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latent tuberculosis in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076011/pulmonary-tuberculosis-role-of-radiology-in-diagnosis-and-management
#1
Arun C Nachiappan, Kasra Rahbar, Xiao Shi, Elizabeth S Guy, Eduardo J Mortani Barbosa, Girish S Shroff, Daniel Ocazionez, Alan E Schlesinger, Sharyn I Katz, Mark M Hammer
Tuberculosis is a public health problem worldwide, including in the United States-particularly among immunocompromised patients and other high-risk groups. Tuberculosis manifests in active and latent forms. Active disease can occur as primary tuberculosis, developing shortly after infection, or postprimary tuberculosis, developing after a long period of latent infection. Primary tuberculosis occurs most commonly in children and immunocompromised patients, who present with lymphadenopathy, pulmonary consolidation, and pleural effusion...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074660/optimizing-the-management-of-children-with-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#2
E Venturini, C Tersigni, E Chiappini, M de Martino, L Galli
The management of latent tuberculosis (LTBI) in children represents an important issue for paediatricians because of the disease burden, the lack of a gold standard for the diagnosis and the high annual risk of progression to active disease. Areas covered: A review of English language articles on LTBI in children, published between the 1(st) of January 2010 and the 1(st) of July 2016, was conducted using multiple keywords and standardized terminology in PubMed database. This review provides an updated overview of the available tests for LTBI diagnosis in children, management strategies and treatment options...
January 11, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052967/official-american-thoracic-society-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-clinical-practice-guidelines-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-adults-and-children
#3
David M Lewinsohn, Michael K Leonard, Philip A LoBue, David L Cohn, Charles L Daley, Ed Desmond, Joseph Keane, Deborah A Lewinsohn, Ann M Loeffler, Gerald H Mazurek, Richard J O'Brien, Madhukar Pai, Luca Richeldi, Max Salfinger, Thomas M Shinnick, Timothy R Sterling, David M Warshauer, Gail L Woods
BACKGROUND: Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain. METHODS: A task force supported by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America searched, selected, and synthesized relevant evidence...
January 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043634/mycobacterial-excretory-secretory-31-protein-with-serine-protease-and-lipase-activities-an-immunogen-and-drug-target-against-tuberculosis-infection
#4
Bhaskar C Harinath
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) has been declared as a global emergency by the World Health Organization in 1993 and still remains one of the world's biggest threats. Worldwide, 9.6 million people have been estimated to have fallen ill with TB in 2014: 5.4 million men, 3.2 million women, and 1.0 million children. To reduce this burden, detection and treatment gaps must be addressed and new tools developed (Global TB report 2015). METHODS: Seroreactivity of the purified excretory secretory (ES) antigens ES-31, ES-43, ES-41, and ES-6 have been assessed in pulmonary TB (fresh, relapse, chronic, and latent), extrapulmonary TB, and in human immunodeficiency virus-TB coinfection...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043594/incidence-of-tuberculosis-among-children-living-in-contact-with-smear-positive-tuberculosis-advantages-and-limits-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-test
#5
Djohar Hannoun, Fadila Boulahbal
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Children living in contact with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients are highly exposed to TB infection. Our objective was to estimate the incidence of TB in children living in contact with a Smear Positive (M+) pulmonary tuberculosis (PTM+) index case during 2years following exposure. METHODS: This was a descriptive, cohort, prospective, multicenter study of children aged from 6months to 15years in contact with a PTM+ case. The recruitment of children has been based on the diagnosed PTM+ index case and taken in charge by the Services of Control of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases located in Algiers during 2014...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043486/tuberculosis-in-children
#6
Ali Akbar Velayati
Tuberculosis (TB) is the main cause of infection-related death in the world. Children make up ∼5-15% of all TB cases. Severe forms of disease such as meningitis and disseminated form are more common in children. Due to current estimates of World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015, one million children suffer from TB around the world; of these, it is estimated that more than 136,000 die a year. One study estimated 67million children with latent TB which develops to active form with the rate of ∼850,000 each year...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030525/adherence-to-antituberculosis-drugs-in-children-and-adolescents-in-a-low-endemic-setting-a-retrospective-series
#7
Eva-Maria Guix-Comellas, Librada Rozas, Eneritz Velasco-Arnaiz, Victoria Morín-Fraile, Enriqueta Force-Sanmartín, Antoni Noguera-Julian
Adherence to antituberculosis drug regimens is critical for the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis in pediatrics. In a large retrospective series of children and adolescents in Barcelona, Spain, completion of treatment was worse among patients treated for latent infection, compared with those treated for active tuberculosis or receiving primary chemoprophylaxis. Toxicity and cultural and language barriers were identified as predictors of non-adherence.
