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HIV pregnant influenza

Miao He, Hainan Zhang, Yuju Li, Guangshun Wang, Beisha Tang, Jeffrey Zhao, Yunlong Huang, Jialin Zheng
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a neurotrophic flavivirus that is able to infect pregnant women and cause fetal brain abnormalities. Although there is a significant effort in identifying anti-ZIKV strategies, currently no vaccines or specific therapies are available to treat ZIKV infection. Antimicrobial peptides, which are potent host defense molecules in nearly all forms of life, have been found to be effective against several types of viruses such as HIV-1 and influenza A. However, they have not been tested in ZIKV infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Brenda L Coleman, Shaza A Fadel, Tiffany Fitzpatrick, Sera-Melisa Thomas
AIM: To determine factors associated with a serious outcome (hospital admission or severe outcome: critical care or death) and associated with illness caused by laboratory-confirmed influenza, with a specific interest in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). METHOD: Databases were searched on 11 March 2016 for reports of influenza and factors associated with mortality or morbidity in humans, with no language restrictions. Pooled risks were estimated using random-effects models...
January 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Ziyaad Dangor, Marta C Nunes, Gaurav Kwatra, Sanjay G Lala, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: The prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV has resulted in reduced burden of pediatric HIV-infection, but the prevalence of maternal HIV infection remains high in sub-Saharan African countries. HIV-exposed-uninfected infants have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases than HIV-unexposed infants, particularly during the first six months of life, which in part might be due to lower levels of pathogen-specific protective antibodies acquired transplacentally from their mothers...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Shabir A Madhi, Marta C Nunes, Adriana Weinberg, Locadiah Kuwanda, Andrea Hugo, Stephanie Jones, Nadia van Niekerk, Justin R Ortiz, Kathleen M Neuzil, Keith P Klugman, Eric A F Simões, Clare L Cutland
Background.: The utility of serologic testing to evaluate vaccine efficacy of seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) is controversial. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of IIV against serologically diagnosed influenza infection (SDI) and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction-confirmed influenza illness (PCR-CI) in women vaccinated during pregnancy. Methods.: We undertook a post hoc analysis of 2 randomized clinical trials evaluating IIV efficacy among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected and HIV-infected pregnant women...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Thor A Wagner, Hannah C Huang, Christen E Salyer, Kelly M Richardson, Adriana Weinberg, Sharon Nachman, Lisa M Frenkel
OBJECTIVES: Antigen-induced activation and proliferation of HIV-1-infected cells is hypothesized to be a mechanism of HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy. The objective of this study was to determine if proliferation of H1N1-specific HIV-infected cells could be detected following H1N1 vaccination. METHODS: This study utilized cryopreserved PBMC from a previously conducted trial of H1N1 vaccination in HIV-infected pregnant women. HIV-1 DNA concentrations and 437 HIV-1 C2V5 env DNA sequences were analyzed from ten pregnant women on effective antiretroviral therapy, before and 21 days after H1N1 influenza vaccination...
February 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
Alisa Kachikis, Janet A Englund
Immunizing the pregnant woman to protect both the mother and her infant from infection has been utilized increasingly over the last decade. New outbreaks of pandemic influenza and the resurgence of pertussis have resulted in policy changes and shifts in health authority recommendations for a number of vaccines aimed to protect both pregnant women and their infants in the first months of life. The ability of maternal immunoglobulin IgG antibodies to be transported readily across the healthy intact placenta depends on many different factors including gestational age in the pregnancy, nature and timing of the immunization and presence of maternal HIV or malaria infections...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Infection
Adriana Weinberg, Petronella Muresan, Kelly Richardson, Terence Fenton, Teresa Dominguez, Anthony Bloom, D Heather Watts, Mark J Abzug, Sharon A Nachman, Myron J Levin
We investigated the Th1 protective and regulatory T and B cell (Treg and Breg) responses to pH1N1 monovalent influenza vaccine (IIV1) in HIV-infected pregnant women on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 52 study participants were cryopreserved before and after vaccination and analyzed by flow cytometry. pH1N1-specific Th1, Treg, and Breg responses were measured in PBMCs after in vitro stimulation with pH1N1 and control antigen. The cohort analysis did not detect changes in pH1N1-Th1, Treg, or Breg subsets postvaccination...
