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Conjoined twins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940234/canine-conjoined-twinning-a-pathoanatomical-study-of-a-lhasa-apso-symmetrical-cephalothoracopagus
#1
E Moura, B Thon, C T Pimpão
A female pair of conjoined twins of the Lhasa Apso canine breed was subjected to tomographic and anatomical examinations. The twins had only one head and neck. The two ribcages were joined, extending to the umbilicus, with duplicated structures thereafter. They had three thoracic limbs and two pelvic girdles with four limbs, as well as a number of abnormalities in their internal organs. The data obtained were compared with the rare canine cases reported so far and with human cases.
September 20, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938130/learning-in-the-machine-the-symmetries-of-the-deep-learning-channel
#2
Pierre Baldi, Peter Sadowski, Zhiqin Lu
In a physical neural system, learning rules must be local both in space and time. In order for learning to occur, non-local information must be communicated to the deep synapses through a communication channel, the deep learning channel. We identify several possible architectures for this learning channel (Bidirectional, Conjoined, Twin, Distinct) and six symmetry challenges: (1) symmetry of architectures; (2) symmetry of weights; (3) symmetry of neurons; (4) symmetry of derivatives; (5) symmetry of processing; and (6) symmetry of learning rules...
September 5, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899225/international-teleconsultation-on-conjoined-twins-leading-to-a-successful-separation-a-case-report
#3
Mario V Fusaro, Christian Becker, Samir Pandya, Whitney Mcbride, Kaveh Alizadeh, Vicki Iannotti, Paul Zelkovic, Samuel Barst, Michael E Tobias, Avinash Mohan, Jeffrey Freda, Michael Gewitz, Corey Scurlock
Conjoined twins are identical twins that have incompletely separated in utero. The prognosis for conjoined twins is poor and management in a skilled tertiary care centre is paramount for definitive care. We describe our experience with a telemedical consultation on conjoined twins in The Dominican Republic from our eHealth centre in Valhalla, NY. The patients were two month old, female, pygopagus conjoined twins. A multidisciplinary teleconference was initiated with the patients, their family, the referring paediatrician and our team...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887492/freeform-fabrication-of-tissue-simulating-phantom-for-potential-use-of-surgical-planning-in-conjoined-twins-separation-surgery
#4
Shuwei Shen, Haili Wang, Yue Xue, Li Yuan, Ximing Zhou, Zuhua Zhao, Erbao Dong, Bin Liu, Wendong Liu, Barrett Cromeens, Brent Adler, Gail Besner, Ronald X Xu
Preoperative assessment of tissue anatomy and accurate surgical planning is crucial in conjoined twin separation surgery. We developed a new method that combines three-dimensional (3D) printing, assembling, and casting to produce anatomic models of high fidelity for surgical planning. The related anatomic features of the conjoined twins were captured by computed tomography (CT), classified as five organ groups, and reconstructed as five computer models. Among these organ groups, the skeleton was produced by fused deposition modeling (FDM) using acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841923/peripherally-inserted-central-catheter%C3%A2-insertion-in-conjoined-thoraco-omphalopagus-twins
#5
Essam Aldulaigan, Mohammad Arabi, Abdulaziz Alharbi, Mohammad Alotaibi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796686/a-transperineal-approach-to-hysterectomy-of-a-retained-didelphic-uterine-horn
#6
Mary M Mullen, Lindsay M Kuroki, Steven R Hunt, Kristy L Ratkowski, David G Mutch
BACKGROUND: Gynecologic surgeries are performed through abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic, or robot-assisted laparoscopic routes. However, if the pelvis is not accessible by one of these routes, there are no published reports to guide pelvic surgeons. CASE: A 34-year-old conjoined twin status postseparation with uterine didelphys and absence of her left colon and sacrum underwent hemihysterectomy, at which time her müllerian anomaly was unknown. She re-presented with vaginal bleeding and pain eventually attributed to a retained uterine horn...
September 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724477/oliver-sacks-our-correspondence-about-twins-twin-research-vanishing-twins-syndrome-discordant-sex-in-mz-twins-pregnancy-outcomes-in-ivf-and-icsi-conceived-twins-print-and-media-superfetated-twins-twins-discordant-for-smoking-twins-in-fashion-yale-university
#7
Nancy L Segal
The late neurologist and author, Oliver Sacks, published an insightful 1986 review of Marjorie Wallace's book, The Silent Twins, in the New York Times. Taking exception to his assertion about Sir Francis Galton, I wrote a letter to the Times' editor. The letter was unpublished, but it brought a wonderful response from Sacks himself that is reproduced and examined. Next, brief reviews of twin research concerning the vanishing twin syndrome (VTS), discordant sex in a monozygotic (MZ) twin pair, and multiple pregnancy outcomes from assisted reproductive technology (ART) are presented...
