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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335438/the-food-production-environment-and-the-development-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-human-pathogens-of-animal-origin
#1
REVIEW
Manjusha Lekshmi, Parvathi Ammini, Sanath Kumar, Manuel F Varela
Food-borne pathogens are a serious human health concern worldwide, and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant food pathogens has further confounded this problem. Once-highly-efficacious antibiotics are gradually becoming ineffective against many important pathogens, resulting in severe treatment crises. Among several reasons for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance, their overuse in animal food production systems for purposes other than treatment of infections is prominent. Many pathogens of animals are zoonotic, and therefore any development of resistance in pathogens associated with food animals can spread to humans through the food chain...
March 14, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335027/a-transposon-derived-small-rna-regulates-gene-expression-in-salmonella-typhimurium
#2
Michael J Ellis, Ryan S Trussler, Onella Charles, David B Haniford
Bacterial sRNAs play an important role in regulating many cellular processes including metabolism, outer membrane homeostasis and virulence. Although sRNAs were initially found in intergenic regions, there is emerging evidence that protein coding regions of the genome are a rich reservoir of sRNAs. Here we report that the 5΄UTR of IS200 transposase mRNA (tnpA) is processed to produce regulatory RNAs that affect expression of over 70 genes in Salmonella Typhimurium. We provide evidence that the tnpA derived sRNA base-pairs with invF mRNA to repress expression...
February 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334040/macrophage-origin-limits-functional-plasticity-in-helminth-bacterial-co-infection
#3
Dominik Rückerl, Sharon M Campbell, Sheelagh Duncan, Tara E Sutherland, Stephen J Jenkins, James P Hewitson, Tom A Barr, Lucy H Jackson-Jones, Rick M Maizels, Judith E Allen
Rapid reprogramming of the macrophage activation phenotype is considered important in the defense against consecutive infection with diverse infectious agents. However, in the setting of persistent, chronic infection the functional importance of macrophage-intrinsic adaptation to changing environments vs. recruitment of new macrophages remains unclear. Here we show that resident peritoneal macrophages expanded by infection with the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri altered their activation phenotype in response to infection with Salmonella enterica ser...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333132/enzyme-iia-ntr-regulates-salmonella-invasion-via-1-2-propanediol-and-propionate-catabolism
#4
Woongjae Yoo, Dajeong Kim, Hyunjin Yoon, Sangryeol Ryu
Many Proteobacteria possess a nitrogen-metabolic phosphotransferase system (PTS(Ntr)) consisting of EI(Ntr), NPr, and EIIA(Ntr) (encoded by ptsP, ptsO, and ptsN, respectively). The PTS(Ntr) plays diverse regulatory roles, but the substrate phosphorylated by EIIA(Ntr) and its primary functions have not yet been identified. To comprehensively understand the roles of PTS(Ntr) in Salmonella Typhimurium, we compared the whole transcriptomes of wild-type and a ΔptsN mutant. Genome-wide RNA sequencing revealed that 3...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332591/improved-lysis-efficiency-and-immunogenicity-of-salmonella-ghosts-mediated-by-co-expression-of-%C3%AE-phage-holin-endolysin-and-%C3%A9-x174-gene-e
#5
Gayeon Won, Irshad Ahmed Hajam, John Hwa Lee
Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria by bacteriophage ɸX174 gene E mediated lysis. They represent a novel inactivated vaccine platform; however, the practical application of BGs for human vaccines seems to be limited due to the safety concerns on the presence of viable cells in BGs. Therefore, to improve the lysis efficiency of the gene E, we exploited the peptidoglycan hydrolyzing ability of the λ phage holin-endolysins to expedite the process of current BG production system...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331163/in-vitro-evaluation-of-candidate-bacillus-spp-for-animal-feed
#6
Sirima Mingmongkolchai, Watanalai Panbangred
The aim of this study was to select aerobic spore-formers for animal feed based on their in vitro probiotic potential, including their enzyme-producing ability and safety assessment. Seven isolates out of 187 spore-forming bacteria were selected for their ability to produce cellulase (89.21-1668.32 U/ml), xylanase (1399.68-4351.10 U/ml), and phytase (2.72-28.70 U/ml). Among seven isolates, five had activities towards a broad range of p-nitrophenyl esters with acyl chain lengths from C2 to C12. The probiotic properties of all selected isolates varied with respect to their acid and bile salt tolerance under simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) conditions, and their adherence ability to human intestinal cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330807/dietary-myrtle-myrtus-communis-l-improved-non-specific-immune-parameters-and-bactericidal-activity-of-skin-mucus-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-fingerlings
#7
Hadis Mansouri Taei, Abdolmajid Hajimoradloo, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Hassan Ahmadvand
The present study examined the effects of dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) on non-specific immune parameters and bactericidal activity of skin mucus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings. Three hundred and sixty fingerlings (6.50 ± 0.55 g (were distributed in twelve cages (65 × 65 × 65 cm) with a metal framework. The study included four treatments repeated in triplicates. The treatments were feeding trouts with experimental diets containing different levels (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5%) of Myrtle powder...
