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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032784/spent-culture-medium-analysis-from-individually-cultured-bovine-embryos-demonstrates-metabolomic-differences
#1
Kayla J Perkel, Pavneesh Madan
Spent culture medium can provide valuable information regarding the physiological state of a bovine preimplantation embryos through non-invasive analysis of the sum/depleted metabolite constituents. Metabolomics has become of great interest as an adjunct technique to morphological and cleavage-rate assessment, but more importantly, in improving our understanding of metabolism. In this study, in vitro produced bovine embryos developing at different rates were evaluated using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)...
October 16, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946319/a-major-daidzin-metabolite-7-8-4-trihydroxyisoflavone-found-in-the-plasma-of-soybean-extract-fed-rats-attenuates-monocyte-endothelial-cell-adhesion
#2
Charles C Lee, Stéphanie Dudonné, Jong Hun Kim, Ji Seung Kim, Pascal Dubé, Jong-Eun Kim, Yves Desjardins, Jung Han Yoon Park, Ki Won Lee, Chang Yong Lee
Among many functional foods and their phytochemicals, ingestion of soybean (Glycine max) is highly correlated to reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. Validation of potential health benefits of functional foods requires information about the bioavailability and metabolism of bioactive compounds. In this context, several phase I and II metabolites of isoflavones were target-analyzed in the plasma of rats acutely supplemented with soybean embryo extract. A daidzein metabolite, 7,8,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (7,8,4'-THI), was found to have the highest average area under curve value (574...
February 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934858/metabolism-nutrition-and-redox-signaling-of-hydroxyproline
#3
Zhenlong Wu, Yongqing Hou, Zhaolai Dai, Chien-An Hu, Guoyao Wu
SIGNIFICANCE: Hydroxyproline is a structurally and physiologically important imino acid in animals. It is provided from diets and endogenous synthesis, and its conversion into glycine is enhances the production of glutathione, DNA, heme, and protein. Furthermore, oxidation of hydroxyproline by hydroxyproline oxidase plays an important role in cell antioxidative reactions, survival, and homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms whereby hydroxyproline participates in metabolism and cell signaling can improve the nutrition and health of animals and humans...
September 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931688/a-selective-bottleneck-shapes-the-evolutionary-mutant-spectra-of-enterovirus-a71-during-viral-dissemination-in-humans
#4
Sheng-Wen Huang, Yi-Hui Huang, Huey-Pin Tsai, Pin-Hwa Kuo, Shih-Min Wang, Ching-Chuan Liu, Jen-Ren Wang
RNA viruses accumulate mutations to rapidly adapt to environmental changes. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes various clinical manifestations with occasional severe neurological complications. However, the mechanism by which EV-A71 evolves within the human body is unclear. Utilizing deep sequencing and haplotype analyses of viruses from various tissues of an autopsy patient, we sought to define the evolutionary pathway by which enterovirus A71 evolves fitness for invading the central nervous system in humans...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876062/modulation-of-glycine-mediated-spinal-neurotransmission-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-pain
#5
Christopher L Cioffi
Chronic pain constitutes a significant and expanding worldwide health crisis. Currently available analgesics poorly serve individuals suffering from chronic pain and new therapeutic agents that are more effective, safer, and devoid of abuse liabilities are desperately needed. Among the myriad of cellular and molecular processes contributing to chronic pain, spinal disinhibition of pain signaling to higher cortical centers plays a critical role. Accumulating evidence shows that glycinergic inhibitory neurotransmission in the spinal cord dorsal horn gates nociceptive signaling, is essential in maintaining physiological pain sensitivity, and is diminished in pathological pain states...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868128/design-of-peptides-interfering-with-iron-dependent-regulator-ider-and-evaluation-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-growth-inhibition
#6
Himen Salimizand, Saeid Amel Jamehdar, Leila Babaei Nik, Hamid Sadeghian
OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB), a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), stayed a global health thread with high mortality rate. Since TB has a long-term treatment, it leads high risk of drug resistant development, and there is an urgent to find new drugs. The aim of this study was designing new inhibitors for a new drug target, iron dependent regulator, IdeR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on the interaction most populated amino acids of IdeR to the related gene operators, 50 short peptides were modeled...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861066/unraveling-the-fecal-microbiota-and-metagenomic-functional-capacity-associated-with-feed-efficiency-in-pigs
#7
Hui Yang, Xiaochang Huang, Shaoming Fang, Maozhang He, Yuanzhang Zhao, Zhenfang Wu, Ming Yang, Zhiyan Zhang, Congying Chen, Lusheng Huang
Gut microbiota plays fundamental roles in energy harvest, nutrient digestion, and intestinal health, especially in processing indigestible components of polysaccharides in diet. Unraveling the microbial taxa and functional capacity of gut microbiome associated with feed efficiency can provide important knowledge to improve pig feed efficiency in swine industry. In the current research, we studied the association of fecal microbiota with feed efficiency in 280 commercial Duroc pigs. All experimental pigs could be clustered into two enterotype-like groups...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766269/analysis-of-neurotoxic-amino-acids-from-marine-waters-microbial-mats-and-seafood-destined-for-human-consumption-in-the-arabian-gulf
#8
Aspassia D Chatziefthimiou, Eric J Deitch, William B Glover, James T Powell, Sandra Anne Banack, Renee A Richer, Paul A Cox, James S Metcalf
Human health risks associated with exposure to algal and cyanobacterial toxins (phycotoxins) have been largely concerned with aquatic habitats. People inhabiting desert environments may be exposed to phycotoxins present in terrestrial environments, where cyanobacterial crusts dominate. Seafood comprises a significant portion of the human diet in desert environments proximal to an ocean or sea. Consequently, in addition to terrestrial exposure to cyanotoxins, the potential exists that seafood may be an important exposure route for cyanotoxins in desert regions...
