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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351594/sero-efficacy-of-vi-polysaccharide-tetanus-toxoid-typhoid-conjugate-vaccine-typbar-tcv
#1
Merryn Voysey, Andrew J Pollard
Background: Salmonella Typhi is the major cause of enteric fever in lower income countries. New conjugate vaccines show promise as public health interventions, however there are no efficacy data available from endemic areas. Methods: Data were obtained from a previously published phase 3 randomised controlled trial comparing Vi-polysaccharide tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Typbar-TCV; Bharat Biotech Intl Ltd, India): (Vi-TT) with Vi-polysaccharide (Typbar; Bharat Biotech Intl Ltd, India): (Vi-PS) in participants aged 2- 45 years...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350150/role-of-environmental-factors-in-shaping-spatial-distribution-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-fiji
#2
Ruklanthi de Alwis, Conall Watson, Birgit Nikolay, John H Lowry, Nga Tran Vu Thieu, Tan Trinh Van, Dung Tran Thi Ngoc, Kitione Rawalai, Mere Taufa, Jerimaia Coriakula, Colleen L Lau, Eric J Nilles, W John Edmunds, Mike Kama, Stephen Baker, Jorge Cano
Fiji recently experienced a sharp increase in reported typhoid fever cases. To investigate geographic distribution and environmental risk factors associated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi infection, we conducted a cross-sectional cluster survey with associated serologic testing for Vi capsular antigen-specific antibodies (a marker for exposure to Salmonella Typhi in Fiji in 2013. Hotspots with high seroprevalence of Vi-specific antibodies were identified in northeastern mainland Fiji. Risk for Vi seropositivity increased with increased annual rainfall (odds ratio [OR] 1...
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349940/etiology-of-invasive-bacterial-infections-in-immunocompetent-children-in-korea-2006-2010-a-retrospective-multicenter-study
#3
Kyuyol Rhie, Eun Hwa Choi, Eun Young Cho, Jina Lee, Jin Han Kang, Dong Soo Kim, Yae Jean Kim, Youngmin Ahn, Byung Wook Eun, Sung Hee Oh, Sung Ho Cha, Young Jin Hong, Kwang Nam Kim, Nam Hee Kim, Yun Kyung Kim, Jong Hyun Kim, Taekjin Lee, Hwang Min Kim, Kun Song Lee, Chun Soo Kim, Su Eun Park, Young Mi Kim, Chi Eun Oh, Sang Hyuk Ma, Dae Sun Jo, Young Youn Choi, Hoan Jong Lee
BACKGROUND: Invasive bacterial infections in apparently immunocompetent children were retrospectively analyzed to figure causative bacterial organisms in Korea. METHODS: A total of 947 cases from 25 university hospitals were identified from 2006 to 2010 as a continuance of a previous 10-year period study from 1996 to 2005. RESULTS: Escherichia coli (41.3%), Streptococcus agalactiae (27.7%), and Staphylococcus aureus (27.1%) were the most common pathogens in infants < 3 months of age...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349897/antibiogram-and-genetic-diversity-of-salmonella-enterica-with-zoonotic-potential-isolated-from-morbid-native-chickens-and-pigeons-in-egypt
#4
E Abdeen, W Elmonir, I I A Suelam, W S Mousa
AIMS: This study investigated the possible role of Fayoumi chickens and pigeons in the transmission of multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella with zoonotic potential. METHODS AND RESULTS: Morbid Fayoumi chickens (70) and pigeons (30) were examined to detect the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella and to detect and sequence sodC-1 gene as a zoonotic and phylogenetic marker. Salmonella isolates were detected in 14.3% and 20% of the examined Fayoumi chickens and pigeons, respectively...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349886/adaptation-of-salmonella-enterica-to-bile-essential-role-of-acrab-mediated-efflux
#5
Verónica Urdaneta, Josep Casadesús
Adaptation to bile is the ability to endure the lethal effects of bile salts after growth on sublethal concentrations. Surveys of adaptation to bile in Salmonella enterica ser. Tyhimurium reveal that active efflux is essential for adaptation while other bacterial functions involved in bile resistance are not. Among S. enterica mutants lacking one or more efflux systems, only strains lacking AcrAB are unable to adapt, thus revealing an essential role for AcrAB. Transcription of the acrAB operon is upregulated in the presence of a sublethal concentration of sodium deoxycholate (DOC) while other efflux loci are either weakly upregulated or irresponsive...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349705/stool-cultures-at-the-icu-get-rid-of-it
