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Glycine health

Darren W Gray, Michael D Welsh, Fawad Mansoor, Simon Doherty, Olivier P Chevallier, Christopher T Elliott, Mark H Mooney
Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) is a major source of economic loss within the agricultural industry. Vaccination against BRD-associated viruses does not offer complete immune protection and vaccine failure animals present potential routes for disease spread. Serological differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) is possible using antigen-deleted vaccines, but during virus outbreaks DIVA responses are masked by wild-type virus preventing accurate serodiagnosis. Previous work by the authors has established the potential for metabolomic profiling to reveal metabolites associated with systemic immune responses to vaccination...
2018: PloS One
Y C Tsang, E F Corbet, L J Jin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Glycine powder air-polishing (GPAP) is an alternative approach to removing subgingival plaque biofilms for effective periodontal therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effect of subgingival GPAP as an additional approach to nonsurgical periodontal treatment in subjects with chronic periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-seven nonsmoking subjects were recruited. Two quadrants in each subject were randomly assigned, according to a split-mouth design, to receive scaling and root planing (SRP) and GPAP (Test group) or SRP and air flushing with water (Control group) at sites with probing depth ≥5 mm...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
Mark F McCarty, James H O'Keefe, James J DiNicolantonio
Background: Glutathione is a key scavenging antioxidant that opposes the proinflammatory signaling of hydrogen peroxide. Boosting cellular glutathione levels may have broad utility in the prevention and treatment of disorders driven by oxidative stress. Supplemental N-acetylcysteine has been employed for this purpose. Could supplemental glycine likewise promote glutathione synthesis? Methods: We conducted a review of the pertinent literature using PubMed. Results: Tissue glycine levels are lower than the glutathione synthase Michaelis constant (Km ) for glycine...
2018: Ochsner Journal
Audrey M Bernstein, Robert Ritch, J Mario Wolosin
Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is an age-related disease involving the deposition of aggregated fibrillar material (XFM) at extracellular matrices in tissues that synthesize elastic fibers. Its main morbidity is in the eye, where XFM accumulations form on the surface of the ciliary body, iris and lens. Exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) occurs in a high proportion of persons with XFS and can be a rapidly progressing disease. Worldwide, XFG accounts for about 25% of open-angle glaucoma cases. XFS and XFG show a sharp age-dependence, similarly to the many age-related diseases classified as aggregopathies...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Yan Shen, Neil McLaughlin, Xiaoping Zhang, Minggang Xu, Aizhen Liang
Crop residue return is imperative to maintain soil health and productivity but some farmers resist adopting conservation tillage systems with residue return fearing reduced soil temperature following planting and crop yield. Soil temperatures were measured at 10 cm depth for one month following planting from 2004 to 2007 in a field experiment in Northeast China. Tillage treatments included mouldboard plough (MP), no till (NT), and ridge till (RT) with maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max Merr.) crops...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gerhard Scheuch, Sebastian Canisius, Karlheinz Nocker, Thomas Hofmann, Rolf Naumann, Stephan Pleschka, Stephan Ludwig, Tobias Welte, Oliver Planz
Influenza has been a long-running health problem and novel antiviral drugs are urgently needed. In pre-clinical studies, we demonstrated broad antiviral activity of D, L-lysine-acetylsalicylate glycine (LASAG) against influenza virus (IV) in cell culture and protection against lethal challenge in mice. LASAG is a compound with a new antiviral mode of action. It inhibits the NF-κB signal transduction module that is essential for IV replication. Our goal was to determine whether aerosolized LASAG would also show a therapeutic benefit in hospitalized patients suffering from severe influenza...
March 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Ai-Lien Lee, Yi-Ping Yu, Jung-Feng Hsieh, Meng-I Kuo, Yung-Shun Ma, Chun-Ping Lu
Black soybeans are commonly consumed as health foods and used in traditional Chinese medicine, but they are rarely cultivated as edible sprouts. During germination, the composition of seeds undergoes distinct changes that cause variations in bioactivities. In this study, the water-soluble black soybean polysaccharide (BSPS) was isolated from sprouts harvested at two-day intervals during the first week of seedling growth. The chromatographic profiles of the BSPS in ungerminated seeds showed fraction 1 (F1, about 63 kDa) and fraction 2 (F2, <1 kDa) that degraded during germination...
