija Könönen, Xiaochu Ma, Mervi Gürsoy, Markus Peurla, Eva Söderling, Herman O Sintim, Ulvi Kahraman Gürsoy
Biofilm formation and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) enzyme activity contribute to the virulence of oral bacteria, and these virulence factors are partly regulated by quorum sensing signaling system. We recently demonstrated that estradiol regulates growth properties and DPPIV activity of Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, and Prevotella pallens. Here, we examined the DPPIV dependency of biofilm formation of Prevotella aurantiaca. Three strains (two clinical strains AHN 37505 and 37552 and the type strain CCUG 57723) were incubated in three estradiol concentrations (30, 90, and 120 nmol/L)...
August 15, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820946/proteogenomic-investigation-of-strain-variation-in-clinical-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates
#6
Tiaan Heunis, Anzaan Dippenaar, Robin M Warren, Paul D van Helden, Ruben G van der Merwe, Nicolaas C Gey van Pittius, Arnab Pain, Samantha L Sampson, David L Tabb
Mycobacterium tuberculosis consists of a large number of different strains that display unique virulence characteristics. Whole-genome sequencing has revealed substantial genetic diversity among clinical M. tuberculosis isolates, and elucidating the phenotypic variation encoded by this genetic diversity will be of utmost importance to fully understand M. tuberculosis biology and pathogenicity. In this study we integrated whole-genome sequencing and mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) to reveal strain-specific characteristics in the proteomes of two clinical M...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820687/identification-of-subsets-of-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-associated-with-diarrheal-disease-among-under-5-year-old-children-from-rural-gambia
#7
Usman N Ikumapayi, Nadia Boisen, Mohammad J Hossain, Modupeh Betts, Modou Lamin, Debasish Saha, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Michel Dione, Richard A Adegbola, Anna Roca, James P Nataro, Martin Antonio
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) cause acute and persistent diarrhea, mostly in children worldwide. Outbreaks of diarrhea caused by EAEC have been described, including a large outbreak caused by a Shiga toxin expressing strain. This study investigated the association of EAEC virulence factors with diarrhea in children less than 5 years. We characterized 428 EAEC strains isolated from stool samples obtained from moderate-to-severe diarrhea cases (157) and healthy controls (217) children aged 0-59 months recruited over 3 years as part of the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in The Gambia...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820682/case-report-a-case-of-plasmodium-falciparum-hrp2-and-hrp3-gene-mutation-in-bangladesh
#8
Maisha Khair Nima, Thomas Hougard, Mohammad Enayet Hossain, Mohammad Golam Kibria, Abu Naser Mohon, Fatema Tuj Johora, Rajibur Rahman, Rashidul Haque, Mohammad Shafiul Alam
Several species of Plasmodium are responsible for causing malaria in humans. Proper diagnoses are crucial to case management, because severity and treatment varies between species. Diagnoses can be made using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), which detect Plasmodium proteins. Plasmodium falciparum causes the most virulent cases of malaria, and P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) is a common target of falciparum malaria RDTs. Here we report a case in which a falciparum malaria patient in Bangladesh tested negative on PfHRP2-based RDTs...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820551/fungal-endocarditis-due-to-aspergillus-oryzae-the-first-case-reported-in-the-literature
#9
Andrea Mazza, Nicola Luciani, Marco Luciani, Federico Cammertoni, Alessia Giaquinto, Natalia Pavone, Piergiorgio Bruno, Massimo Massetti
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a severe disease with high mortality and morbidity. Prosthetic valve endocarditis is a life-threatening complication which can occur in less than 10% of patients with valve prosthesis. A fungal etiology of IE is rare and accounts for only 2-4% of all case of endocarditis, but is associated with a higher mortality and morbidity. Herein is reported the first case of fungal endocarditis of aortic valve prosthesis due to Aspergillus oryzae in a 67-year-old caucasian man who nine years previously underwent mitral and aortic valve replacement with mechanical prostheses, and tricuspid annuloplasty for acute IE due to Enterococcus spp...