December 27, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932390/official-american-thoracic-society-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-clinical-practice-guidelines-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-adults-and-children
#8
David M Lewinsohn, Michael K Leonard, Philip A LoBue, David L Cohn, Charles L Daley, Ed Desmond, Joseph Keane, Deborah A Lewinsohn, Ann M Loeffler, Gerald H Mazurek, Richard J O'Brien, Madhukar Pai, Luca Richeldi, Max Salfinger, Thomas M Shinnick, Timothy R Sterling, David M Warshauer, Gail L Woods
BACKGROUND: Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain. METHODS: A task force supported by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America searched, selected, and synthesized relevant evidence...
December 8, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872018/preventive-therapy-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-the-promise-and-the-challenges
#9
REVIEW
G J Fox, C C Dobler, B J Marais, J T Denholm
Around one third of the world's population may harbour latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), an asymptomatic immunological state that confers a heightened risk of subsequently developing tuberculosis (TB). Effectively treating LTBI will be essential if the End TB Strategy is to be realized. This review evaluates the evidence in relation to the effectiveness of preventive antibiotic therapy to treat LTBI due to both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant bacteria. Current national and international preventive therapy guidelines are summarized, as well as ongoing randomized trials evaluating regimens to prevent drug-resistant TB...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825307/prevalence-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-predictive-factors-in-an-urban-informal-settlement-in-johannesburg-south-africa-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Jabulani R Ncayiyana, Jean Bassett, Nora West, Daniel Westreich, Eustasius Musenge, Michael Emch, Audrey Pettifor, Colleen F Hanrahan, Sheree R Schwartz, Ian Sanne, Annelies van Rie
BACKGROUND: South Africa has one of the highest burdens of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in high-risk populations such as young children, adolescents, household contacts of TB cases, people living with HIV, gold miners and health care workers, but little is known about the burden of LTBI in its general population. METHODS: Using a community-based survey with random sampling, we examined the burden of LTBI in an urban township of Johannesburg and investigated factors associated with LTBI...
November 8, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794078/clemens-von-pirquet-a-remarkable-life-and-career
#11
REVIEW
Stanford T Shulman
From 1908 to 1929, Clemens von Pirquet was one of the world's most acclaimed pediatricians. Von Pirquet (1874-1929) trained at Vienna's Universitäts Kinderklinic under Theodor Escherich, the first Pediatric Infectious Diseases physician [ 1], and became the first Professor and Chair of Pediatrics at Johns Hopkins in 1909. He then succeeded his mentor Escherich as Professor and Chair of Pediatrics in Vienna, the most prestigious European pediatric position, when Escherich died unexpectedly in 1911. He held that position in Vienna until his shocking double suicide at age 54 with his wife in 1929...
October 28, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784885/tuberculosis
#12
Madhukar Pai, Marcel A Behr, David Dowdy, Keertan Dheda, Maziar Divangahi, Catharina C Boehme, Ann Ginsberg, Soumya Swaminathan, Melvin Spigelman, Haileyesus Getahun, Dick Menzies, Mario Raviglione
Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne infectious disease caused by organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Although primarily a pulmonary pathogen, M. tuberculosis can cause disease in almost any part of the body. Infection with M. tuberculosis can evolve from containment in the host, in which the bacteria are isolated within granulomas (latent TB infection), to a contagious state, in which the patient will show symptoms that can include cough, fever, night sweats and weight loss. Only active pulmonary TB is contagious...
October 27, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783642/prevalence-and-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-young-children-in-the-absence-of-a-gold-standard
#13
Tomas Maria Perez-Porcuna, Hélio Doyle Pereira-da-Silva, Carlos Ascaso, Adriana Malheiro, Samira Bührer, Flor Martinez-Espinosa, Rosa Abellana
INTRODUCTION: For adequate disease control the World Health Organization has proposed the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in groups of risk of developing the disease such as children. There is no gold standard (GS) test for the diagnosis of LTBI. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of LTBI in young children in contact with a household case of tuberculosis (TB-HCC) and determine the accuracy and precision of the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube (QFT) used in the absence of a GS...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763258/tuberculosis-diagnostics-state-of-the-art-and-future-directions
#14
Madhukar Pai, Mark P Nicol, Catharina C Boehme
Rapid and accurate diagnosis is critical for timely initiation of anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment, but many people with TB (or TB symptoms) do not have access to adequate initial diagnosis. In many countries, TB diagnosis is still reliant on sputum microscopy, a test with known limitations. However, new diagnostics are starting to change the landscape. Stimulated, in part, by the success and rollout of Xpert MTB/RIF, an automated, molecular test, there is now considerable interest in new technologies. The landscape looks promising with a pipeline of new tools, particularly molecular diagnostics, and well over 50 companies actively engaged in product development, and many tests have been reviewed by WHO for policy endorsement...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749653/quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-improves-tuberculosis-diagnosis-in-children
#15
Roberta Petrucci, Giulia Lombardi, Ilaria Corsini, Maria Letizia Bacchi Reggiani, Francesca Visciotti, Filippo Bernardi, Maria Paola Landini, Salvatore Cazzato, Paola Dal Monte
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic accuracy of Quantiferon-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT) is uncertain in the pediatric population, while tuberculin skin test (TST) is still conventionally used despite its limitations. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of QFT-IT with TST in a large cohort of children screened for tuberculosis (TB) infection because of contact tracing, suspected TB, arrival from endemic country or immunosuppressive therapy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 517 children 0-14 years of age evaluated at the pediatric unit of the S...
