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Glycine health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071805/antioxidant-and-chelating-capacity-of-maillard-reaction-products-in-amino-acid-sugar-model-systems-applications-for-food-processing
#1
Blanca A Mondaca-Navarro, Luz A Ávila-Villa, Aaron F Gonzalez-Córdova, Jaime Lopez-Cervantes, Dalia I Sanchez-Machado, Olga C Campas-Baypoli, Roberto Rodríguez-Ramírez
BACKGROUND: Maillard reaction products (MRP) have gained increasing interest due to their both positive and negative effects on human health. Aqueous amino acid-sugar model systems were studied in order to evaluate the antioxidant and chelating activity of MRP under conditions similar to those of food processing. Amino acids (cysteine, glycine, isoleucine and lysine) combined with different sugars (fructose or glucose) were heated to 100 and 130 °C for 30, 60 and 90 min. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated via ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging assays, in addition to the Fe(+2) and Cu(+2) ion chelating capacity...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056769/a-genome-wide-association-study-of-seed-composition-traits-in-wild-soybean-glycine-soja
#2
Larry J Leamy, Hengyou Zhang, Changbao Li, Charles Y Chen, Bao-Hua Song
BACKGROUND: Cultivated soybean (Glycine max) is a major agricultural crop that provides a crucial source of edible protein and oil. Decreased amounts of saturated palmitic acid and increased amounts of unsaturated oleic acid in soybean oil are considered optimal for human cardiovascular health and therefore there has considerable interest by breeders in discovering genes affecting the relative concentrations of these fatty acids. Using a genome-wide association (GWA) approach with nearly 30,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we investigated the genetic basis of protein, oil and all five fatty acid levels in seeds from a sample of 570 wild soybeans (Glycine soja), the progenitor of domesticated soybean, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting these seed composition traits...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025595/transcript-polymorphism-rates-in-soybean-seed-tissue-are-increased-in-a-single-transformant-of-glycine-max
#3
Kevin C Lambirth, Adam M Whaley, Jessica A Schlueter, Kenneth J Piller, Kenneth L Bost
Transgenic crops have been utilized for decades to enhance agriculture and more recently have been applied as bioreactors for manufacturing pharmaceuticals. Recently, we investigated the gene expression profiles of several in-house transgenic soybean events, finding one transformant group to be consistently different from our controls. In the present study, we examined polymorphisms and sequence variations in the exomes of the same transgenic soybean events. We found that the previously dissimilar soybean line also exhibited markedly increased levels of polymorphisms within mRNA transcripts from seed tissue, many of which are classified as gene expression modifiers...
2016: International Journal of Plant Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988416/energy-metabolism-and-metabolomics-response-of-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-to-sulfide-toxicity
#4
Tongyu Li, Erchao Li, Yantong Suo, Zhixin Xu, Yongyi Jia, Jian G Qin, Liqiao Chen, Zhimin Gu
The toxicity and poisoning mechanisms of sulfide were studied in Litopenaeus vannamei from the perspective of energy metabolism and metabolomics. The lethal concentrations of sulfide in L. vannamei (LC50) at 24h, 48h, 72h, and 96h were determined. Sulfide at a concentration of 0, 1/10 (425.5μg/L), and 1/5 (851μg/L) of the LC50 at 96h was used to test the metabolic responses of L. vannamei for 21days. The chronic exposure of shrimp to a higher sulfide concentration of 851μg/L decreased shrimp survival but did not affect weight gain or the hepatopancreas index...