February 24, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Li Zhang, Weida Wu, Yuan-Kun Lee, Jingjing Xie, Hongfu Zhang
Pigs are one of the most important economic livestock. Gut microbiota is not only critical to the health but also the production efficiency of pigs. Manipulating gut microbiota relies on the full view of gut microbiome and the understanding of drive forces shaping microbial communities. 16s rDNA sequencing was used to profile microbiota along the longitudinal and radical axes to obtain the topographical map of microbiome in different intestinal compartments in young pigs. Alpha and beta-diversities revealed distinct differences in microbial compositions between the distal ileum and cecum and colon, as well as between the lumen and mucosa...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marie S A Palmnäs, Karen A Kopciuk, Rustem A Shaykhutdinov, Paula J Robson, Diane Mignault, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Hans J Vogel, Ilona Csizmadi
Modifiable lifestyle factors, including exercise and activity energy expenditure (AEE), may attenuate the unfavorable health effects of obesity, such as risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. In this study we sought to investigate whether the metabolite profiles of MetS and adiposity assessed by body mass index (BMI) and central obesity are inversely correlated with AEE and physical activity. We studied 35 men and 47 women, aged 30-60 years, using doubly labeled water to derive AEE and the Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q) to determine the time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ana M Gil, Daniela Duarte, Joana Pinto, António S Barros
This nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics study compared the influence of two different central Portugal exposomes, one of which comprised an important source of pollutants (the Estarreja Chemical Complex, ECC), on the urinary metabolic trajectory of a cohort of healthy pregnant women (total n = 107). An exposome-independent description of pregnancy metabolism was found to comprise a set of 18 metabolites reflecting expected changes in branched-chain amino acid catabolism and hormone and lipid metabolisms...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Sherri C Young
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable form of dementia affecting millions of people worldwide and costing billions of dollars in health care-related payments, making the discovery of a cure a top health, societal, and economic priority. Peptide-based drugs and immunotherapies targeting AD-associated beta-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation have been extensively explored; however, their therapeutic potential is limited by unfavorable pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. Peptoids (N-substituted glycine oligomers) are a promising class of peptidomimetics with highly tunable secondary structures and enhanced stabilities and membrane permeabilities...
January 31, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jagadeesh Sundaramoorthy, Gyu Tae Park, Kyosuke Mukaiyama, Chigen Tsukamoto, Jeong Ho Chang, Jeong-Dong Lee, Jeong Hoe Kim, Hak Soo Seo, Jong Tae Song
In soybean, triterpenoid saponin is one of the major secondary metabolites and is further classified into group A and DDMP saponins. Although they have known health benefits for humans and animals, acetylation of group A saponins causes bitterness and gives an astringent taste to soy products. Therefore, several studies are being conducted to eliminate acetylated group A saponins. Previous studies have isolated and characterized the Sg-5 (Glyma.15g243300) gene, which encodes the cytochrome P450 72A69 enzyme and is responsible for soyasapogenol A biosynthesis...
2018: PloS One
Feng Sun, Kaiwen Pan, Zilong Li, Sizhong Wang, Akash Tariq, Olusanya Abiodun Olatunji, Xiaoming Sun, Lin Zhang, Weiyu Shi, Xiaogang Wu
A current challenge for ecological research in agriculture is to identify ways in which to improve the resilience of the soil food web to extreme climate events, such as severe rainfall. Plant species composition influence soil biota communities differently, which might affect the recovery of soil food web after extreme rainfall. We compared the effects of rainfall stress up on the soil microbial food web in three planting systems: a monoculture of the focal species Zanthoxylum bungeanum and mixed cultures of Z...