November 2015: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Bigna S Buddeberg, Wynne Aveling
Puerperal sepsis is one of the five leading causes of maternal mortality worldwide, and accounts for 15% of all maternal deaths. The WHO defined puerperal sepsis in 1992 as an infection of the genital tract occurring at any time between the rupture of membranes or labour and the 42nd day post partum; in which, two or more of the following are present: pelvic pain, fever, abnormal vaginal discharge and delay in the reduction of the size of the uterus. At the same time, the WHO introduced the term puerperal infections, which also include non-genital infections in the obstetric population...
October 2015: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Marta C Nunes, Clare L Cutland, Bonnie Dighero, Janie Bate, Stephanie Jones, Andrea Hugo, Nadia van Niekerk, Locadiah Kuwanda, Alane Izu, Adriana Weinberg, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the immunogenicity of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) in pregnant women with and those without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the persistence of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies in mothers and infants. METHODS: Antibodies were measured before vaccination, 1 month after vaccination, at delivery, and at postpartum week 24 in mothers and within 1 week of birth and at 8, 16, and 24 weeks of age in infants...
December 15, 2015: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Stefano Tempia, Sibongile Walaza, Adam L Cohen, Claire von Mollendorf, Jocelyn Moyes, Johanna M McAnerney, Cheryl Cohen
BACKGROUND: Information on the mortality burden associated with seasonal and pandemic influenza virus infection among pregnant women is scarce in most settings, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where pregnancy and maternal mortality rates as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence are elevated. METHODS: We used an ecological study design to estimate the seasonal and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza-associated mortality among pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age (15-49 years) by HIV serostatus during 1999-2009 in South Africa...
October 1, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Adriana Weinberg, Petronella Muresan, Kelly M Richardson, Terence Fenton, Teresa Dominguez, Anthony Bloom, D Heather Watts, Mark J Abzug, Sharon A Nachman, Myron J Levin
Influenza infections have high frequency and morbidity in HIV-infected pregnant women, underscoring the importance of vaccine-conferred protection. To identify the factors that determine vaccine immunogenicity in this group, we characterized the relationship of B- and T-cell responses to pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) vaccine with HIV-associated immunologic and virologic characteristics. pH1N1 and seasonal-H1N1 (sH1N1) antibodies were measured in 119 HIV-infected pregnant women after two double-strength pH1N1 vaccine doses...
2015: PloS One
Luz M Fernandez, Renee V Girdler, R Brent Wright, Diane M Harper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2015: Annals of Internal Medicine
Michelle Silasi, Ingrid Cardenas, Ja-Young Kwon, Karen Racicot, Paula Aldo, Gil Mor
Viral infections during pregnancy have long been considered benign conditions with a few notable exceptions, such as herpes virus. The recent Ebola outbreak and other viral epidemics and pandemics show how pregnant women suffer worse outcomes (such as preterm labor and adverse fetal outcomes) than the general population and non-pregnant women. New knowledge about the ways the maternal-fetal interface and placenta interact with the maternal immune system may explain these findings. Once thought to be 'immunosuppressed', the pregnant woman actually undergoes an immunological transformation, where the immune system is necessary to promote and support the pregnancy and growing fetus...
March 2015: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Nicole Blair Johnson, Locola D Hayes, Kathryn Brown, Elizabeth C Hoo, Kathleen A Ethier
PROBLEM: Although substantial progress has been made in improving the health of persons in the United States, serious problems remain to be solved. Life expectancy is increasing, and the rates of the leading causes of death are improving in many cases; however, numerous indicators (i.e., measures of observed or calculated data on the status of a condition) of the health and safety of the U.S. population remain poor. This report reviews population health in the United States and provides an assessment of recent progress in meeting high-priority health objectives...