December 12, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988129/source-of-supplemental-dietary-copper-zinc-and-manganese-affects-fecal-microbial-relative-abundance-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#5
M J Faulkner, B A Wenner, L M Solden, W P Weiss
Appropriate trace mineral supplementation can improve immune response and hoof health in cattle and at much higher rates of supplementation to swine and poultry can alter microbial colonization of the gut, resulting in improved gut health. Diet can influence fecal microbial excretion in cattle, and the fecal microbiome may serve as a means for assessing gastrointestinal microbial changes. We hypothesized that feeding diets that differed in source of supplemental Cu, Zn, or Mn would alter the relative abundance of fecal microbes in lactating dairy cattle and that organic Zn would have the greatest effect...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981593/determination-of-isoflavone-genistein-and-daidzein-concentration-of-soybean-seed-as-affected-by-environment-and-management-inputs
#6
Randy Laurenz, Pavani Tumbalam, Seth Naeve, Kurt D Thelen
BACKGROUND: Isoflavones, such as genistein and daidzein, are produced in soybean seed (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and may be associated with health benefits in the human diet. More research is required to determine the effect of agronomic soybean treatments on isoflavone concentration. In this study from 2012 to 2014 at Michigan State University and Breckenridge locations, we have have evaluated agronomic input management systems which are marketed to increase or protect potential soybean grain yield, including: nitrogen fertilization; herbicide-defoliant; foliar applied fertilizer; a biological-based foliar application; foliar applied fungicide; foliar applied insecticide; a seed applied fungicide; and a maximized seed treatment that included fungicide and insecticide as well as an inoculant and lipo-chitooligosaccharide nodulation promoter; for their effect on soybean seed genistein and daidzein concentrations...
December 16, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966366/the-metabolic-phenotype-of-obesity-in-a-saudi-population
#7
Muhammad Saeed Ahmad, Munirah Alsaleh, Torben Kimhofer, Sultan Ahmad, Wisam Jamal, Siraj Omar Wali, Jeremy Kirk Nicholson, Zoheir Abdullah Damanhouri, Elaine Holmes
Metabolic phenotyping of obese populations can shed light on understanding environmental interactions underpinning obesogenesis. Obesity and its comorbidities are a major health and socioeconomic concern globally and are highly prevalent in the Middle East. We employed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to characterise the metabolic signature of urine and blood plasma for a cohort of (n=50) obese compared to non-obese Saudi participants (n=48). The urinary metabolic phenotype of obesity was characterised by higher concentrations of N-acetyl glycoprotein fragment, bile acids, lysine and methylamines and lower concentrations of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, glycine and gut microbial metabolites...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907139/contribution-towards-a-metabolite-profile-of-the-detoxification-of-benzoic-acid-through-glycine-conjugation-an-intervention-study
#8
Cindy Irwin, Mari van Reenen, Shayne Mason, Lodewyk J Mienie, Johan A Westerhuis, Carolus J Reinecke
Benzoic acid is widely used as a preservative in food products and is detoxified in humans through glycine conjugation. Different viewpoints prevail on the physiological significance of the glycine conjugation reaction and concerns have been raised on potential public health consequences following uncontrolled benzoic acid ingestion. We performed a metabolomics study which used commercial benzoic acid containing flavored water as vehicle for designed interventions, and report here on the controlled consumption of the benzoic acid by 21 cases across 6 time points for a total of 126 time points...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891122/membrane-active-epithelial-keratin-6a-fragments-kamps-are-unique-human-antimicrobial-peptides-with-a-non-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-structure
#9
Judy T Y Lee, Guangshun Wang, Yu Tong Tam, Connie Tam
Antibiotic resistance is a pressing global health problem that threatens millions of lives each year. Natural antimicrobial peptides and their synthetic derivatives, including peptoids and peptidomimetics, are promising candidates as novel antibiotics. Recently, the C-terminal glycine-rich fragments of human epithelial keratin 6A were found to have bactericidal and cytoprotective activities. Here, we used an improved 2-dimensional NMR method coupled with a new protocol for structural refinement by low temperature simulated annealing to characterize the solution structure of these kerain-derived antimicrobial peptides (KAMPs)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881392/higher-serum-phenylalanine-concentration-is-associated-with-more-rapid-telomere-shortening-in-men
#10
Johan G Eriksson, Maria-Angela Guzzardi, Patricia Iozzo, Eero Kajantie, Hannu Kautiainen, Minna K Salonen
BACKGROUND: Telomere length and telomere shortening are associated with age-related health outcomes. Only a few studies have been able to longitudinally report on factors that are associated with changes in telomere length in an aging population. OBJECTIVE: We studied the longitudinal relation between telomere length, the change in telomere length, and circulating amino acids. DESIGN: A total of 812 subjects from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born from 1934 to 1944), who underwent 3 clinical visits during a 10-y interval that included measurements of cardiometabolic risk factors, were included in the study...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854256/natural-deep-eutectic-solvents-nades-as-a-tool-for-bioavailability-improvement-pharmacokinetics-of-rutin-dissolved-in-proline-glycine-after-oral-administration-in-rats-possible-application-in-nutraceuticals
#11
Marta Faggian, Stefania Sut, Beatrice Perissutti, Valeria Baldan, Iztok Grabnar, Stefano Dall'Acqua
There is a need for innovation in plant-derived pharmaceuticals, food supplements and nutraceutical products regarding the use of more eco-sustainable solvents for their extraction. Furthermore, the poor oral bioavailability of several phytochemicals with health promoting effects stimulates the research in the field of pharmaceutical formulations. Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES) are formed by natural compounds, and can be considered as future solvents being especially useful for the preparation of nutraceuticals and food-grade extracts...