March 18, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330283/multiplex-pcr-for-simultaneous-identification-of-e-coli-o157-h7-salmonella-spp-and-l-monocytogenes-in-food
#8
Thuy Trang Nguyen, Vo Van Giau, Tuong Kha Vo
The rapid detection of pathogens in food is becoming increasingly critical for ensuring the safety of consumers, since the majority of food-borne illnesses and deaths are caused by pathogenic bacteria. Hence, rapid, sensitive, inexpensive and convenient approaches to detect food-borne pathogenic bacteria is essential in controlling food safety. In this study, a multiplex PCR assay for the rapid and simultaneous detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes was established...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330281/evaluation-of-bioactive-secondary-metabolites-from-endophytic-fungus-pestalotiopsis-neglecta-bab-5510-isolated-from-leaves-of-cupressus-torulosa-d-don
#9
Deeksha Sharma, Avijit Pramanik, Pavan Kumar Agrawal
Six endophytic fungi were isolated from Cupressus torulosa D.Don and identified phenotypically and genotypically. The fungal cultures were further grown and the culture was extracted by two organic solvents methanol and ethyl acetate. The screening was carried out using the agar well diffusion method against human pathogen such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Isolated strain of Pestalotiopsis sp. was showing prominent antibacterial activity. The crude methanol and ethyl acetate extract of Pestalotiopsis sp...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330077/diversity-and-antagonistic-potential-of-marine-microbes-collected-from-south-west-coast-of-india
#10
S Sinimol, A R Sarika, A Jayakumaran Nair
The diversity of some of the culturable microorganisms associated with marine flora and fauna collected off Vizhinjam and Mulloor coast of South India was evaluated and their bioactive production potential determined. From a total of 24 bacteria, 4 actinomycetes and 8 fungi isolated from diverse marine sources, five bacterial species-BLM3, BSP2, BCS1, BCS4 and BMA6 showed inhibitory activity against at least one of the tested pathogens viz., Klebsiella pneumonia KU1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa VL3, Salmonella enterica typhimurium MTCC 98, Escherichia coli MTCC 40, Micrococcus luteus MTCC 105, Staphylococcus simulans MTCC 3610, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 426, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio sp...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330071/unexpected-formation-of-n-phenyl-thiophosphorohydrazidic-acid-o-s-dimethyl-ester-from-acephate-chemical-biotechnical-and-computational-study
#11
Vijay Kumar, Sukhmanpreet Kaur, Simranjeet Singh, Niraj Upadhyay
By the nucleophilic attack of phenylhydrazine on acephate in aqueous medium, a stable product N'-phenyl-thiophosphorohydrazidic acid O,S-dimethyl ester (1) was obtained and characterized by elemental, spectral and thermal analysis. Thermodynamic parameters, Ea, ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG°, have found to be 62.15, -67.95, -0.068 and -20.05 kJ mol(-1) according to the Coats-Redfern equation. Analysis of interaction of 1 with BSA protein was done by using the UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopic methods. The observed binding constants was 1...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329249/acetylation-regulates-protein-stability-and-dna-binding-ability-of-hild-to-modulate-salmonella-typhimurium-virulence
#12
Yu Sang, Jie Ren, Ran Qin, Shuting Liu, Zhongli Cui, Sen Cheng, Xiaoyun Liu, Jie Lu, Jing Tao, Yu-Feng Yao
HilD, a dominant regulator of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), can be acetylated by acetyltransferase Pat in Salmonella Typhimurium, and the acetylation is beneficial to its stability. However, the underlying mechanism of HilD stability regulated by acetylation is not clear. We show here that lysine 297 (K297) located in the helix-turn-helix motif, can be acetylated by Pat. Acetylation of K297 increases HilD stability, but reduces its DNA-binding affinity. In turn, the deacetylated K297 enhances the DNA-binding ability, but decreases HilD stability...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329181/treatment-response-in-enteric-fever-in-an-era-of-increasing-antimicrobial-resistance-an-individual-patient-data-analysis-of-2-092-participants-enrolled-into-four-randomised-controlled-trials-in-nepal
#13
Corinne N Thompsom, Abhilasha Karkey, Sabina Dongol, Amit Ariyal, Marcel Wolbers, Thomas Darton, Jeremey J Farrar, Guy E Thwaites, Christiane Dolecek, Buddha Basnyat, Stephen Baker
Background: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is the leading cause of bacterial febrile disease in South Asia. Methods: Individual patient data from 2,092 subjects with enteric fever randomised into four trials in Kathmandu, Nepal was pooled. All trials compared gatifloxacin with a comparator drug: cefixime, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, or ceftriaxone. Treatment outcomes were evaluated according to antimicrobial if S. Typhi/Paratyphi were isolated from blood...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327520/cytotoxicity-bactericidal-and-antioxidant-activity-of-sodium-alginate-hydrosols-treated-with-direct-electric-current
#14
Żaneta Król, Krzysztof Marycz, Dominika Kulig, Monika Marędziak, Andrzej Jarmoluk
