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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766269/analysis-of-neurotoxic-amino-acids-from-marine-waters-microbial-mats-and-seafood-destined-for-human-consumption-in-the-arabian-gulf
#1
Aspassia D Chatziefthimiou, Eric J Deitch, William B Glover, James T Powell, Sandra Anne Banack, Renee A Richer, Paul A Cox, James S Metcalf
Human health risks associated with exposure to algal and cyanobacterial toxins (phycotoxins) have been largely concerned with aquatic habitats. People inhabiting desert environments may be exposed to phycotoxins present in terrestrial environments, where cyanobacterial crusts dominate. Seafood comprises a significant portion of the human diet in desert environments proximal to an ocean or sea. Consequently, in addition to terrestrial exposure to cyanotoxins, the potential exists that seafood may be an important exposure route for cyanotoxins in desert regions...
August 1, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737704/toxicity-at-the-edge-of-life-a-review-on-cyanobacterial-toxins-from-extreme-environments
#2
REVIEW
Samuel Cirés, María Cristina Casero, Antonio Quesada
Cyanotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by cyanobacteria, of varied chemical nature and toxic effects. Although cyanobacteria thrive in all kinds of ecosystems on Earth even under very harsh conditions, current knowledge on cyanotoxin distribution is almost restricted to freshwaters from temperate latitudes. In this review, we bring to the forefront the presence of cyanotoxins in extreme environments. Cyanotoxins have been reported especially in polar deserts (both from the Arctic and Antarctica) and alkaline lakes, but also in hot deserts, hypersaline environments, and hot springs...
July 24, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691491/peptidoglycan-cross-linking-preferences-of-staphylococcus-aureus-penicillin-binding-proteins-have-implications-for-treating-mrsa-infections
#3
Veerasak Srisuknimit, Yuan Qiao, Kaitlin Schaefer, Daniel Kahne, Suzanne Walker
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a global public health problem. MRSA strains have acquired a non-native penicillin-binding protein called PBP2a that cross-links peptidoglycan when the native S. aureus PBPs are inhibited by β-lactams. It has been proposed that the native S. aureus PBPs can use cell wall precursors having different glycine branch lengths (penta-, tri-, or monoglycine), while PBP2a can only cross-link peptidoglycan strands bearing a complete pentaglycine branch...
July 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666225/hplc-ms-ms-targeted-metabolic-profiling-reveals-distinct-metabolic-profiles-from-staphylococcus-aureus-small-colony-variants
#4
Chen Wang, Jiangjiang Zhu
Staphylococcus aureus is a world-wide health threat due to its prevalence and possible resistance to antibiotic treatment. A variety reasons can contribute to S. aureus antibiotic resistance and one group of phenotypes that may be discovered from S. aureus is named small-colony variants (SCVs). This study focused on applying a HPLC-MS/MS based targeted metabolic profiling approach to detect a set of metabolites that are dysregulated during S. aureus SCVs formation. Over one hundred and eighty metabolites were confidently detected and their difference between S...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653198/a-combined-nmr-and-hplc-ms-ms-based-metabolomics-to-evaluate-the-metabolic-perturbations-and-subacute-toxic-effects-of-endosulfan-on-mice
#5
Ping Zhang, Wentao Zhu, Dezhen Wang, Jin Yan, Yao Wang, Zhiqiang Zhou, Lin He
Endosulfan is the newly persistent organic pollutants (POPs) added to the Stockholm Convention as its widespread use, persistence, bioaccumulation, long-range transport, endocrine disruption, and toxicity related to various adverse effects. In the present study, male mice were administrated endosulfan at 0, 0.5, and 3.5 mg/kg by gavage for 2 weeks. (1)H-NMR-based urinary metabolomics, HPLC-MS/MS-based targeted serum metabolomics, clinical analysis, and histopathology techniques were employed to evaluate the metabolic perturbations of subacute endosulfan exposure...
June 26, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633497/genome-wide-identification-and-functional-characterization-of-udp-glucosyltransferase-genes-involved-in-flavonoid-biosynthesis-in-glycine-max
#6
Qinggang Yin, Guoan Shen, Shaokang Di, Cunying Fan, Zhenzhan Chang, Yongzhen Pang
Flavonoids, natural products abundant in the model legume Glycine max, confer benefits to plants and animals health. Flavonoids are present in soybean mainly as glycoconjugates. However, the biosynthesis mechanisms of flavonoid glycosides are largely unknown in G. max. In the present study, 212 putative UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGTs) genes were identified in G. max by genome-wide searching. The GmUGT genes were distributed differentially among the twenty chromosomes, and they were expressed in various tissues with distinct expression profile...
