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latent tuberculosis in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442397/tuberculin-skin-test-versus-interferon-gamma-release-assay-in-refugee-children-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#1
Chris Elliot, Ben Marais, Phoebe Williams, Paul Joshua, Sherri Towle, Graham Hart, Karen Zwi
AIM: The aim of this study was to assist clinicians evaluating refugee children for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) by comparing paired tuberculin skin test (TST) and Quantiferon Gold In-Tube (QGIT) test results with clinical management decisions and follow-up data in a large cohort of newly arrived refugee children. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of all refugee children (<15 years of age) evaluated for LTBI with both TST and interferon-γ release assay between 2007 and 2010 in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales, Australia...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404180/evaluation-of-treatment-indications-tuberculin-skin-test-and-bacillus-calmette-guerin-vaccination-scars-in-the-cases-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-treatment
#2
Beyhan Çakar
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to evaluate the latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment application and to investigate if there is change between tuberculin skin test (TST) results according to bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) scar numbers after LTBI treatment with isoniazid (INH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected from the LTBI treatment files from the dispensary of 2006. The results were statistically evaluated. RESULTS: Latent tuberculosis infection was administered to 253 cases in 2006...
January 2018: Turkish Thoracic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388291/comparison-of-tuberculin-skin-test-and-interferon-gamma-release-assay-for-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-pediatric-candidates-of-renal-transplantation
#3
Shirin Sayyahfar, Faranak Davoodzadeh, Rozita Hoseini, Nahid Rahimzadeh, Hasan Otukesh
IGRA has been approved as an alternative in vitro test to diagnose Mycobacterium TB infection. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic value of TST in comparison with QFT assay to detect LTBI among Iranian children candidate for renal transplantation. This cross-sectional study was performed on 31 children who were candidate for renal transplantation admitted to Ali Asghar Children's Hospital and Rasoul Akram Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2013 to 2014. TST and QFT were performed for all patients. QFT was negative in all patients, while TST was positive only in one case...
February 1, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364534/italian-multicentre-study-found-infectious-and-vaccine-preventable-diseases-in-children-adopted-from-africa-and-recommends-prompt-medical-screening
#4
Elena Chiappini, Mauro Zaffaroni, Martina Bianconi, Giuseppina Veneruso, Nicolino Grasso, Silvia Garazzino, Rosangela Arancio, Piero Valentini, Anna Ficcadenti, Maria Rosalia Da Riol, Simona La Placa, Luisa Galli, Maurizio de Martino, Gianni Bona
AIM: This study evaluated the prevalence of infectious diseases and immunisation status of children adopted from Africa METHODS: We studied 762 African children referred to 11 Italian paediatric centres in 2009-2015. Clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively collected and analysed. RESULTS: The median age of the children (60.3% males) was 3.6 years, 52.6% came from Ethiopia and 50.1% had at least one infectious disease. Parasitic infections accounted for the majority of the infectious diseases (409/715) and the most common were Giardia lamblia (n=239), Toxocara canis (n=65) and skin infections (n=205), notably Tinea capitis/corporis (n=134) and Molluscum contagiosum (n=56) Active tuberculosis (TB) was diagnosed in nine children (1...
January 24, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204099/tuberculosis-infection-in-children-with-proteinuria-nephrotic-syndrome
#5
Hanna Szymanik-Grzelak, Elżbieta Kuźma-Mroczkowska, Piotr Skrzypczyk, Teresa Bielecka, Iwona Kotula, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
Children with nephrotic syndrome (NS) are at greater risk of infections than the general population, due to immunodeficiency in the course of the disease and the treatment. In this study we present 4 children (2 girls, 2 boys), mean age 7.6 ±5.1 years, with NS/proteinuria and latent tuberculosis in 3 children and lymph node tuberculosis in 1 child. The reasons for testing these children for tuberculosis (TB) were the evaluation of the epidemiological status before treatment with corticosteroids (GCS), leukopenia and the relapse of NS, and non-nephrotic proteinuria...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187669/usefulness-of-the-combination-of-tuberculin-skin-test-and-interferon-gamma-release-assay-in-diagnosing-children-with-tuberculosis
#6
Hiroyuki Shimizu, Masaaki Mori
Japan is still designated as a medium incidence country, worldwide. Although the definitive diagnosis of tuberculosis is made by detecting pathogen from tissue specimens, collecting those from children is physically difficult. Therefore, we must frequently depend on the results of tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA). However, the value of IGRA in diagnosing tuberculosis in infants remains unclear. We implemented TST and IGRA concurrently and examined the significance of combining these two tests by analyzing cases where conflicting results were evident from other tests...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182688/interferon-gamma-release-assay-for-the-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-a-latent-class-analysis
#7
Tan N Doan, Damon P Eisen, Morgan T Rose, Andrew Slack, Grace Stearnes, Emma S McBryde
BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis and subsequent treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is essential for TB elimination. However, the absence of a gold standard test for diagnosing LTBI makes assessment of the true prevalence of LTBI and the accuracy of diagnostic tests challenging. Bayesian latent class models can be used to make inferences about disease prevalence and the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests using data on the concordance between tests. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date aiming to evaluate the performance of tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) for LTBI diagnosis in various patient populations using Bayesian latent class modelling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179780/a-highly-transmissible-tuberculosis-outbreak-the-importance-of-bars
#8
P Godoy, M Alsedà, M Falguera, T Puig, P Bach, M Monrabà, A Manonelles
The transmission of tuberculosis (TB) in bars is difficult to study. The objective was to describe a large TB outbreak in a company's bar and other leisure settings. A descriptive study of a TB outbreak was carried out. Contacts were studied in the index case's workplace bar (five circles of contacts) and other recreational areas (social network of three bars in the index case's neighbourhood). Chest X-rays were recommended to contacts with positive tuberculin skin tests (TST) (⩾5 mm). The risk of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) was determined using an adjusted odds ratio...