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of using direct electric current (DC) of 0, 200, and 400 mA for five minutes on the physiochemical properties, cytotoxicity, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of sodium alginate hydrosols with different sodium chloride concentrations. The pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), electrical conductivity (EC), and available chlorine concentration (ACC) were measured. The effect of sodium alginate hydrosols treated with DC on Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas fluorescence, and RAW 264...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327424/cellulase-assisted-extraction-of-polysaccharides-from-malva-sylvestris-process-optimization-and-potential-functionalities
#15
Hosein Rostami, Seyed Mohammad Taghi Gharibzahedi
Enzyme-assisted extraction process of the water-soluble Malva sylvestris polysaccharides (MSPs) was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The highest yield (10.40%) of MSPs was achieved at 5.64% cellulase, 55.65°C temperature, 3.4h time, and 5.22 pH. Three homogeneous polysaccharide fractions (MSP-1, MSP-2, MSP-3) were purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography, which were composed of galactose, glucuronic acid, arabinose, rhamnose and mannose in different molar ratios with molecular weight range of 2...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327127/effects-of-vitellaria-paradoxa-c-f-gaertn-aqueous-leaf-extract-administration-on-salmonella-typhimurium-infected-rats
#16
Siméon Pierre Chegaing Fodouop, Sedric Donald Tala, Lunga Paul Keilah, Norbert Kodjio, Mefokou Didiane Yemele, Armel Herve Kamdje Nwabo, Bridget Nji-Kah, Joseph Tchoumboue, Donatien Gatsing
BACKGROUND: The present study investigates the effects of Vitellaria paradoxa crude extract administration on Salmonella typhimurium infected Wistar rats. METHODS: Rats were infected by single dose oral administration of Salmonella typhimurium (1.5×10(8) CFU). Negative control groups were infected and treated orally with distilled water (vehicle), neutral control group were not infected, while the four test groups were treated up to 18 days with 55 mg/kg, 110 mg/kg, 220 mg/kg and 440 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of V...
March 21, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326485/preliminary-assessment-on-potentials-of-probiotic-b-subtilis-rx7-and-b-methylotrophicus-c14-strains-as-an-immune-modulator-in-salmonella-challenged-weaned-pigs
#17
Santi Devi Upadhaya, Suresh Kumar Shanmugam, Dae Kyung Kang, In Ho Kim
A total of 40 crossbred weaned piglets (28 days old; [Landrace × Yorkshire] × Duroc) were used for preliminary assessment on potentials of Bacillus-based probiotics as an immune modulator in a Salmonella Typhimurium challenge model in a 3-week experiment. Pigs were randomly allotted to four experimental diets according to their initial body weight (9.21 ± 1.1 kg) and sex (10 pigs per treatment; 5 barrows and 5 gilts). The dietary treatments were basal diet (CON), basal diet + oral administration of Salmonella enterica ser...
March 21, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326072/protein-l-isoaspartyl-methyltransferase-pimt-is-required-for-survival-of-salmonella-typhimurium-at-42%C3%A2-c-and-contributes-to-the-virulence-in-poultry
#18
Pavan K Pesingi, Manoj Kumawat, Pranatee Behera, Sunil K Dixit, Rajesh K Agarwal, Tapas K Goswami, Manish Mahawar
Poultry birds are asymptomatic reservoir of Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) but act as source of human infection for this bacterium. Inside the poultry, S. Typhimurium experiences several stresses, 42°C body temperature of birds is one of them. Proteins are highly susceptible to temperature mediated damage. Conversion of protein bound aspartate (Asp) residues to iso-aspartate (iso-Asp) is one of such modifications that occur at elevated temperature. Iso-Asp formation has been linked to protein inactivation and compromised cellular survival...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325635/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-inhibits-bacterial-virulence-and-invasion-of-host-cells
#19
Lun K Tsou, Jacob S Yount, Howard C Hang
Increasing antibiotic resistance and beneficial effects of host microbiota has motivated the search for anti-infective agents that attenuate bacterial virulence rather than growth. For example, we discovered that specific flavonoids such as baicalein and quercetin from traditional medicinal plant extracts could attenuate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium type III protein secretion and invasion of host cells. Here, we show epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea extracts also inhibits the activity of S...
March 10, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325086/application-of-bacterial-reverse-mutation-assay-for-detection-of-non-genotoxic-carcinogens
#20
Rewan Kanode, Saurabh Chandra, Sharad Sharma
Non-genotoxic carcinogens may play a significant role in development of cancer. Currently short-term assays for mutagenicity classify genotoxic carcinogens and lack the abilities to detect epigenetic carcinogens. The need to develop an endpoint always remains to recognize potentially carcinogenic agents employing rapid and practical bioassays. For this, the present study utilized TA98 and TA1537 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium to evaluate four non-genotoxic carcinogenic agents (Coumarin, β-Myrcene, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and trans-anethole)...
March 22, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
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