March 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820485/disentangling-the-frames-the-state-of-research-on-the-alphavirus-6k-and-tf-proteins
#10
REVIEW
Jolene Ramsey, Suchetana Mukhopadhyay
For 30 years it was thought the alphavirus 6K gene encoded a single 6 kDa protein. However, through a bioinformatics search 10 years ago, it was discovered that there is a frameshifting event and two proteins, 6K and transframe (TF), are translated from the 6K gene. Thus, many functions attributed to the 6K protein needed reevaluation to determine if they properly belong to 6K, TF, or both proteins. In this mini-review, we reevaluate the past research on 6K and put those results in context where there are two proteins, 6K and TF, instead of one...
August 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820255/discovery-of-a-potent-inhibitor-class-with-high-selectivity-towards-clostridial-collagenases
#11
Esther Schönauer, Andreas Martin Kany, Jörg Haupenthal, Kristina Hüsecken, Isabel Josephin Hoppe, Katrin Voos, Samir Yahiaoui, Brigitta Elsässer, Christian Ducho, Hans Brandstetter, Rolf W Hartmann
Secreted virulence factors like bacterial collagenases are conceptually attractive targets for fighting microbial infections. However, previous attempts to develop potent compounds against these metalloproteases failed to achieve selectivity against human metalloproteases such as MMPs. Using an SPR-based screening complemented with enzyme inhibition assays, we discovered an N-aryl mercaptoacetamide-based inhibitor scaffold that showed submicromolar affinities towards collagenase H (ColH) from the human pathogen Clostridium histolyticum...
August 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820135/bioinformatic-analyses-of-whole-genome-sequence-data-in-a-public-health-laboratory
#12
Kelly F Oakeson, Jennifer Marie Wagner, Michelle Mendenhall, Andreas Rohrwasser, Robyn Atkinson-Dunn
The ability to generate high-quality sequence data in a public health laboratory enables the identification of pathogenic strains, the determination of relatedness among outbreak strains, and the analysis of genetic information regarding virulence and antimicrobial-resistance genes. However, the analysis of whole-genome sequence data depends on bioinformatic analysis tools and processes. Many public health laboratories do not have the bioinformatic capabilities to analyze the data generated from sequencing and therefore are unable to take full advantage of the power of whole-genome sequencing...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820134/patterns-of-human-plague-in-uganda-2008-2016
#13
Joseph D Forrester, Titus Apangu, Kevin Griffith, Sarah Acayo, Brook Yockey, John Kaggwa, Kiersten J Kugeler, Martin Schriefer, Christopher Sexton, C Ben Beard, Gordian Candini, Janet Abaru, Bosco Candia, Jimmy Felix Okoth, Harriet Apio, Lawrence Nolex, Geoffrey Ezama, Robert Okello, Linda Atiku, Joseph Mpanga, Paul S Mead
Plague is a highly virulent fleaborne zoonosis that occurs throughout many parts of the world; most suspected human cases are reported from resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan Africa. During 2008-2016, a combination of active surveillance and laboratory testing in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda yielded 255 suspected human plague cases; approximately one third were laboratory confirmed by bacterial culture or serology. Although the mortality rate was 7% among suspected cases, it was 26% among persons with laboratory-confirmed plague...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819178/curcumin-liposomes-interfere-with-quorum-sensing-system-of-aeromonas-sobria-and-in-silico-analysis
#14
Ting Ding, Tingting Li, Zhi Wang, Jianrong Li
Aeromonas sobria is opportunistic pathogen frequently found in environment and food. Interfering with its quorum sensing (QS) system could be a promising way to alleviate its virulence. In this study, curcumin liposomes were prepared and their characteristics like particle size, zeta potential, PDI (Polymey Disperse Index), encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity were measured. The quorum sensing inhibitory effect of curcumin liposomes under sub-MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) on siderophore production, swimming and swarming motility, extracellular proteases, biofilm formation and AHLs (N-acylhomoserine lactones) production of A...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818910/draft-genome-sequence-of-a-clinical-isolate-of-streptococcus-mutans-strain-hm
#15
Yoshio Kondo, Haruka Nishimata, Kiyoshi Hidaka, Tomoyuki Hasuwa, Hiroyuki Moriuchi, Taku Fujiwara, Tomonori Hoshino
We report the draft genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans strain HM isolated from a 4-year-old girl with infective endocarditis. The genomics information will provide information on the genetic diversity and virulence potential of S. mutans strain HM.