November 28, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142046/quantitative-analysis-of-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assay-response-in-children-with-latent-and-active-tuberculosis
#9
Giulia Lombardi, Roberta Petrucci, Ilaria Corsini, Maria Letizia Bacchi Reggiani, Francesca Visciotti, Filippo Bernardi, Maria Paola Landini, Salvatore Cazzato, Paola Dal Monte
The use of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) infection in children is still under debate because of concerns about their immature immune response.The aim of this study was to investigate quantitative values of QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT), a commercially available IGRA, in a large cohort of children screened for TB infection.A retrospective analysis was conducted on samples from 517 children aged 0-14 years old at the Pediatric Unit of S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital of Bologna (Italy); quantitative responses to QFT-IT stimuli were analyzed according to diagnosis and age...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140946/comparison-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-assay-with-tuberculin-skin-test-for-the-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-children
#10
Walter Dehority, Rolando M Viani, Maria Rosario G Araneta, Graciano Lopez, Stephen A Spector
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is facilitated by tuberculin skin testing (TST) or interferon-gamma release assays such as the QuantiFERON TB Gold In-Tube (QTF-GIT) assays. Limited data exist on the utility of interferon-gamma release assays in HIV-infected children, which may be falsely negative due to immunosuppression. METHODS: A cross-sectional study comparing TST to QTF-GIT for the diagnosis of suspected LTBI was performed in children in Tijuana, Mexico, and in San Diego, California...
December 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136358/is-secretion-of-ifn-gamma-in-response-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigens-in-youngest-children-sufficient-to-play-a-role-in-tb-diagnostics
#11
Teresa Bielecka, Anna Komorowska-Piotrowska, Katarzyna Krenke, Wojciech Feleszko, Marek Kulus
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether children ≤5 years of age, produce sufficient amounts of interferon gamma (IFN-ɣ) in response to phytohaemagglutinin (mitogen), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens (TB antigens) in the QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-Tube test (QFT-GIT), (Cellestis Ltd., Australia). WORKING HYPOTHESIS: Is TB-antigen-induced IFN-ɣ response in children ≤5 years sufficient to consider QFT-GIT a possible tool for TB diagnostics? Study design, patient-subject selection, and methods: We recruited children 0-17 years old suspected of TB infection to this cross-sectional study, in whom QFT-GIT and TST were performed...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126342/-tuberculosis-among-refugees-and-asylum-seekers-tuberculosis-screening-on-arrival-and-case-management
#12
Martin Priwitzer
The statement of the Federal Association of Physicians of Public Health Services provides recommendations concerning tuberculosis screening of refugees and asylum seekers on arrival specific to different groups of persons (adults, children, pregnant women, unaccompanied minors), taking into account the legal background and the current recommendations of the Robert Koch Institute as well as of the German Society for Pediatric Infectiology. In addition, recommendations are given to ensure treatment success in refugees and asylum seekers with tuberculosis, to carry out contact investigations and for preventive treatment of latent tuberculosis infection among refugees and asylum seekers...