November 14, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851765/development-of-a-freeze-dried-heat-stable-influenza-subunit-vaccine-formulation
#12
Alexander Flood, Marcus Estrada, David McAdams, Yuhua Ji, Dexiang Chen
An influenza pandemic remains a major public health concern. A key strategy to prevent a pandemic is to stockpile and pre-position stable influenza vaccine to allow rapid deployment in response to an outbreak. However, most influenza vaccines today are formulated as liquids that are stable only within a temperature range of 2°C to 8°C and require use of a cold chain, making vaccine transportation, distribution, and storage complicated and expensive, particularly for developing countries. To support the National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza preparedness in the United States and internationally, we developed two lead dry formulations of stable H1N1 influenza subunit vaccines using freeze-drying technology...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822554/farnesoid-x-receptor-signaling-shapes-the-gut-microbiota-and-controls-hepatic-lipid-metabolism
#13
Limin Zhang, Cen Xie, Robert G Nichols, Siu H J Chan, Changtao Jiang, Ruixin Hao, Philip B Smith, Jingwei Cai, Margaret N Simons, Emmanuel Hatzakis, Costas D Maranas, Frank J Gonzalez, Andrew D Patterson
The gut microbiota modulates obesity and associated metabolic phenotypes in part through intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling. Glycine-β-muricholic acid (Gly-MCA), an intestinal FXR antagonist, has been reported to prevent or reverse high-fat diet (HFD)-induced and genetic obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver; however, the mechanism by which these phenotypes are improved is not fully understood. The current study investigated the influence of FXR activity on the gut microbiota community structure and function and its impact on hepatic lipid metabolism...
September 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798832/soy-and-gut-microbiota-interaction-and-implication-for-human-health
#14
Haiqiu Huang, Hari B Krishnan, Quynhchi Pham, Liangli Lucy Yu, Thomas T Y Wang
Soy (Glycine max) is a major commodity in the United States, and soy foods are gaining popularity due to their reported health-promoting effects. In the past two decades, soy and soy bioactive components have been studied for their health-promoting/disease-preventing activities and potential mechanisms of action. Recent studies have identified gut microbiota as an important component in the human body ecosystem and possibly a critical modulator of human health. Soy foods' interaction with the gut microbiota may critically influence many aspects of human development, physiology, immunity, and nutrition at different stages of life...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781556/mood-therapeutics-novel-pharmacological-approaches-for-treating-depression
#15
Ioline D Henter, Rafael T de Sousa, Philip W Gold, Andre R Brunoni, Carlos A Zarate, Rodrigo Machado-Vieira
Real-world effectiveness trials suggest that antidepressant efficacy is limited in many patients with mood disorders, underscoring the urgent need for novel therapeutics to treat these disorders. Areas Covered: Here, we review the clinical evidence supporting the use of novel modulators for the treatment of mood disorders, including specific glutamate modulators such as: 1) high-trapping glutamatergic modulators; 2) subunit (NR2B)-specific N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists; 3) NMDA receptor glycine-site partial agonists; and 4) metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) modulators...