August 1, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737704/toxicity-at-the-edge-of-life-a-review-on-cyanobacterial-toxins-from-extreme-environments
#9
REVIEW
Samuel Cirés, María Cristina Casero, Antonio Quesada
Cyanotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by cyanobacteria, of varied chemical nature and toxic effects. Although cyanobacteria thrive in all kinds of ecosystems on Earth even under very harsh conditions, current knowledge on cyanotoxin distribution is almost restricted to freshwaters from temperate latitudes. In this review, we bring to the forefront the presence of cyanotoxins in extreme environments. Cyanotoxins have been reported especially in polar deserts (both from the Arctic and Antarctica) and alkaline lakes, but also in hot deserts, hypersaline environments, and hot springs...
July 24, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691491/peptidoglycan-cross-linking-preferences-of-staphylococcus-aureus-penicillin-binding-proteins-have-implications-for-treating-mrsa-infections
#10
Veerasak Srisuknimit, Yuan Qiao, Kaitlin Schaefer, Daniel Kahne, Suzanne Walker
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a global public health problem. MRSA strains have acquired a non-native penicillin-binding protein called PBP2a that cross-links peptidoglycan when the native S. aureus PBPs are inhibited by β-lactams. It has been proposed that the native S. aureus PBPs can use cell wall precursors having different glycine branch lengths (penta-, tri-, or monoglycine), while PBP2a can only cross-link peptidoglycan strands bearing a complete pentaglycine branch...
July 26, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666225/hplc-ms-ms-targeted-metabolic-profiling-reveals-distinct-metabolic-profiles-from-staphylococcus-aureus-small-colony-variants
#11
Chen Wang, Jiangjiang Zhu
Staphylococcus aureus is a world-wide health threat due to its prevalence and possible resistance to antibiotic treatment. A variety reasons can contribute to S. aureus antibiotic resistance and one group of phenotypes that may be discovered from S. aureus is named small-colony variants (SCVs). This study focused on applying a HPLC-MS/MS based targeted metabolic profiling approach to detect a set of metabolites that are dysregulated during S. aureus SCVs formation. Over one hundred and eighty metabolites were confidently detected and their difference between S...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653198/a-combined-nmr-and-hplc-ms-ms-based-metabolomics-to-evaluate-the-metabolic-perturbations-and-subacute-toxic-effects-of-endosulfan-on-mice
#12
Ping Zhang, Wentao Zhu, Dezhen Wang, Jin Yan, Yao Wang, Zhiqiang Zhou, Lin He
Endosulfan is the newly persistent organic pollutants (POPs) added to the Stockholm Convention as its widespread use, persistence, bioaccumulation, long-range transport, endocrine disruption, and toxicity related to various adverse effects. In the present study, male mice were administrated endosulfan at 0, 0.5, and 3.5 mg/kg by gavage for 2 weeks. (1)H-NMR-based urinary metabolomics, HPLC-MS/MS-based targeted serum metabolomics, clinical analysis, and histopathology techniques were employed to evaluate the metabolic perturbations of subacute endosulfan exposure...
June 26, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633497/genome-wide-identification-and-functional-characterization-of-udp-glucosyltransferase-genes-involved-in-flavonoid-biosynthesis-in-glycine-max
#13
Qinggang Yin, Guoan Shen, Shaokang Di, Cunying Fan, Zhenzhan Chang, Yongzhen Pang
Flavonoids, natural products abundant in the model legume Glycine max, confer benefits to plants and to animal health. Flavonoids are present in soybean mainly as glycoconjugates. However, the mechanisms of biosynthesis of flavonoid glycosides are largely unknown in G. max. In the present study, 212 putative UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes were identified in G. max by genome-wide searching. The GmUGT genes were distributed differentially among the 20 chromosomes, and they were expressed in various tissues with distinct expression profiles...
