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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817719/t-cell-expression-of-il-18r-and-dr3-is-essential-for-non-cognate-stimulation-of-th1-cells-and-optimal-clearance-of-intracellular-bacteria
#1
Oanh H Pham, Hope O'Donnell, Aymen Al-Shamkhani, Tobias Kerrinnes, Renée M Tsolis, Stephen J McSorley
Th1 cells can be activated by TCR-independent stimuli, but the importance of this pathway in vivo and the precise mechanisms involved require further investigation. Here, we used a simple model of non-cognate Th1 cell stimulation in Salmonella-infected mice to examine these issues. CD4 Th1 cell expression of both IL-18R and DR3 was required for optimal IFN-γ induction in response to non-cognate stimulation, while IL-15R expression was dispensable. Interestingly, effector Th1 cells generated by immunization rather than live infection had lower non-cognate activity despite comparable IL-18R and DR3 expression...
August 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817673/the-plasmid-encoded-ipf-and-klf-fimbriae-display-different-expression-and-varying-roles-in-the-virulence-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-infantis-in-mouse-vs-avian-hosts
#2
Gili Aviv, Laura Elpers, Svetlana Mikhlin, Helit Cohen, Shaul Vitman Zilber, Guntram A Grassl, Galia Rahav, Michael Hensel, Ohad Gal-Mor
Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis is one of the prevalent Salmonella serovars worldwide. Different emergent clones of S. Infantis were shown to acquire the pESI virulence-resistance megaplasmid affecting its ecology and pathogenicity. Here, we studied two previously uncharacterized pESI-encoded chaperone-usher fimbriae, named Ipf and Klf. While Ipf homologs are rare and were found only in S. enterica subspecies diarizonae and subspecies VII, Klf is related to the known K88-Fae fimbria and klf clusters were identified in seven S...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817554/occupational-distribution-of-campylobacteriosis-and-salmonellosis-cases-maryland-ohio-and-virginia-2014
#3
Chia-Ping Su, Marie A de Perio, Kathleen Fagan, Meghan L Smith, Ellen Salehi, Seth Levine, Karen Gruszynski, Sara E Luckhaupt
Campylobacter and Salmonella are leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and are estimated to cause >1 million episodes of domestically acquired illness annually (1). Campylobacter and Salmonella are primarily transmitted through contaminated food, but animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission can also occur (2,3). Although occupationally acquired infections have been reported, occupational risk factors have rarely been studied. In 2015, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) identified 63 suspected or confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection over 3...
August 18, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816527/use-of-whey-as-a-culture-medium-for-bacillus-clausii-for-the-production-of-protein-hydrolysates-with-antimicrobial-and-antioxidant-activity
#4
Jesús J Rochín-Medina, Hilda K Ramírez-Medina, Jesús G Rangel-Peraza, Karen V Pineda-Hidalgo, Pablo Iribe-Arellano
The use of whey as a natural culture medium to produce hydrolysates with antimicrobial from Bacillus clausii is the objective of this research. The fermentation process was carried out at 25 ℃ for five days, where proteolytic activity, soluble peptides quantification, and antimicrobial activity using the disc diffusion method were determined every day. The fermented whey reached values ​​of proteolytic activity between 90 and 260 U ml(-1) and a production of soluble peptides between 100 and 2070 µg ml(-1)...
January 1, 2017: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815882/application-of-chitosan-microparticles-for-mitigation-of-salmonella-in-agricultural-water
#5
Ying Fan, Amber Ginn, M Kang, Kwang Cheol Jeong, Anita C Wright
AIM: The activity of chitosan microparticles (CM) was examined using a matrix of conditions in order to assess the efficacy of CM as a mitigation against various strains of Salmonella enterica in agricultural water. METHODS AND RESULTS: Different concentrations of CM (0, 0.01, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3% w/v) were examined for antimicrobial activity against log vs. stationary phase cells of Salmonella and at different conditions of temperature, salinity, and pH. Results showed greatest activity with 0...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815637/synergistic-antibacterial-and-antibiofilm-efficacy-of-nisin-in-combination-with-p-coumaric-acid-against-foodborne-bacteria-bacillus-cereus-and-salmonella-typhimurium
#6
Anwesa Bag, Rabi Ranjan Chattopadhyay
The aim of the study was to evaluate possible antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of a bacteriocin, nisin with two essential oil components linalool and p-coumaric acid in combination against foodborne bacteria Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhimurium. Their inhibition effects on planktonic cells and pre-formed biofilms were evaluated using microbroth dilution and checkerboard titration methods. Nisin/ p-coumaric acid combination showed synergistic effects against planktonic cells of both the studied bacteria whereas nisin/ linalool combination showed synergistic activity against B...