#6
Carolin F Manthey, Darja Dranova, Martin Christner, Laura Berneking, Stefan Kluge, Ansgar W Lohse, Valentin Fuhrmann
BACKGROUND: Stool cultures for Campylobacter, Salmonella and Shigella and/or Yersinia spp. are frequently ordered in critically ill patients with diarrhea. The aim of this study is to analyze the diagnostic yield in a large cohort of critically ill patients. Therefore, we performed a cohort study at the Department of Intensive Care Medicine of a University Hospital (11 ICUs). RESULTS: From all patients who were admitted to the ICU between 2010 and 2015, stool cultures were taken from 2...
January 18, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349550/recombinase-polymerase-amplification-combined-with-lateral-flow-dipstick-for-equipment-free-detection-of-salmonella-in-shellfish
#7
Weifang Gao, Hailong Huang, Peng Zhu, Xiaojun Yan, Jianzhong Fan, Jinpo Jiang, Jilin Xu
Salmonella is a major pathogen that causes acute foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Seafood, particularly shellfish, is a proven source of Salmonella spp. infection because many people prefer to eat it raw or lightly cooked. However, traditional identification methods are too time-consuming and complex to detect contamination of bacteria in the food chain in a timely manner, and few studies have aimed to identify Salmonella in shellfish early in the supply chain. We herein developed a method for rapid detection of Salmonella in shellfish based on the method of recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with lateral flow dipstick (LFD), which targets the invasion gene A (invA)...
January 18, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348433/speciation-of-common-gram-negative-pathogens-using-a-highly-multiplexed-high-resolution-melt-curve-assay
#8
Thomas Edwards, Shugo Sasaki, Christopher Williams, Glyn Hobbs, Nicholas A Feasey, Katie Evans, Emily R Adams
The identification of the bacterial species responsible for an infection remains an important step for the selection of antimicrobial therapy. Gram-negative bacteria are an important source of hospital and community acquired infections and frequently antimicrobial resistant. Speciation of bacteria is typically carried out by biochemical profiling of organisms isolated from clinical specimens, which is time consuming and delays the initiation of tailored treatment. Whilst molecular methods such as PCR have been used, they often struggle with the challenge of detecting and discriminating a wide range of targets...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348347/completed-genome-sequences-of-strains-from-36-serotypes-of-salmonella
#9
James Robertson, Catherine Yoshida, Simone Gurnik, John H E Nash
We report here the completed closed genome sequences of strains representing 36 serotypes of Salmonella These genome sequences will provide useful references for understanding the genetic variation between serotypes, particularly as references for mapping of raw reads or to create assemblies of higher quality, as well as to aid in studies of comparative genomics of Salmonella.
January 18, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348238/phosphoethanolamine-cellulose-a-naturally-produced-chemically-modified-cellulose
#10
Wiriya Thongsomboon, Diego O Serra, Alexandra Possling, Chris Hadjineophytou, Regine Hengge, Lynette Cegelski
Cellulose is a major contributor to the chemical and mechanical properties of plants and assumes structural roles in bacterial communities termed biofilms. We find that Escherichia coli produces chemically modified cellulose that is required for extracellular matrix assembly and biofilm architecture. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the intact and insoluble material elucidates the zwitterionic phosphoethanolamine modification that had evaded detection by conventional methods. Installation of the phosphoethanolamine group requires BcsG, a proposed phosphoethanolamine transferase, with biofilm-promoting cyclic diguanylate monophosphate input through a BcsE-BcsF-BcsG transmembrane signaling pathway...