January 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737841/diagnostic-test-accuracy-in-childhood-pulmonary-tuberculosis-a-bayesian-latent-class-analysis
#16
Samuel G Schumacher, Maarten van Smeden, Nandini Dendukuri, Lawrence Joseph, Mark P Nicol, Madhukar Pai, Heather J Zar
Evaluation of tests for the diagnosis of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis (CPTB) is complicated by the absence of an accurate reference test. We present a Bayesian latent class analysis in which we evaluated the accuracy of 5 diagnostic tests for CPTB. We used data from a study of 749 hospitalized South African children suspected to have CPTB from 2009 to 2014. The following tests were used: mycobacterial culture, smear microscopy, Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid Inc.), tuberculin skin test (TST), and chest radiography...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730117/potential-role-for-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assays-in-tuberculosis-screening-in-a-remote-canadian-community-a-case-series
#17
Wilson Kwong, Thomas Krahn, Ann Cleland, Janet Gordon, Wendy Wobeser
BACKGROUND: Current Canadian guidelines suggest that neonatal Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination does not result in false-positive tuberculosis (TB) skin tests, despite a growing body of evidence that interferon-γ release assays may be a more specific alternative in identifying latent tuberculosis infections in vaccinated populations. We set out to evaluate the relationship between TB skin tests and interferon-γ release assays in patients who previously received neonatal BCG vaccine...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716176/relation-between-bcg-vaccine-scar-and-an-interferon-gamma-release-assay-in-immigrant-children-with-positive-tuberculin-skin-test-%C3%A2-10%C3%A2-mm
#18
Margret Johansson Gudjónsdóttir, Karsten Kötz, Ruth Stangebye Nielsen, Philip Wilmar, Sofia Olausson, Daniel Wallmyr, Birger Trollfors
BACKGROUND: Immigrants from countries with high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) are usually offered screening when they arrive to low incidence countries. The tuberculin skin test (TST) is often used. The interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are more specific and not affected by BCG vaccination. The aims of this study were 1. To see if there if there is a correlation between a positive IGRA (QFT) and presence of a BCG scar in children with TST ≥10 mm, 2. To compare the TST diameter with QFT result, 3...
October 6, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462354/usefulness-of-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-young-children
#19
Ki Wook Yun, Young Kwang Kim, Hae Ryun Kim, Mi Kyung Lee, In Seok Lim
PURPOSE: Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in young children may progress to severe active tuberculosis (TB) disease and serve as a reservoir for future transmission of TB disease. There are limited data on interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) performance in young children, which our research aims to address by investigating the usefulness of IGRA for the diagnosis of LTBI. METHODS: We performed a tuberculin skin test (TST) and IGRA on children who were younger than 18 years and were admitted to Chung-Ang University Hospital during May 2011-June 2015...
June 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27322255/pediatric-tuberculosis-in-italian-children-epidemiological-and-clinical-data-from-the-italian-register-of-pediatric-tuberculosis
#20
Luisa Galli, Laura Lancella, Chiara Tersigni, Elisabetta Venturini, Elena Chiappini, Barbara Maria Bergamini, Margherita Codifava, Cristina Venturelli, Giulia Tosetti, Caterina Marabotto, Laura Cursi, Elena Boccuzzi, Silvia Garazzino, Pier Angelo Tovo, Michele Pinon, Daniele Le Serre, Laura Castiglioni, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Alfredo Guarino, Eugenia Bruzzese, Giuseppe Losurdo, Elio Castagnola, Grazia Bossi, Gian Luigi Marseglia, Susanna Esposito, Samantha Bosis, Rita Grandolfo, Valentina Fiorito, Piero Valentini, Danilo Buonsenso, Raffaele Domenici, Marco Montesanti, Filippo Maria Salvini, Enrica Riva, Icilio Dodi, Francesca Maschio, Luisa Abbagnato, Elisa Fiumana, Chiara Fornabaio, Patrizia Ballista, Vincenzo Portelli, Gabriella Bottone, Nicola Palladino, Mariella Valenzise, Barbara Vecchi, Maria Di Gangi, Carla Lupi, Alberto Villani, Maurizio de Martino
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Over the last decades, TB has also emerged in the pediatric population. Epidemiologic data of childhood TB are still limited and there is an urgent need of more data on very large cohorts. A multicenter study was conducted in 27 pediatric hospitals, pediatric wards, and public health centers in Italy using a standardized form, covering the period of time between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Children with active TB, latent TB, and those recently exposed to TB or recently adopted/immigrated from a high TB incidence country were enrolled...
June 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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