June 19, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612342/effect-of-glycine-nitrogen-on-lettuce-growth-under-soilless-culture-a-metabolomics-approach-to-identify-the-main-changes-occurred-in-plant-primary-and-secondary-metabolism
#7
Xiao Yang, Lei Feng, Li Zhao, Xiaosong Liu, Danial Hassani, Danfeng Huang
BACKGROUND: Lettuce is a significant source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds. Nitrate is a cardinal fertilizer in horticulture and influences vegetable yield and quality; however, the negative effects of nitrate on the biosynthesis of flavonoids require further study. It is expected that using fertilizers containing organic N could promote the synthesis of health-promoting compounds. RESULTS: Lettuces were hydroponically cultured in media containing 9 mM nitrate or 9 mM glycine for 4 weeks...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611517/urinary-metabolic-insights-into-host-gut-microbial-interactions-in-healthy-and-ibd-children
#8
Francois-Pierre Martin, Ming-Ming Su, Guo-Xiang Xie, Seu Ping Guiraud, Martin Kussmann, Jean-Philippe Godin, Wei Jia, Andreas Nydegger
AIM: To identify metabolic signatures in urine samples from healthy and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) children. METHODS: We applied liquid chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to targeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolite profiling to identify and quantify bile acids and host-gut microbial metabolites in urine samples collected from 21 pediatric IBD patients monitored three times over one year (baseline, 6 and 12 mo), and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy children...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588388/identification-of-environmentally-stable-qtls-controlling-saponin-content-in-glycine-max
#9
Masayoshi Teraishi, Yuka Tojo, Naohiro Yamada, Yutaka Okumoto
Saponins are secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in plants. There are two major saponin precursors in soybean: soyasapogenol A, contributing to the undesirable taste, and soyasapogenol B, some of which have health benefits. It is important to control the ratio and content of the two major saponin groups to enhance the appeal of soybean as a health food. The structural diversity of saponin in the sugar chain composition makes it hard to quantify the saponin content. We measured the saponin content in soybean by removing the sugar chain from the saponin using acidic hydrolysis and detected novel quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for saponin content...
March 2017: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568309/effect-of-soybean-husk-supplementation-on-the-fecal-fermentation-metabolites-and-microbiota-of-dogs
#10
Htun Myint, Yu Iwahashi, Satoshi Koike, Yasuo Kobayashi
In vitro fermentation and in vivo feeding experiments were conducted to characterize the effects of soybean (Glycine max) husk on the fecal fermentation metabolites and microbiota of dogs. An in vitro fermentation study using feces from three Toy Poodle dogs (6.5 ± 3.5 months in age and 2.9 ± 0.4 kg in body weight) revealed that the fecal inoculum was able to ferment soybean husk (supplemented at 0.01 g/mL culture) and increased levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and Bifidobacterium, irrespective of pre-digestion of the husk by pepsin and pancreatin...
June 1, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555427/optimization-of-high-yielding-protocol-for-dna-extraction-from-the-forest-rhizosphere-microbes
#11
Sadam D V Satyanarayana, M S R Krishna, Pindi Pavan Kumar
Soil is major reservoir for microbes and harbors a vast microbial diversity. Soil microbiota plays a pivotal role in biogeochemical cycles, bioremediation, and in health and disease states of humans, animals, and plants. It is imperative to understand the microbial signatures which are specific in such an ecosystem to unravel their potential role and impact on environment. During the recent years, exploration of soil microbial communities has been geared up with the advent of advanced sequencing technologies...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524260/presence-of-ethanol-sensitive-glycine-receptors-in-medium-spiny-neurons-in-the-mouse-nucleus-accumbens
#12
B Förstera, B Muñoz, M K Lobo, R Chandra, D M Lovinger, L G Aguayo
KEY POINTS: The nucleus accumbens (nAc) is involved in addiction-related behaviour caused by several drugs of abuse, including alcohol. Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are potentiated by ethanol and they have been implicated in the regulation of accumbal dopamine levels. We investigated the presence of GlyR subunits in nAc and their modulation by ethanol in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the mouse nAc. We found that the GlyR α1 subunit is preferentially expressed in nAc and is potentiated by ethanol...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500980/serum-metabolomics-reveals-the-mechanistic-role-of-functional-foods-and-exercise-for-obesity-management-in-rats
#13
Naglaa M Ammar, Mohamed A Farag, Tahani E Kholeif, Nadia S Metwally, Nora M El-Sheikh, Abdel Nasser El Gendy, Abdel-Hamid Z Abdel-Hamid
Obesity is one of the independent risk factors for several health problems, leading to metabolic perturbations and for which analytical approaches i.e., "metabolomics" is needed to monitor the underlying metabolic changes. In this study, obesity associated changes were assessed via serum metabolites analysis of obese rats fed on high fat diet. Obese rats were subsequently treated with different functional foods used for obesity management including pomegranate, grapefruit, and red cabbage in parallel to swimming exercise...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494636/higher-iron-bioavailability-of-a-human-like-collagen-iron-complex
#14
Chenhui Zhu, Fan Yang, Daidi Fan, Ya Wang, Yuanyuan Yu
Iron deficiency remains a public health problem around the world due to low iron intake and/or bioavailability. FeSO4, ferrous succinate, and ferrous glycinate chelate are rich in iron but have poor bioavailability. To solve the problem of iron deficiency, following previous research studies, a thiolated human-like collagen-ironcomplex supplement with a high iron content was prepared in an anaerobic workstation. In addition, cell viability tests were evaluated after conducting an MTT assay, and a quantitative analysis of the thiolated human-like collagen-iron digesta samples was performed using the SDS-PAGE method coupled with gel filtration chromatography...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489859/an-r2r3-type-myb-transcription-factor-gmmyb29-regulates-isoflavone-biosynthesis-in-soybean
#15
Shanshan Chu, Jiao Wang, Ying Zhu, Shulin Liu, Xiaoqiong Zhou, Huairen Zhang, Chun-E Wang, Wenming Yang, Zhixi Tian, Hao Cheng, Deyue Yu
Isoflavones comprise a group of secondary metabolites produced almost exclusively by plants in the legume family, including soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. They play vital roles in plant defense and have many beneficial effects on human health. Isoflavone content is a complex quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes, and the genetic mechanisms underlying isoflavone biosynthesis remain largely unknown. Via a genome-wide association study (GWAS), we identified 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are significantly associated with isoflavone concentrations in soybean...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471393/a-critical-review-on-polyphenols-and-health-benefits-of-black-soybeans
#16
Kumar Ganesan, Baojun Xu
Polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites containing antioxidant properties, which help to protect chronic diseases from free radical damage. Dietary polyphenols are the subject of enhancing scientific interest due to their possible beneficial effects on human health. In the last two decades, there has been more interest in the potential health benefits of dietary polyphenols as antioxidant. Black soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr) are merely a black variety of soybean containing a variety of phytochemicals. These phytochemicals in black soybean (BSB) are potentially effective in human health, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases...
