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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922256/-in-vitro-modeling-of-bile-acid-processing-by-the-human-fecal-microbiota
#1
Glynn Martin, Sofia Kolida, Julian R Marchesi, Elizabeth Want, James E Sidaway, Jonathan R Swann
Bile acids, the products of concerted host and gut bacterial metabolism, have important signaling functions within the mammalian metabolic system and a key role in digestion. Given the complexity of the mega-variate bacterial community residing in the gastrointestinal tract, studying associations between individual bacterial genera and bile acid processing remains a challenge. Here, we present a novel in vitro approach to determine the bacterial genera associated with the metabolism of different primary bile acids and their potential to contribute to inter-individual variation in this processing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889360/cell-cycle-regulation-of-folate-mediated-one-carbon-metabolism
#2
REVIEW
Xu Lan, Martha S Field, Patrick J Stover
Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) comprises a network of interconnected folate-dependent metabolic pathways responsible for serine and glycine interconversion, de novo purine synthesis, de novo thymidylate synthesis and homocysteine remethylation to methionine. These pathways are compartmentalized in the cytosol, nucleus and mitochondria. Individual enzymes within the FOCM network compete for folate cofactors because intracellular folate concentrations are limiting. Although there are feedback mechanisms that regulate the partitioning of folate cofactors among the folate-dependent pathways, less recognized is the impact of cell cycle regulation on FOCM...
June 11, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875429/colorimetric-lamp-microfluidic-chip-for-detecting-three-allergens-peanut-sesame-and-soybean
#3
Dan Yuan, Jilie Kong, Xinxin Li, Xueen Fang, Qin Chen
Food allergies can greatly harm people's health, and therefore detecting allergens in foods is extremely important. By integrating loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with a microfluidic chip, we have developed a method for detecting the allergen genes of peanut (Arachis hypogaea), sesame (Sesamum indicum), and soybean (Glycine max) using a colorimetric method suitable for the naked eye, known as the colorimetric LAMP microfluidic chip. In the presence of peanut, sesame, or soybean in the samples, the corresponding reaction well of the microfluidic chip will appear pink, or otherwise remain light brown...
June 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800381/role-of-soybean-derived-bioactive-compounds-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
Anthony F Juritsch, Régis Moreau
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Patients with IBD present with debilitating symptoms that alter the quality of life and can develop into severe complications requiring surgery. Epidemiological evidence indicates Westernized societies have an elevated IBD burden when compared with Asian societies. Considering the stark contrast between the typical Western and Eastern dietary patterns, it is postulated that differences in food and lifestyle contribute to lower IBD incidence in Asian countries...
May 24, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799863/mining-of-potential-drug-targets-through-the-identification-of-essential-and-analogous-enzymes-in-the-genomes-of-pathogens-of-glycine-max-zea-mays-and-solanum-lycopersicum
#5
Rangeline Azevedo da Silva, Leandro de Mattos Pereira, Melise Chaves Silveira, Rodrigo Jardim, Antonio Basilio de Miranda
Pesticides are one of the most widely used pest and disease control measures in plant crops and their indiscriminate use poses a direct risk to the health of populations and environment around the world. As a result, there is a great need for the development of new, less toxic molecules to be employed against plant pathogens. In this work, we employed an in silico approach to study the genes coding for enzymes of the genomes of three commercially important plants, soybean (Glycine max), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and corn (Zea mays), as well as 15 plant pathogens (4 bacteria and 11 fungi), focusing on revealing a set of essential and non-homologous isofunctional enzymes (NISEs) that could be prioritized as drug targets...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785573/effect-of-dietary-soy-oil-glucose-and-glutamine-on-growth-performance-amino-acid-profile-blood-profile-immunity-and-antioxidant-capacity-in-weaned-piglets
#6
Dinghong Lv, Xia Xiong, Huansheng Yang, Meiwei Wang, Yijie He, Yanhong Liu, Yulong Yin
Weaning stress results in gastrointestinal dysfunction and depressed performance in pigs. This study aimed to investigate the effect of soy oil, glucose, and glutamine on the growth and health of weaned piglets. Compared with those in the glutamine group, piglets in the glucose and soy oil groups had greater average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and gain: feed ratio from day 0 to 14, and gain: feed ratio for the overall period. There were no differences with regard to serum amino acids among the three groups on day 14, except glycine and threonine...
May 18, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770867/dietary-supplementation-with-an-amino-acid-blend-enhances-intestinal-function-in-piglets
#7
Dan Yi, Baocheng Li, Yongqing Hou, Lei Wang, Di Zhao, Hongbo Chen, Tao Wu, Ying Zhou, Binying Ding, Guoyao Wu
The traditionally classified nutritionally non-essential amino acids are now known to be insufficiently synthesized for maximal growth and optimal health in piglets. This study determined the effects of dietary supplementation with an amino acid blend (AAB; glutamate:glutamine:glycine:arginine:N-acetylcysteine = 5:2:2:1:0.5) on piglet growth performance and intestinal functions. Sixteen piglets (24-day-old) were randomly assigned to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0.99% alanine (isonitrogenous control) or 1% AAB...