August 16, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812908/a-quantitative-assessment-of-the-risk-of-human-salmonellosis-arising-from-the-consumption-of-pecans-in-the-united-states
#7
Sofia M Santillana Farakos, Régis Pouillot, Rhoma Johnson, Judith Spungen, Insook Son, Nathan Anderson, Gordon R Davidson, Jane M Van Doren
A quantitative risk assessment was conducted to assess the risk of human salmonellosis acquired from consumption of pecans in the United States. The model considered the potential for Salmonella survival, growth, and recontamination of pecans from the sheller to the consumer, including steps such as immersion in water, drying, conditioning, cracking, partitioning, and storage. Five theoretical microbial reduction treatment levels (1 to 5 log CFU) were modeled. Data from the 2010 to 2013 surveys by the National Pecan Shellers Association were used for initial prevalence and contamination levels...
September 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812009/the-bacteriological-quality-safety-and-antibiogram-of-salmonella-isolates-from-fresh-meat-in-retail-shops-of-bahir-dar-city-ethiopia
#8
Melkamnesh Azage, Mulugeta Kibret
The habit of raw meat consumption in addition to the poor hygienic standards and lack of knowledge contribute to food-borne diseases outbreaks. The objective of this research was to assess the bacterial quality and safety of fresh meat from retail Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. A total of 30 fresh meat samples were collected from butcher shops. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate and enumerate bacteria. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella isolates...
2017: International journal of food science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811611/the-antibacterial-and-antifungal-activity-of-six-essential-oils-and-their-cyto-genotoxicity-to-human-hel-12469-cells
#9
Andrea Puškárová, Mária Bučková, Lucia Kraková, Domenico Pangallo, Katarína Kozics
Six essential oils (from oregano, thyme, clove, lavender, clary sage, and arborvitae) exhibited different antibacterial and antifungal properties. Antimicrobial activity was shown against pathogenic (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis) and environmental bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Arthrobacter protophormiae, Pseudomonas fragi) and fungi (Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Alternaria alternata, and Aspergillus fumigatus)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808000/vibrio-cholerae-type-6-secretion-system-effector-trafficking-in-target-bacterial-cells
#10
Brian T Ho, Yang Fu, Tao G Dong, John J Mekalanos
The type 6 secretion system (T6SS) is used by many Gram-negative bacterial species to deliver toxic effector proteins into nearby bacteria prey cells to kill or inhibit their growth. VgrG proteins are core conserved secretion substrates of the T6SS and one subset of T6SS effectors consists of VgrG proteins with C-terminal extension domains carrying various enzymatic activities. In Vibrio cholerae, VgrG3 has a hydrolase extension domain and degrades peptidoglycan in the periplasm of target bacteria. In this study, we replaced this domain with a nuclease domain from Salmonella enterica subsp...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807622/community-associated-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-emergency-department-patients-in-western-australia
#11
Deirdre A Collins, Linda A Selvey, Antonio Celenza, Thomas V Riley
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is primarily associated with hospitalised patients, however, community-associated CDI (CA-CDI) has increased in Australia. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology and outcomes of CA-CDI cases presenting to hospital emergency departments in Western Australia (WA). A retrospective case-control study of CA-CDI cases presenting at six emergency departments in WA from July 2013 to June 2014 was performed. Clinical signs, recent medication, hospitalisations and potential risk factors for CA-CDI were investigated for cases (n = 34) and unmatched controls (n = 62) who were infected with another gastrointestinal pathogen, including Campylobacter spp...
August 11, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806780/the-arac-negative-regulator-family-modulates-the-activity-of-histone-like-proteins-in-pathogenic-bacteria
#12
Araceli E Santiago, Michael B Yan, Tracy H Hazen, Brooke Sauder, Mario Meza-Segura, David A Rasko, Melissa M Kendall, Fernando Ruiz-Perez, James P Nataro
The AraC Negative Regulators (ANR) comprise a large family of virulence regulators distributed among diverse clinically important Gram-negative pathogens, including Vibrio spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Yersinia spp., Citrobacter spp., and pathogenic E. coli strains. We have previously reported broad effects of the ANR members on regulators of the AraC/XylS family. Here, we interrogate possible broader effects of the ANR members on the bacterial transcriptome. Our studies focused on Aar (AggR-activated regulator), an ANR family archetype in enteroaggregative E...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805458/thermal-inactivation-of-listeria-monocytogenes-and-salmonella-during-water-and-steam-blanching-of-vegetables
#13
Erdogan Ceylan, Wendy McMahon, Donna M Garren
Thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella was evaluated on peas, spinach, broccoli, potatoes, and carrots that were treated with hot water and steam. One gram-positive bacterium, L. monocytogenes, and one gram-negative bacterium, Salmonella, were selected as pertinent human pathogens for evaluation. Samples were inoculated with a composite of five strains each of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella to achieve approximately 10(8) to 10(9) CFU/g. Inoculated samples were treated with hot water at 85 and 87...