May 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469845/effect-of-bacillus-subtilis-and-bacillus-licheniformis-supplementation-in-diets-with-low-and-high-protein-content-on-ileal-crude-protein-and-amino-acid-digestibility-and-intestinal-microbiota-composition-of-growing-pigs
#17
Chanwit Kaewtapee, Katharina Burbach, Georgina Tomforde, Thomas Hartinger, Amélia Camarinha-Silva, Sonja Heinritz, Jana Seifert, Markus Wiltafsky, Rainer Mosenthin, Pia Rosenfelder-Kuon
BACKGROUND: Bacillus spp. seem to be an alternative to antimicrobial growth promoters for improving animals' health and performance. However, there is little information on the effect of Bacillus spp. in combination with different dietary crude protein (CP) levels on the ileal digestibility and microbiota composition. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of Bacillus spp. supplementation to low- (LP) and high-protein diets (HP) on ileal CP and amino acid (AA) digestibility and intestinal microbiota composition...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450939/genome-scale-transcriptional-analysis-reveals-key-genes-associated-with-the-development-of-type-ii-diabetes-in-mice
#18
Yuchi Zhang, Dongwei Han, Pengyang Yu, Qijing Huang, Pengling Ge
Diabetes mellitus is one of the primary diseases that pose a threat to human health. The focus of the present study is type II diabetes (T2D), which is caused by obesity and is the most prevalent type of diabetes. However, genome-scale transcriptional analysis of diabetic liver in the development process of T2D is yet to be further elucidated. Microassays were performed on liver tissue samples from three-, six- and nine-week-old db/db mice with diabetes and db/m mice to investigate differentially expressed mRNA...
March 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444884/novel-urinary-alkylresorcinol-metabolites-as-biomarkers-of-whole-grain-intake-in-free-living-swedish-adults
#19
Roksana Wierzbicka, Galia Zamaratskaia, Afaf Kamal-Eldin, Rikard Landberg
SCOPE: Most studies on the role of whole grain for health rely on self-reported intake data, which are prone to measurement errors. There is a need for dietary biomarkers that can provide an objective measure of intake. Alkylresorcinols (AR) and their main metabolites 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid (DHPPA) have been proposed as biomarkers for whole grain (WG) wheat and rye intake. METHODS AND RESULTS: The medium-term reproducibility and relative validity of four putative urinary AR metabolites (3,5-dihydroxycinnamic acid (DHCA), 5-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl) pentanoic acid (DHPPTA), 2-(3,5-dihydroxybenzamido)acetic acid (DHBA-glycine) and 3,5-dihydroxycinnamic acid amide (DHCA-amide)) as biomarkers for WG intake were investigated...
April 26, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400591/pathogenicity-and-transmission-of-a-swine-influenza-a-h6n6-virus
#20
Hailiang Sun, Bryan S Kaplan, Minhui Guan, Guihong Zhang, Jianqiang Ye, Li-Ping Long, Sherry Blackmon, Chun-Kai Yang, Meng-Jung Chiang, Hang Xie, Nan Zhao, Jim Cooley, David F Smith, Ming Liao, Carol Cardona, Lei Li, George Peng Wang, Richard Webby, Xiu-Feng Wan
Subtype H6 influenza A viruses (IAVs) are commonly detected in wild birds and domestic poultry and can infect humans. In 2010, a H6N6 virus emerged in southern China, and since then, it has caused sporadic infections among swine. We show that this virus binds to α2,6-linked and α2,3-linked sialic acids. Mutations at residues 222 (alanine to valine) and 228 (glycine to serine) of the virus hemagglutinin (HA) affected its receptor-binding properties. Experiments showed that the virus has limited transmissibility between ferrets through direct contact or through inhalation of infectious aerosolized droplets...
April 12, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
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