October 31, 2014: MMWR Supplements
Shabir A Madhi, Clare L Cutland, Locadiah Kuwanda, Adriana Weinberg, Andrea Hugo, Stephanie Jones, Peter V Adrian, Nadia van Niekerk, Florette Treurnicht, Justin R Ortiz, Marietjie Venter, Avy Violari, Kathleen M Neuzil, Eric A F Simões, Keith P Klugman, Marta C Nunes
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the efficacy of vaccination against confirmed influenza in pregnant women with and those without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and protection of their infants. METHODS: We conducted two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) in South Africa during 2011 in pregnant women infected with HIV and during 2011 and 2012 in pregnant women who were not infected...
September 4, 2014: New England Journal of Medicine
Elisabeth Sappenfield, Denise J Jamieson, Athena P Kourtis
To summarize the literature regarding susceptibility of pregnant women to infectious diseases and severity of resulting disease, we conducted a review using a PubMed search and other strategies. Studies were included if they reported information on infection risk or disease outcome in pregnant women. In all, 1454 abstracts were reviewed, and a total of 85 studies were included. Data were extracted regarding number of cases in pregnant women, rates of infection, risk factors for disease severity or complications, and maternal outcomes...
2013: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Mark J Abzug, Sharon A Nachman, Petronella Muresan, Edward Handelsman, D Heather Watts, Terence Fenton, Barbara Heckman, Elizabeth Petzold, Adriana Weinberg, Myron J Levin
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may have particular vulnerability to 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza (pH1N1) infection. The safety and immunogenicity of pH1N1 vaccination in HIV-infected pregnant women are unknown. METHODS: HIV-infected women 18-39 years of age and 14-34 weeks' gestation on antiretroviral therapy received two 30-μg doses of unadjuvanted, inactivated pH1N1 vaccine 21 days apart. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were measured at entry, 21 days after dose 1, and 10 and 21 days after dose 2, and, in mothers and infants, at delivery and 3 and 6 months postdelivery...
May 2013: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Cristina Rodríguez-Rieiro, Pilar Carrasco-Garrido, Valentín Hernández-Barrera, Ana López de Andrés, Isabel Jimenez-Trujillo, Angel Gil de Miguel, Rodrigo Jiménez-García
Based on data drawn from the national hospitalization discharge registry, we sought to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients hospitalized with pandemic influenza H1N1 in Spain in 2009. Authors calculated national rates of hospitalization stratified by age and analyzed co-morbidities, in hospital mortality, average length of stay and associated medical costs. A total of 11,449 patients were hospitalized (24.9/100,000 inhabitants). Median age was 34 y and 50.28% were male. The highest incidence was observed in the group from 0 to 14 y (42...
April 2012: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Masatoshi Tomi, Tomohiro Nishimura, Emi Nakashima
Administration of antiviral drugs to pregnant women with influenza, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections is widely accepted as an effective treatment to safeguard the health of the mother and fetus. This review deals with the transfer of antiviral drugs to the fetus across the placental barrier, which is formed by an epithelial layer of syncytiotrophoblasts. First, the structure, function, and developmental change of the placenta and the placental barrier are briefly presented...
September 2011: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Kelly Richardson, Adriana Weinberg
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in HIV-infected pregnant women and the factors that may determine this response. DESIGN: Prospective, single-site study of HIV-infected and uninfected women. METHODS: Pregnant women had the following immunologic measurements at vaccination, 6 weeks after immunization, and 12 weeks after delivery: hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titers, lymphocyte proliferation (LPA), interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT), and polychromatic flow cytometric enumeration of influenza-specific effector and regulatory T cells...
March 13, 2011: AIDS
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