May 16, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751815/changes-in-the-faecal-bile-acid-profile-in-dogs-fed-dry-food-vs-high-content-of-beef-a-pilot-study
#8
Kristin Marie Valand Herstad, Helene Thorsen Rønning, Anne Marie Bakke, Lars Moe, Ellen Skancke
BACKGROUND: Dogs are fed various diets, which also include components of animal origin. In humans, a high-fat/low-fibre diet is associated with higher faecal levels of bile acids, which can influence intestinal health. It is unknown how an animal-based diet high in fat and low in fibre influences the faecal bile acid levels and intestinal health in dogs. This study investigated the effects of high intake of minced beef on the faecal bile acid profile in healthy, adult, client-owned dogs (n = 8) in a 7-week trial...
May 11, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738072/combined-inflammation-and-metabolism-biomarker-indices-of-robust-and-impaired-physical-function-in-older-adults
#9
Xintong Zuo, Alison Luciano, Carl F Pieper, James R Bain, Virginia B Kraus, William E Kraus, Miriam C Morey, Harvey J Cohen
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether combinations of inflammatory markers are related to physical function. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: secondary analysis of baseline of three observational studies of community-dwelling older adults MEASUREMENTS: The baseline data from 3 cohorts of older adults with different health and disease status were employed. Twenty markers of inflammation and metabolism were individually assessed for correlation with usual gait speed and were separated into robust and impairment quartiles...
May 8, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693702/glycine-and-succinic-acid-are-effective-indicators-of-the-suppression-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-by-fucoxanthinol-in-colorectal-cancer-stem-like-cells
#10
Masaru Terasaki, Masatoshi Mima, Satoki Kudoh, Tetsuya Endo, Hayato Maeda, Junichi Hamada, Kazumi Osada, Kazuo Miyashita, Michihiro Mutoh
Fucoxanthinol (FxOH) is a strong anticancer metabolite of fucoxanthin that accumulates in abundance in edible brown algae and promises human health benefits. FxOH has been shown to suppress tumorigenicity and sphere formation in human colorectal cancer stem cell (CCSC)-like spheroids (colonospheres, Csps). In the present study, we aimed to clarify the inhibitory activity of FxOH on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is essential for cancer recurrence and distant metastasis, and to identify intracellular low-molecular-weight metabolites that may be useful for evaluating the cellular effects of FxOH on CCSCs...
July 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683314/enantioselective-effects-of-metalaxyl-enantiomers-in-adolescent-rat-metabolic-profiles-using-nmr-based-metabolomics
#11
Jinping Gu, Chenyang Ji, Siqing Yue, Dan Shu, Feng Su, Yinjun Zhang, Yuanyuan Xie, Yi Zhang, Weiping Liu, Meirong Zhao
More than 30% of the registered pesticides are chiral with one or more chiral centers and exist as two or more enantiomers. The frequency of chiral chemicals and their environmental safety has been considered in their risk assessment in recent decades. Despite the fact that metabolic disturbance is an important sensitive molecular initiating event of toxicology effects, the potential mechanisms of how chiral compounds affect metabolism phenotypes in organisms remain unclear. As a typical chiral pesticide, metalaxyl is an acylalanine fungicide with systemic function...
May 1, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621258/diva-metabolomics-differentiating-vaccination-status-following-viral-challenge-using-metabolomic-profiles
#12
Darren W Gray, Michael D Welsh, Fawad Mansoor, Simon Doherty, Olivier P Chevallier, Christopher T Elliott, Mark H Mooney
Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) is a major source of economic loss within the agricultural industry. Vaccination against BRD-associated viruses does not offer complete immune protection and vaccine failure animals present potential routes for disease spread. Serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) is possible using antigen-deleted vaccines, but during virus outbreaks DIVA responses are masked by wild-type virus preventing accurate serodiagnosis. Previous work by the authors has established the potential for metabolomic profiling to reveal metabolites associated with systemic immune responses to vaccination...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574763/subgingival-glycine-powder-air-polishing-as-an-additional-approach-to-nonsurgical-periodontal-therapy-in-subjects-with-untreated-chronic-periodontitis
#13
Y C Tsang, E F Corbet, L J Jin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Glycine powder air-polishing (GPAP) is an alternative approach to removing subgingival plaque biofilms for effective periodontal therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effect of subgingival GPAP as an additional approach to nonsurgical periodontal treatment in subjects with chronic periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-seven nonsmoking subjects were recruited. Two quadrants in each subject were randomly assigned, according to a split-mouth design, to receive scaling and root planing (SRP) and GPAP (Test group) or SRP and air flushing with water (Control group) at sites with probing depth ≥5 mm...