November 10, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126100/using-reports-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-young-children-to-identify-tuberculosis-transmission-in-new-york-city-2006-2012
#13
Jennifer Sanderson Slutsker, Lisa Trieu, Aldo Crossa, Shama Desai Ahuja
Young children with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) indicate recent TB transmission. We reviewed surveillance reports of children with LTBI to assess whether more follow-up is needed to prevent TB among this high-risk population. All children <5 years reported to the New York City Department of Health from 2006-2012 were abstracted from the TB Registry to identify those with LTBI. Potential source cases were identified; defined as any infectious TB case diagnosed in the 2 years before a child was reported and whose residence was within <0...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982226/transmission-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-households-and-the-community-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Leonardo Martinez, Ye Shen, Ezekiel Mupere, Allan Kizza, Philip C Hill, Christopher C Whalen
The individual- and population-level impact of household tuberculosis exposure on transmission is unclear but may have implications for the effectiveness and implementation of control interventions. We systematically searched for and included studies in which latent tuberculosis infection was assessed in 2 groups: children exposed and unexposed to a household member with tuberculosis. We also extracted data on the smear and culture status of index cases, the age and bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination status of contacts, and study design characteristics...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928738/age-stratified-t-cell-responses-in-children-infected-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#15
Alexandra Dreesman, Véronique Corbière, Violette Dirix, Kaat Smits, Sara Debulpaep, Iris De Schutter, Myriam Libin, Mahavir Singh, Anne Malfroot, Camille Locht, Françoise Mascart
Tuberculosis (TB) in young children differs from adult TB in that the risk of rapid progression to active TB (aTB) is higher in children than in adults. The reasons for this increased risk are not fully understood. Early differentiation remains difficult between children at risk to develop aTB from those who will remain healthy and develop a latent TB infection (LTBI). Biomarkers to differentiate aTB from LTBI in children, especially in very young children, are urgently needed. To identify M. tuberculosis-specific functional T cell subsets related to clinical manifestations in children, we enrolled 87 children exposed to M...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877156/performance-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-assay-among-hiv-infected-children-with-active-tuberculosis-in-france
#16
Myriam Hormi, Valérie Guérin-El Khourouj, Virginie Pommelet, Mohamed Jeljeli, Béatrice Pédron, Jean-Sébastien Diana, Albert Faye, Ghislaine Sterkers
BACKGROUND: Data regarding the use of QuantiFERON to assist the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected children is limited, especially in countries with low incidence of TB/HIV co-infection. METHODS: QuantiFERON results were analyzed in 63 HIV-infected children who presented to our hospital in Paris, France. Seventeen HIV-uninfected children with active TB (4 culture-confirmed) were included for comparison. RESULTS: The 63 HIV-infected children (median age: 11 years) had 113 QuantiFERON tests...
September 5, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840843/interferon-gamma-release-assay-in-response-to-pe35-ppe68-proteins-a-promising-diagnostic-method-for-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis
#17
Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Setareh Mamishi
Tuberculosis control relies on the identification and preventive treatment of people who are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). PE/PPE proteins have been reported to elicit CD4 and/or CD8 responses either in the form of whole recombinant proteins or as individual peptides. Very few of the PE and PPE proteins have been previously tested for responses in patients with TB and healthy donors. This is the first study to evaluate the Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) after stimulation with PE35 and PPE68...
March 1, 2017: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838977/risk-of-tuberculosis-in-patients-with-solid%C3%A2-cancers-and-haematological-malignancies-a-systematic-review-and%C3%A2-meta-analysis
#18
Claudia C Dobler, Kelvin Cheung, John Nguyen, Andrew Martin
There is uncertainty regarding whether patients with cancer should be screened for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the relative incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in cancer.We searched MEDLINE and Embase for studies published before December 21, 2016. We included studies that evaluated the incidence of TB in patients with solid cancers and haematological malignancies relative to a reference group (study control or general population). A pooled estimate of the incidence rate ratio (IRR) was obtained using standard meta-analysis methods...
August 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777204/better-completion-of-pediatric-latent-tuberculosis-treatment-using-4-months-of-rifampin-in-a-us-based-tuberculosis-clinic
#19
James Gaensbauer, Kaylynn Aiona, Michelle Haas, Randall Reves, Janine Young, Robert Belknap
BACKGROUND: Children less than five years of age have the highest age-specific rate of progression from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to active disease. Therefore, regimens for treatment of pediatric LTBI must be not only efficacious but practical enough to overcome the unique childhood barriers to regimen adherence. Since 2012, a 4-month regimen of daily rifampin (4R) has been the standard recommendation for pediatric LTBI at the Denver Metro Tuberculosis Clinic (DMTBC). METHODS: Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we compared treatment completion rates between 4R and 9-month isoniazid (9H) regimens for all pediatric patients treated for LTBI at the DMTBC between 1/1/2006 and 12/31/2015, and assessed the influence of clinical and demographic characteristics on successful completion of the two regimens...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756786/negative-latent-tuberculosis-at-time-of-incarceration-identifying-a-very-high-risk-group-for-infection
#20
L Arroyave, Y Keynan, L López, D Marin, M P Arbeláez, Z V Rueda
The main aim was to measure the incidence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and identify risk factors associated with infection. In addition, we determined the number needed to screen (NNS) to identify LTBI and active tuberculosis. We followed 129 prisoners for 2 years following a negative two-step tuberculin skin test (TST). The cumulative incidence of TST conversion over 2 years was 29·5% (38/129), among the new TST converters, nine developed active TB. Among persons with no evidence of LTBI, the NNS to identify a LTBI case was 3·4 and an active TB case was 14·3...
September 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
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