September 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612342/effect-of-glycine-nitrogen-on-lettuce-growth-under-soilless-culture-a-metabolomics-approach-to-identify-the-main-changes-occurred-in-plant-primary-and-secondary-metabolism
#14
Xiao Yang, Lei Feng, Li Zhao, Xiaosong Liu, Danial Hassani, Danfeng Huang
BACKGROUND: Lettuce is a significant source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds. Nitrate is a cardinal fertilizer in horticulture and influences vegetable yield and quality; however, the negative effects of nitrate on the biosynthesis of flavonoids require further study. It is expected that using fertilizers containing organic N could promote the synthesis of health-promoting compounds. RESULTS: Lettuces were hydroponically cultured in media containing 9 mM nitrate or 9 mM glycine for 4 weeks...
June 14, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611517/urinary-metabolic-insights-into-host-gut-microbial-interactions-in-healthy-and-ibd-children
#15
Francois-Pierre Martin, Ming-Ming Su, Guo-Xiang Xie, Seu Ping Guiraud, Martin Kussmann, Jean-Philippe Godin, Wei Jia, Andreas Nydegger
AIM: To identify metabolic signatures in urine samples from healthy and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) children. METHODS: We applied liquid chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to targeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolite profiling to identify and quantify bile acids and host-gut microbial metabolites in urine samples collected from 21 pediatric IBD patients monitored three times over one year (baseline, 6 and 12 mo), and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy children...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588388/identification-of-environmentally-stable-qtls-controlling-saponin-content-in-glycine-max
#16
Masayoshi Teraishi, Yuka Tojo, Naohiro Yamada, Yutaka Okumoto
Saponins are secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in plants. There are two major saponin precursors in soybean: soyasapogenol A, contributing to the undesirable taste, and soyasapogenol B, some of which have health benefits. It is important to control the ratio and content of the two major saponin groups to enhance the appeal of soybean as a health food. The structural diversity of saponin in the sugar chain composition makes it hard to quantify the saponin content. We measured the saponin content in soybean by removing the sugar chain from the saponin using acidic hydrolysis and detected novel quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for saponin content...
March 2017: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568309/effect-of-soybean-husk-supplementation-on-the-fecal-fermentation-metabolites-and-microbiota-of-dogs
#17
Htun Myint, Yu Iwahashi, Satoshi Koike, Yasuo Kobayashi
In vitro fermentation and in vivo feeding experiments were conducted to characterize the effects of soybean (Glycine max) husk on the fecal fermentation metabolites and microbiota of dogs. An in vitro fermentation study using feces from three Toy Poodle dogs (6.5 ± 3.5 months in age and 2.9 ± 0.4 kg in body weight) revealed that the fecal inoculum was able to ferment soybean husk (supplemented at 0.01 g/mL culture) and increased levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and Bifidobacterium, irrespective of pre-digestion of the husk by pepsin and pancreatin...
June 1, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555427/optimization-of-high-yielding-protocol-for-dna-extraction-from-the-forest-rhizosphere-microbes
#18
Sadam D V Satyanarayana, M S R Krishna, Pindi Pavan Kumar
Soil is major reservoir for microbes and harbors a vast microbial diversity. Soil microbiota plays a pivotal role in biogeochemical cycles, bioremediation, and in health and disease states of humans, animals, and plants. It is imperative to understand the microbial signatures which are specific in such an ecosystem to unravel their potential role and impact on environment. During the recent years, exploration of soil microbial communities has been geared up with the advent of advanced sequencing technologies...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524260/presence-of-ethanol-sensitive-glycine-receptors-in-medium-spiny-neurons-in-the-mouse-nucleus-accumbens
#19
B Förstera, B Muñoz, M K Lobo, R Chandra, D M Lovinger, L G Aguayo
KEY POINTS: The nucleus accumbens (nAc) is involved in addiction-related behaviour caused by several drugs of abuse, including alcohol. Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are potentiated by ethanol and they have been implicated in the regulation of accumbal dopamine levels. We investigated the presence of GlyR subunits in nAc and their modulation by ethanol in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the mouse nAc. We found that the GlyR α1 subunit is preferentially expressed in nAc and is potentiated by ethanol...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500980/serum-metabolomics-reveals-the-mechanistic-role-of-functional-foods-and-exercise-for-obesity-management-in-rats
#20
Naglaa M Ammar, Mohamed A Farag, Tahani E Kholeif, Nadia S Metwally, Nora M El-Sheikh, Abdel Nasser El Gendy, Abdel-Hamid Z Abdel-Hamid
Obesity is one of the independent risk factors for several health problems, leading to metabolic perturbations and for which analytical approaches i.e., "metabolomics" is needed to monitor the underlying metabolic changes. In this study, obesity associated changes were assessed via serum metabolites analysis of obese rats fed on high fat diet. Obese rats were subsequently treated with different functional foods used for obesity management including pomegranate, grapefruit, and red cabbage in parallel to swimming exercise...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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