August 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708016/emergency-separation-of-craniopagus-twins-case-report
#8
Farideh Nejat, Zohreh Habibi, Mehrdad Goudarzi, Mahdi Souraki Azad, Ehsan Moradi, Vahid Heidari, Maliheh Kadivar, Zahra Ebrahim Soltani, Leila Kouchakzadeh
Craniopagus is a very rare congenital anomaly that tends to affect females more often than males. It is classified as partial or total. Most affected twins are either stillborn or die during the perinatal period. Those who survive birth should undergo detailed radiological evaluations soon after their condition becomes stable so that the precise anatomy of the conjoined part can be defined and surgery can be planned in detail by a multidisciplinary team. Recommendations for decreasing the risk of unsuccessful surgery include performing surgery on an elective basis after extensive preoperative radiological evaluations as well as when the twins are at an acceptable age and weight for a complex surgical separation, generally as staged procedures...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688793/separation-of-pygopagus-omphalopagus-and-ischiopagus-with-the-aid-of-three-dimensional-models
#9
Xiangqi Liu, Kuiran Dong, Shan Zheng, Xianmin Xiao, Chun Shen, Chenbin Dong, Haitao Zhu, Hao Li, Yunli Bi, Ruixue Ma
BACKGROUND: The three-dimensional (3D) technique provides with accurate anatomical information. We present the separation surgeries for three different kinds of conjoined twins with the aid of three-dimensional techniques. METHOD: For the pygopagus twins, a pelvic and lower vertebral model was made. For the omphalopagus and ischiopagus, their enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan images were transferred to the Computer-Assisted Surgery Planning System (CASP) (Hisense, Qingdao, China) to generate the 3D models...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621033/dicephalic-parapagus-conjoined-twins-in-a-large-fruit-eating-bat-genus-artibeus-chiroptera-phyllostomidae
#10
M R Nogueira, A Ventura, C C P da Veiga, L R Monteiro, N L Pinheiro, A L Peracchi
Conjoined twinning is an embryological anomaly rarely reported in wild mammals and with only two previous records in Chiroptera. Here, we report a case of dicephalic parapagus conjoined twins in the Neotropical phyllostomid genus Artibeus. These twins are males and present separated heads and necks, but a conjoined trunk with an expanded upper thoracic region. They developed two complete forelimbs and two complete hindlimbs, all laterally to the trunk. There is a volume in the upper midback and between the heads that resembles a third rudimentary medial forelimb, but X-ray images only suggest the presence of medial skeletal elements of the pectoral girdle (clavicle and scapulae) in this region...
June 16, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611167/fetal-mri-of-thoraco-omphalopagus-conjoined-twins
#11
Hazrini Abdullah, Nyazirah Abdul Wahab, Khatijah Abu Bakar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567407/roshan-s-telemedicine-expanding-the-frontier-of-quality-healthcare-through-mobile-technology
#12
Shainoor Khoja
The article highlights the power of mobile technology in expanding access to quality healthcare by telling the story of the first successful operation by Afghan doctors to separate conjoined twins at The French Medical Institute for Mothers and Children (FMIC) in Kabul, Afghanistan's capital. Roshan, Afghanistan's leading telecommunications provider, set up the telemedicine link in 2007, connecting three hospitals in Kandahar, Bamiyan and Badakhshan Provinces to FMIC in Kabul, and all three to one of the best and most modern hospitals in the region: The Aga Khan University Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan...
2017: MHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559234/etiology-and-clinical-presentation-of-birth-defects-population-based-study
#13
Marcia L Feldkamp, John C Carey, Janice L B Byrne, Sergey Krikov, Lorenzo D Botto
Objective To assess causation and clinical presentation of major birth defects.Design Population based case cohort.Setting Cases of birth defects in children born 2005-09 to resident women, ascertained through Utah's population based surveillance system. All records underwent clinical re-review.Participants 5504 cases among 270 878 births (prevalence 2.03%), excluding mild isolated conditions (such as muscular ventricular septal defects, distal hypospadias).Main outcome measures The primary outcomes were the proportion of birth defects with a known etiology (chromosomal, genetic, human teratogen, twinning) or unknown etiology, by morphology (isolated, multiple, minors only), and by pathogenesis (sequence, developmental field defect, or known pattern of birth defects)...