September 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805457/selection-of-surrogate-bacteria-for-use-in-food-safety-challenge-studies-a-review
#14
Mengyi Hu, Joshua B Gurtler
Nonpathogenic surrogate bacteria are prevalently used in a variety of food challenge studies in place of foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Clostridium botulinum because of safety and sanitary concerns. Surrogate bacteria should have growth characteristics and/or inactivation kinetics similar to those of target pathogens under given conditions in challenge studies. It is of great importance to carefully select and validate potential surrogate bacteria when verifying microbial inactivation processes...
September 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804486/first-association-of-interleukin-12-receptor-beta-1-deficiency-with-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#15
Georgios Sogkas, Faranaz Atschekzei, Vivien Schacht, Christian von Falck, Alexandra Jablonka, Roland Jacobs, Matthias Stoll, Torsten Witte, Reinhold E Schmidt
INTRODUCTION: Interleukin 12 receptor beta 1 (IL12Rβ1) deficiency is a primary immunodeficiency resulting mainly in susceptibility to opportunistic infection by non-tuberculous, environmental mycobacteria and severe infection caused by Salmonella spp. Till now, less than 300 patients with IL12Rβ1 deficiency have been reported. Among them, only three have been described to develop autoimmunity. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 50-year-old male with IL12Rβ1 deficiency due to compound heterozygosity [c...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803563/association-between-wetland-presence-and-incidence-of-salmonella-enterica-serotype-javiana-infections-in-selected-us-sites-2005-2011
#16
J Y Huang, M E Patrick, J Manners, A R Sapkota, K J Scherzinger, M Tobin-D'Angelo, O L Henao, D J Cole, A R Vieira
Salmonella causes an estimated 1·2 million illnesses annually in the USA. Salmonella enterica serotype Javiana (serotype Javiana) is the fourth most common serotype isolated from humans, with the majority of illnesses occurring in southeastern states. The percentage of wetland cover by wetland type and the average incidence rates of serotype Javiana infection in selected counties of the Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) were examined. This analysis explored the relationship between wetland environments and incidence in order to assess whether regional differences in environmental habitats may be associated with observed variations in incidence...
August 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803189/efficacy-of-radiant-catalytic-ionization-to-reduce-bacterial-populations-in-air-and-on-different-surfaces
#17
Krzysztof Skowron, Katarzyna Grudlewska, Joanna Kwiecińska-Piróg, Grzegorz Gryń, Mścisław Śrutek, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska
Air contamination by biological agents is often observed in medical or veterinary facilities and industrial plants. Bioaerosols may sediment and pose the surface contamination. Microorganisms present on them may become a source of infections among humans and food contamination. This study determined the use of oxidative gases, including ozone and peroxide, generated by the Radiant Catalytic Ionization (RCI) cell for the inactivation of Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium sporogenes, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenumon in air and on different surfaces...
August 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803013/short-communication-detection-of-stx2-and-elt-genes-in-bovine-milk-by-using-a-multiplex-pcr-system
#18
R D S Nandi, A C Campos, J J Puño-Sarmiento, R P Maluta, S P D Rocha, R K T Kobayashi, G Nakazato
The aim of this study was to detect 2 important toxin genes from diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) in bovine milk using a new multiplex PCR. To standardize the multiplex PCR, the stx2 and elt genes were investigated for the detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), respectively. The DNA template was prepared with a thermal procedure (boiling) and a commercial kit. Samples consisted of UHT and pasteurized milk, both skimmed, and STEC and ETEC were tested in concentrations between 10(1) and 10(9) cfu/mL...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802274/horizontal-dissemination-of-antimicrobial-resistance-determinants-in-multiple-salmonella-serotypes-following-isolation-from-the-environment-of-commercial-swine-operations-after-manure-application
#19
Suchawan Pornsukarom, Siddhartha Thakur
The aim of this study was to characterize the plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants in multiple Salmonella serotypes recovered from the commercial swine farms environment after manure application on land. Manure and soil samples were collected on day0 before and after manure application on six farms in North Carolina and sequential soil samples were recollected on day7, 14, and 21 from the same plots. All environmental samples were processed for Salmonella and their plasmid contents were further characterized...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802266/functional-analysis-of-genes-encoded-by-the-locus-of-heat-resistance-lhr-in-escherichia-coli
#20
Ryan Mercer, Oanh Nguyen, Qixing Ou, Lynn McMullen, Michael G Gänzle
The locus of heat resistance (LHR) is a 15 - 19 kb genomic island conferring exceptional heat resistance to organisms in the family Enterobacteriaceae including pathogenic strains of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli The complement of LHR-encoded genes that is necessary for heat resistance and the stress- or growth-phase induced expression of LHR-encoded genes are unknown. This study determined the contribution of the 7 LHR-encoded genes yfdX1GI, yfdX2, hdeDGI, orf11, trxGI, kefB, and psiEGI by comparison of the heat resistance of E...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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