August 17, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818651/genomic-characterization-of-a-paediatric-mrsa-outbreak-by-next-generation-sequencing
#16
Elisabetta Ugolotti, Eddi Di Marco, Roberto Bandettini, Roberto Biassoni
INTRODUCTION: Twelve strains of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated during a suspected outbreak in a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit were analyzed by Whole Genome Sequence (WGS). AIM: To define the clonality of MRSA strains to a high discriminative power and to evaluate the presence of genetic determinants responsible for antibiotic resistance and for virulence. RESULTS: Ten out of 12 strains belonged to the MLST ST2625, while the other two were ST8...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818565/raw-starch-microparticles-have-immunostimulant-activity-in-mice-vaccinated-with-bcg-and-challenged-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#17
Silvia Moreno-Mendieta, Jorge Barrios-Payán, Dulce Mata-Espinosa, Sergio Sánchez, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Romina Rodríguez-Sanoja
The main challenge for vaccine development or improvement is the lack of safe adjuvants or immunostimulants that induce protective immune responses and can be used for mucosal immunization, which is a highly desirable strategy for vaccination against infectious diseases acquired by oral or intranasal routes. One promising alternative is the use of biodegradable and biocompatible polymeric microparticles. Recently, we developed an immobilization and delivery system with starch microparticles (SMPs) and a starch-binding domain (SBDtag) suitable for the mucosal administration of antigens and the induction of antigen-specific immune responses...
August 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818085/a-rare-case-of-acute-toxoplasmosis-in-a-stray-dog-due-to-infection-of-t-gondii-clonal-type-i-public-health-concern-in-urban-settings-with-stray-animals
#18
Sergio Migliore, Salvatore La Marca, Cristian Stabile, Vincenzo Di Marco Lo Presti, Maria Vitale
BACKGROUND: Typing of Toxoplasma gondii strains is important in epidemiological surveys, to understand the distribution and virulence of different clones of the parasite among human and animal populations. Stray dogs can be consider sentinel animals for contaminated environments playing an important but probably under- evaluated role in the epidemiology of T. gondii. We reported a rare case of acute toxoplasmosis in a stray dog due to clonal type I infection. The clonal type I, sporadic in Europe, is frequently associated with severe toxoplasmosis in humans and the control of its circulation is particularly relevant for public health...
August 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818052/proteomic-analysis-during-of-spore-germination-of-moniliophthora-perniciosa-the-causal-agent-of-witches-broom-disease-in-cacao
#19
Joise Hander Mares, Karina Peres Gramacho, Everton Cruz Santos, André da Silva Santiago, Juliano Oliveira Santana, Aurizângela Oliveira de Sousa, Fátima Cerqueira Alvim, Carlos Priminho Pirovani
BACKGROUND: Moniliophthora perniciosa is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for witches' broom disease of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L.). Understanding the molecular events during germination of the pathogen may enable the development of strategies for disease control in these economically important plants. In this study, we determined a comparative proteomic profile of M. perniciosa basidiospores during germination by two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. RESULTS: A total of 316 proteins were identified...
August 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818044/effects-of-the-vertically-transmitted-microsporidian-facilispora-margolisi-and-the-parasiticide-emamectin-benzoate-on-salmon-lice-lepeophtheirus-salmonis
#20
Jordan D Poley, Ben J G Sutherland, Mark D Fast, Ben F Koop, Simon R M Jones
BACKGROUND: Microsporidia are highly specialized, parasitic fungi that infect a wide range of eukaryotic hosts from all major taxa. Infections cause a variety of damaging effects on host physiology from increased stress to death. The microsporidian Facilispora margolisi infects the Pacific salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis oncorhynchi), an economically and ecologically important ectoparasitic copepod that can impact wild and cultured salmonids. RESULTS: Vertical transmission of F...
August 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
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