June 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559876/dietary-glycine-is-rate-limiting-for-glutathione-synthesis-and-may-have-broad-potential-for-health-protection
#14
REVIEW
Mark F McCarty, James H O'Keefe, James J DiNicolantonio
Background: Glutathione is a key scavenging antioxidant that opposes the proinflammatory signaling of hydrogen peroxide. Boosting cellular glutathione levels may have broad utility in the prevention and treatment of disorders driven by oxidative stress. Supplemental N-acetylcysteine has been employed for this purpose. Could supplemental glycine likewise promote glutathione synthesis? Methods: We conducted a review of the pertinent literature using PubMed. Results: Tissue glycine levels are lower than the glutathione synthase Michaelis constant (Km ) for glycine...
2018: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547474/exfoliation-syndrome-a-disease-of-autophagy-and-loxl1-proteopathy
#15
Audrey M Bernstein, Robert Ritch, J Mario Wolosin
Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is an age-related disease involving the deposition of aggregated fibrillar material (XFM) at extracellular matrices in tissues that synthesize elastic fibers. Its main morbidity is in the eye, where XFM accumulations form on the surface of the ciliary body, iris and lens. Exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) occurs in a high proportion of persons with XFS and can be a rapidly progressing disease. Worldwide, XFG accounts for about 25% of open-angle glaucoma cases. XFS and XFG show a sharp age-dependence, similarly to the many age-related diseases classified as aggregopathies...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540847/effect-of-tillage-and-crop-residue-on-soil-temperature-following-planting-for-a-black-soil-in-northeast-china
#16
Yan Shen, Neil McLaughlin, Xiaoping Zhang, Minggang Xu, Aizhen Liang
Crop residue return is imperative to maintain soil health and productivity but some farmers resist adopting conservation tillage systems with residue return fearing reduced soil temperature following planting and crop yield. Soil temperatures were measured at 10 cm depth for one month following planting from 2004 to 2007 in a field experiment in Northeast China. Tillage treatments included mouldboard plough (MP), no till (NT), and ridge till (RT) with maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max Merr.) crops...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511170/targeting-intracellular-signaling-as-an-antiviral-strategy-aerosolized-lasag-for-the-treatment-of-influenza-in-hospitalized-patients
#17
Gerhard Scheuch, Sebastian Canisius, Karlheinz Nocker, Thomas Hofmann, Rolf Naumann, Stephan Pleschka, Stephan Ludwig, Tobias Welte, Oliver Planz
Influenza has been a long-running health problem and novel antiviral drugs are urgently needed. In pre-clinical studies, we demonstrated broad antiviral activity of D, L-lysine-acetylsalicylate glycine (LASAG) against influenza virus (IV) in cell culture and protection against lethal challenge in mice. LASAG is a compound with a new antiviral mode of action. It inhibits the NF-κB signal transduction module that is essential for IV replication. Our goal was to determine whether aerosolized LASAG would also show a therapeutic benefit in hospitalized patients suffering from severe influenza...
March 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486260/effect-of-germination-on-composition-profiling-and-antioxidant-activity-of-the-polysaccharide-protein-conjugate-in-black-soybean-glycinemax-l-merr
#18
Ai-Lien Lee, Yi-Ping Yu, Jung-Feng Hsieh, Meng-I Kuo, Yung-Shun Ma, Chun-Ping Lu
Black soybeans are commonly consumed as health foods and used in traditional Chinese medicine, but they are rarely cultivated as edible sprouts. During germination, the composition of seeds undergoes distinct changes that cause variations in bioactivities. In this study, the water-soluble black soybean polysaccharide (BSPS) was isolated from sprouts harvested at two-day intervals during the first week of seedling growth. The chromatographic profiles of the BSPS in ungerminated seeds showed fraction 1 (F1, about 64kDa) and fraction 2 (F2, <1kDa) that degraded during germination...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472900/spatial-heterogeneity-and-co-occurrence-of-mucosal-and-luminal-microbiome-across-swine-intestinal-tract
#19
Li Zhang, Weida Wu, Yuan-Kun Lee, Jingjing Xie, Hongfu Zhang
Pigs are one of the most important economic livestock. Gut microbiota is not only critical to the health but also the production efficiency of pigs. Manipulating gut microbiota relies on the full view of gut microbiome and the understanding of drive forces shaping microbial communities. 16s rDNA sequencing was used to profile microbiota along the longitudinal and radical axes to obtain the topographical map of microbiome in different intestinal compartments in young pigs. Alpha and beta-diversities revealed distinct differences in microbial compositions between the distal ileum and cecum and colon, as well as between the lumen and mucosa...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459697/serum-metabolomics-of-activity-energy-expenditure-and-its-relation-to-metabolic-syndrome-and-obesity
#20
Marie S A Palmnäs, Karen A Kopciuk, Rustem A Shaykhutdinov, Paula J Robson, Diane Mignault, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Hans J Vogel, Ilona Csizmadi
Modifiable lifestyle factors, including exercise and activity energy expenditure (AEE), may attenuate the unfavorable health effects of obesity, such as risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. In this study we sought to investigate whether the metabolite profiles of MetS and adiposity assessed by body mass index (BMI) and central obesity are inversely correlated with AEE and physical activity. We studied 35 men and 47 women, aged 30-60 years, using doubly labeled water to derive AEE and the Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q) to determine the time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
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