January 19, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348094/in-vitro-salmonella-typhi-biofilm-formation-on-gallstones-and-its-disruption-by-manuka-honey
#11
Abdul Hannan, Asma Ejaz Bajwa, Saira Riaz, Usman Arshad, Sidrah Saleem, Usama Ijaz Bajwa
Biofilm is a complex community of single or different types of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa) attached to a surface and stick to each other through production of extracellular matrix. Salmonella typhi forms biofilm on cholesterol gallstones resulting in carrier state. Once formed, biofilm is difficult to treat. To date cholecystectomy is the only cure for this condition. Manuka honey is known to have tremendous antibiofilm activity against various organisms. S. typhi biofilm was grown in vitro on clinical samples of human cholesterol gallstones by Gallstone tube assay method for 12 days...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346603/homologous-stress-adaptation-antibiotic-resistance-and-biofilm-forming-ability-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-heidelberg-atcc8326-on-different-food-contact-surfaces-following-exposure-to-sublethal-chlorine-concentrations
#12
Tomi Obe, Rama Nannapaneni, Chander Shekhar Sharma, Aaron Kiess
Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (American Type Culture Collection; ATCC 8326) was examined for the ability to adapt to the homologous stress of chlorine through exposure to increasing chlorine concentrations (25 ppm daily increments) in tryptic soy broth (TSB). The tested strain exhibited an acquired tolerance to chlorine in TSB with the tolerant cells growing in concentrations up to 400 ppm. In addition, the chlorine stressed cells displayed rugose morphology on tryptic soy agar (TSA) plates at 37°C...
January 13, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346345/the-cytosolic-sensor-sting-is-required-for-intestinal-homeostasis-and-control-of-inflammation
#13
M C C Canesso, L Lemos, T C Neves, F M Marim, T B R Castro, É S Veloso, C P Queiroz, J Ahn, H C Santiago, F S Martins, J Alves-Silva, E Ferreira, D C Cara, A T Vieira, G N Barber, S C Oliveira, A M C Faria
STING (stimulator of interferon genes) is a cytosolic sensor for cyclic dinucleotides and also an adaptor molecule for intracellular DNA receptors. Although STING has important functions in the host defense against pathogens and in autoimmune diseases, its physiological relevance in intestinal homeostasis is largely unknown. In this study, we show that STING-/- mice presented defective protective mechanisms of intestinal mucosa, including decreased number of goblet cells, diminished mucus production, and lower levels of secretory IgA, when compared with wild-type (WT) mice...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345056/for-when-bacterial-infections-persist-toll-like-receptor-inducible-direct-antimicrobial-pathways-in-macrophages
#14
REVIEW
Claudia J Stocks, Mark A Schembri, Matthew J Sweet, Ronan Kapetanovic
Macrophages are linchpins of innate immunity, responding to invading microorganisms by initiating coordinated inflammatory and antimicrobial programs. Immediate antimicrobial responses, such as NADPH-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS), are triggered upon phagocytic receptor engagement. Macrophages also detect and respond to microbial products through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as TLRs. TLR signaling influences multiple biological processes including antigen presentation, cell survival, inflammation, and direct antimicrobial responses...
January 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343684/mait-cell-clonal-expansion-and-tcr-repertoire-shaping-in-human-volunteers-challenged-with-salmonella-paratyphi%C3%A2-a
#15
Lauren J Howson, Giorgio Napolitani, Dawn Shepherd, Hemza Ghadbane, Prathiba Kurupati, Lorena Preciado-Llanes, Margarida Rei, Hazel C Dobinson, Malick M Gibani, Karen Wei Weng Teng, Evan W Newell, Natacha Veerapen, Gurdyal S Besra, Andrew J Pollard, Vincenzo Cerundolo
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T cells that can detect bacteria-derived metabolites presented on MR1. Here we show, using a controlled infection of humans with live Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, that MAIT cells are activated during infection, an effect maintained even after antibiotic treatment. At the peak of infection MAIT cell T-cell receptor (TCR)β clonotypes that are over-represented prior to infection transiently contract. Select MAIT cell TCRβ clonotypes that expand after infection have stronger TCR-dependent activation than do contracted clonotypes...