May 30, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298949/first-trimester-diagnosis-of-conjoined-twins-in-a-multifetal-pregnancy-after-assisted-reproduction-technique-using-hdlive-rendering
#14
Pedro Teixeira Castro, Heron Werner, Edward Araujo Júnior
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251228/conjoined-twins-in-a-triplet-pregnancy-a-rare-obstetrical-dilemma
#15
Huseyin C Ozcan, Mete G Ugur, Aynur Mustafa, Irfan Kutlar
Conjoined twins are derived from division of a single fertilized ovum after the twelfth day of fertilization. Triplet conjoined twin is considered as a unique phenomenon that is accompanied with a wide variety of congenital abnormalities and also hazardous consequences for both fetuses and parents. We present an extremely rare case of conjoined twins in a triplet pregnancy with symmetric thoracoomphalopagus that was diagnosed in prenatal period by using ultrasound scanning and MRI. In triplet pregnancies, we should be aware about the possibility of conjoined twins...
March 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231064/three-dimensional-ultrasound-for-prenatal-assessment-of-conjoined-twins-additional-advantages
#16
Tuangsit Wataganara, Pornpimol Ruangvutilert, Prasert Sunsaneevithayakul, Kusol Russameecharoen, Katika Nawapun, Nisarat Phithakwatchara
Conjoined twins are a rare, but serious, complication of monozygotic twins. Early prenatal diagnosis of conjoined twins is increasingly made with transvaginal ultrasound and color Doppler studies. Most prenatally diagnosed conjoined twins are terminated due to the high perinatal mortality, but advancement in pediatric surgery has allowed for successful postnatal separation in a small number of cases, and some parents may consider this option over termination of pregnancy. It is important to get a detailed prenatal ultrasound for the site and extent of fusion for an accurate categorization...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202184/high-prevalence-of-same-sex-twins-in-patients-with-cloacal-exstrophy-support-for-embryological-association-with-monozygotic-twinning
#17
Brenna S Fullerton, Eric A Sparks, Amber M Hall, Cristine S Velazco, Biren P Modi, Dennis P Lund, Tom Jaksic, W Hardy Hendren
PURPOSE: Previous studies have hypothesized that cloacal exstrophy may be caused by errors early in embryological development related to monozygotic twinning. This study reports the prevalence of twins in a large cohort of patients with cloacal exstrophy. METHODS: Patients with cloacal exstrophy treated 1974-2015 were reviewed for reports of multiple gestation or conjoined twinning. The genetic sex of the patient and their twin, and any mention of anomaly in the twin were recorded...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195364/conjoined-twins-from-conception-to-separation-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Asma Mian, Nader Ishak Gabra, Tanuj Sharma, Nitsa Topale, Jerzy Gielecki, R Shane Tubbs, Marios Loukas
Conjoined twins are suggested to result from aberrant embryogenesis. The two main theories proposed to explain the phenomena are fission and fusion. The incidence rate is 1 in 50,000 births; however, since about 60% of the cases are stillborn, the true incidence is approximated at 1 in 200,000. There is a higher predisposition towards female than male gender with a ratio of 3:1. Conjoined twins are classified based upon the site of attachment. The extent of organ sharing, especially the heart, determines the possibility and prognosis of a separation procedure...
April 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190730/leftward-flow-determines-laterality-in-conjoined-twins
#19
Matthias Tisler, Thomas Thumberger, Isabelle Schneider, Axel Schweickert, Martin Blum
Conjoined twins fused at the thorax display an enigmatic left-right defect: although left twins are normal, laterality is disturbed in one-half of right twins [1-3]. Molecularly, this randomization corresponds to a lack of asymmetric Nodal cascade induction in right twins [4]. We studied leftward flow [5, 6] at the left-right organizer (LRO) [7, 8] in thoracopagus twins in Xenopus, which displayed a duplicated, fused, and ciliated LRO. Cilia were motile and produced a leftward flow from the right LRO margin of the right to the left margin of the left twin...
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186636/triplet-pregnancy-from-the-transfer-of-two-blastocysts-demonstrating-a-twin-reversed-arterial-perfusion-sequence-with-a-conjoined-twins-pump-fetus
#20
Hongxia Yuan, Qichang Zhou, Jing Li, Shi Zeng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
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