October 26, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757515/high-throughput-and-simultaneous-quantitative-analysis-of-homocysteine-methionine-cycle-metabolites-and-co-factors-in-blood-plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-by-isotope-dilution-lc-ms-ms
#16
Seu Ping Guiraud, Ivan Montoliu, Laeticia Da Silva, Loïc Dayon, Antonio Núñez Galindo, John Corthésy, Martin Kussmann, Francois-Pierre Martin
The methionine cycle is a key pathway contributing to the regulation of human health, with well-established involvement in cardiovascular diseases and cognitive function. Changes in one-carbon cycle metabolites have also been associated with mild cognitive decline, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. Today, there is no single analytical method to monitor both metabolites and co-factors of the methionine cycle. To address this limitation, we here report for the first time a new method for the simultaneous quantitation of 17 metabolites in the methionine cycle, which are homocysteic acid, taurine, serine, cysteine, glycine, homocysteine, riboflavin, methionine, pyridoxine, cystathionine, pyridoxamine, S-adenosylhomocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine, betaine, choline, dimethylglycine, and 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid...
January 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739310/-glycine-n-methyltransferase-and-malignant-diseases-of-the-prostate
#17
Z Heger, T Eckschlager, M Stiborová, V Adam
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) constitutes a heterogeneous group of diseases with high prevalence rates that are still increasing, particularly in western countries. Since 1980, prostate specific antigen (PSA) and other diagnostic approaches have been used for PC screening; however, some of these approaches are often deemed painful and cause invasive damage of tissue. Therefore, molecular approaches to PC diagnosis are attracting increasing attention, potentially providing patients with less stressful situations and providing better diagnoses and even prognostic information...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733529/dietary-intake-of-protein-in-early-childhood-is-associated-with-growth-trajectories-between-1-and-9-years-of-age
#18
Kim Ve Braun, Nicole S Erler, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Vincent Wv Jaddoe, Edith H van den Hooven, Oscar H Franco, Trudy Voortman
BACKGROUND: High protein intake in infancy might lead to a higher body mass index (BMI) in childhood. However, whether these associations differ between different sources of protein is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between the intake of total protein, protein from different sources, and individual amino acids in early childhood and repeatedly measured height, weight, and BMI up to the age of 9 y. METHODS: This study was performed in 3564 children participating in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study in Rotterdam, Netherlands...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677719/botanicals-and-their-bioactive-phytochemicals-for-women-s-health
#19
REVIEW
Birgit M Dietz, Atieh Hajirahimkhan, Tareisha L Dunlap, Judy L Bolton
Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women's health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger)...
October 2016: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660165/identification-of-homogentisate-dioxygenase-as-a-target-for-vitamin-e-biofortification-in-oilseeds
#20
Minviluz Garcia Stacey, Rebecca E Cahoon, Hanh T Nguyen, Cuong T Nguyen, Yaya Cui, Shirley Sato, Nongnat Phoka, Kerry M Clark, Yan Liang, Josef M Batek, Joe Forrester, Phat Tien Do, David A Sleper, Tom E Clemente, Edgar B Cahoon, Gary Stacey
Soybean (Glycine max L.) is a major plant source of protein and oil and produces important secondary metabolites beneficial for human health. As a tool for gene function discovery and improvement of this important crop, a mutant population was generated using fast neutron irradiation. Visual screening of mutagenized seeds identified a mutant line, designated MO12, which produced brown seeds as opposed to the yellow seeds produced by the unmodified Williams 82 parental cultivar. Using forward genetic methods combined with comparative genome hybridization (CGH) analysis, we were able to establish that deletion of the GmHGO1 gene is the genetic basis of the brown seeded phenotype exhibited by the MO12 mutant line...
September 22, 2016: Plant Physiology
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