January 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342283/non-typhoidal-salmonella-serovars-associated-with-invasive-and-non-invasive-disease-in-the-lao-people-s-democratic-republic
#16
Tu Le Thi Phuong, Sayaphet Rattanavong, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Viengmon Davong, Nguyen Phu Huong Lan, James I Campbell, Thomas C Darton, Guy E Thwaites, Paul N Newton, David A B Dance, Stephen Baker
Background: Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease is a well-described cause of mortality in children and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Additionally, there is an ill-defined burden of iNTS disease in Southeast Asia. Methods: Aiming to investigate the causative serovars of non-invasive and iNTS disease and their associated antimicrobial susceptibility profiles in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, we performed multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling on 168 NTS (63 blood and 105 faecal) organisms isolated in Lao between 2000 and 2012...
January 12, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342189/the-microbiota-metabolite-indole-inhibits-salmonella-virulence-involvement-of-the-phopq-two-component-system
#17
Nandita Kohli, Zeni Crisp, Rebekah Riordan, Michael Li, Robert C Alaniz, Arul Jayaraman
The microbial community present in the gastrointestinal tract is an important component of the host defense against pathogen infections. We previously demonstrated that indole, a microbial metabolite of tryptophan, reduces enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 attachment to intestinal epithelial cells and biofilm formation, suggesting that indole may be an effector/attenuator of colonization for a number of enteric pathogens. Here, we report that indole attenuates Salmonella Typhimurium (Salmonella) virulence and invasion as well as increases resistance to colonization in host cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342165/increased-colon-cancer-risk-after-severe-salmonella-infection
#18
Lapo Mughini-Gras, Michael Schaapveld, Jolanda Kramers, Sofie Mooij, E Andra Neefjes-Borst, Wilfrid van Pelt, Jacques Neefjes
BACKGROUND: Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a nationwide registry-based study to assess colon cancer risk after diagnosed Salmonella infection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341180/risk-assessment-of-salmonellosis-from-consumption-of-alfalfa-sprouts-and-evaluation-of-the-public-health-impact-of-sprout-seed-treatment-and-spent-irrigation-water-testing
#19
Yuhuan Chen, Régis Pouillot, Sofia M Santillana Farakos, Steven Duret, Judith Spungen, Tong-Jen Fu, Fazila Shakir, Patricia A Homola, Sherri Dennis, Jane M Van Doren
We developed a risk assessment of human salmonellosis associated with consumption of alfalfa sprouts in the United States to evaluate the public health impact of applying treatments to seeds (0-5-log10 reduction in Salmonella) and testing spent irrigation water (SIW) during production. The risk model considered variability and uncertainty in Salmonella contamination in seeds, Salmonella growth and spread during sprout production, sprout consumption, and Salmonella dose response. Based on an estimated prevalence of 2...
January 16, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340658/cuticle-and-pore-plug-properties-in-the-table-egg
#20
G Kulshreshtha, A Rodriguez-Navarro, E Sanchez-Rodriguez, T Diep, M T Hincke
Food safety of table eggs is vital since many pathogens can contaminate the unfertilized egg, leading to increased risk of foodborne illness for consumers. The eggshell cuticle is the first line of defense to restrict the entry of egg-associated pathogens, such as Salmonella Enteritidis. The thickness and completeness of coverage of the cuticle layer are heritable traits that are strongly associated with egg resistance to bacterial penetration. The present study characterizes the chemical composition of the eggshell cuticle and structure of pore plugs from table eggs...
January 11, 2018: Poultry Science
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