January 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rikard Landberg, Roksana Wierzbicka, Lin Shi, Sanna Nybacka, Afaf Kamal-Eldin, Bo Hedblad, Anna Karin Lindroos, Anna Winkvist, Heléne Bertéus Forslund
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Studies on the health effects of whole grains typically use self-reported intakes which are prone to large measurement errors. Dietary biomarkers that can provide an objective measure of intake are needed. New alkylresorcinol (AR) metabolites (3,5-dihydroxycinnamic acid (DHCA), 2-(3,5-dihydroxybenzamido)acetic acid (DHBA-glycine) and 5-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl) pentanoic acid (DHPPTA)) in 24 h urine samples have been suggested as biomarkers for whole grain (WG) wheat and rye intake but remain to be evaluated in spot urine samples...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Shaza B Zaghlool, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Sara Kader, Nisha Stephan, Anna Halama, Rudolf Engelke, Hina Sarwath, Eman K Al-Dous, Yasmin A Mohamoud, Werner Roemisch-Margl, Jerzy Adamski, Gabi Kastenmüller, Nele Friedrich, Alessia Visconti, Pei-Chien Tsai, Tim Spector, Jordana T Bell, Mario Falchi, Annika Wahl, Melanie Waldenberger, Annette Peters, Christian Gieger, Marija Pezer, Gordan Lauc, Johannes Graumann, Joel A Malek, Karsten Suhre
Epigenetic regulation of cellular function provides a mechanism for rapid organismal adaptation to changes in health, lifestyle and environment. Associations of cytosine-guanine di-nucleotide (CpG) methylation with clinical endpoints that overlap with metabolic phenotypes suggest a regulatory role for these CpG sites in the body's response to disease or environmental stress. We previously identified 20 CpG sites in an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) with metabolomics that were also associated in recent EWASs with diabetes-, obesity-, and smoking-related endpoints...
March 15, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Liqi Liu, Jian Lu, Zi Li, Jianfang Zhou, Junfeng Guo, Xiyan Li, Jia Liu, Yuelong Shu, Dayan Wang
Since the first confirmed case of H7N9 infection was reported in China, there have been five epidemic waves of human H7N9 infections between 2013 and 2017. The fifth wave differed from the previous four waves in that highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 viruses with multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site were detected in humans, poultry and environmental samples. The HPAI H7N9 viruses were genetically and antigenically distinct from previous H7N9 viruses. Therefore, a new candidate vaccine virus(CVV) derived from a HPAI A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016-like virus was proposed by the World Health Organization(WHO)...
March 4, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Hui Li, Adam F Wallace, Mingjing Sun, Patrick Reardon, Deb P Jaisi
Glyphosate is the active ingredient of the common herbicide Roundup. The increasing presence of glyphosate and its byproducts has raised concerns about its potential impact on the environment and human health. In this research, we investigated abiotic pathways of glyphosate degradation as catalyzed by birnessite under aerobic and neutral pH conditions to determine whether certain pathways have the potential to generate less harmful intermediate products. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were utilized to identify and quantify reaction products, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to investigate the bond critical point (BCP) properties of the C-N bond in glyphosate and Mn(IV)-complexed glyphosate...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Na-Ra Han, Hee-Yun Kim, Na-Rae Kim, Won-Kyung Lee, Hyein Jeong, Hyung-Min Kim, Hyun-Ja Jeong
Fatigue is a common and serious health problem, and various dietary interventions have previously been employed to ameliorate fatigue. The aim of the current study was to investigate the anti‑fatigue effects of Danish porcine placenta (DPP) and its major dipeptides, including leucine‑glycine (LG) and glycine‑leucine (GL). The anti‑fatigue effects of orally administered DPP, LG and GL were determined using a treadmill exercise test and a forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Additionally, the anti‑inflammatory effects of DPP, LG and GL were investigated in activated splenocytes...
March 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Chanyarat Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Weijin Wang, Yun Kit Yeoh, Neil Halpin
Nitrifying microorganisms play an important role in nitrogen (N) cycling in agricultural soils as nitrification leads to accumulation of nitrate (NO3 - ) that is readily lost through leaching and denitrification, particularly in high rainfall regions. Legume crop rotation in sugarcane farming systems can suppress soil pathogens and improve soil health, but its effects on soil nitrifying microorganisms are not well understood. Using shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we investigated the impact of two legume break crops, peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and soybean (Glycine max), on the nitrifying communities in a sugarcane cropping soil...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Luz Maria De-Regil, Maria Elena D Jefferds, Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas
BACKGROUND: Approximately 600 million children of preschool and school age are anaemic worldwide. It is estimated that at least half of the cases are due to iron deficiency. Point-of-use fortification of foods with micronutrient powders (MNP) has been proposed as a feasible intervention to prevent and treat anaemia. It refers to the addition of iron alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals in powder form, to energy-containing foods (excluding beverages) at home or in any other place where meals are to be consumed...
November 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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