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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651635/effects-of-probiotic-supplementation-on-trimethylamine-n-oxide-plasma-levels-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-pilot-study
#1
Natália A Borges, P Stenvinkel, P Bergman, A R Qureshi, B Lindholm, C Moraes, M B Stockler-Pinto, D Mafra
Components present in the diet, L-carnitine, choline, and betaine are metabolized by gut microbiota to produce metabolites such as trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) that appear to promote cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation for 3 months on plasma TMAO levels in CKD patients on hemodialysis (HD). A randomized, double-blind trial was performed in 21 patients [54.8 ± 10.4 years, nine men, BMI 26...
April 12, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581220/effect-of-vegan-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-on-carnitine-and-choline-derived-trimethylamine-n-oxide-production-and-vascular-inflammation-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#2
Loek P Smits, Ruud S Kootte, Evgeni Levin, Andrei Prodan, Susana Fuentes, Erwin G Zoetendal, Zeneng Wang, Bruce S Levison, Maartje C P Cleophas, E Marleen Kemper, Geesje M Dallinga-Thie, Albert K Groen, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, Erik S G Stroes, Willem M de Vos, Stanley L Hazen, Max Nieuwdorp
BACKGROUND: Intestinal microbiota have been found to be linked to cardiovascular disease via conversion of the dietary compounds choline and carnitine to the atherogenic metabolite TMAO (trimethylamine-N-oxide). Specifically, a vegan diet was associated with decreased plasma TMAO levels and nearly absent TMAO production on carnitine challenge. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a double-blind randomized controlled pilot study in which 20 male metabolic syndrome patients were randomized to single lean vegan-donor or autologous fecal microbiota transplantation...
March 26, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524697/uplc-esi-ms-ms-method-for-the-quantitative-measurement-of-aliphatic-diamines-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-%C3%AE-methylamino-l-alanine-in-human-urine
#3
Deepak Bhandari, Brett A Bowman, Anish B Patel, David M Chambers, Víctor R De Jesús, Benjamin C Blount
This work describes a quantitative high-throughput analytical method for the simultaneous measurement of small aliphatic nitrogenous biomarkers, i.e., 1,6-hexamethylenediamine (HDA), isophoronediamine (IPDA), β-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), in human urine. Urinary aliphatic diamines, HDA and IPDA, are potential biomarkers of environmental exposure to their corresponding diisocyanates. Urinary BMAA forms as a result of human exposure to blue-green algae contaminated food. And, TMAO is excreted in urine due to the consumption of carnitine- and choline-rich diets...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490096/metabolomic-markers-of-essential-fatty-acids-carnitine-and-cholesterol-metabolism-in-adults-and-adolescents-with-phenylketonuria
#4
Bridget M Stroup, Nivedita Nair, Sangita G Murali, Katarzyna Broniowska, Fran Rohr, Harvey L Levy, Denise M Ney
Background: Individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) have a risk of cognitive impairment and inflammation. Many follow a low-phenylalanine (low-Phe) diet devoid of animal protein in combination with medical foods (MFs). Objective: To assess lipid metabolism in participants with PKU consuming amino acid MFs (AA-MFs) or glycomacropeptide MFs (GMP-MFs), we conducted fatty acid and metabolomics analyses. Methods: We used subsets of fasting plasma and urine samples from our randomized crossover trial in which participants with early-treated classical and variant (milder) PKU consumed a low-Phe diet combined with AA-MFs or GMP-MFs for 3 wk each...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364680/exploration-of-the-faecal-microbiota-and-biomarker-discovery-in-equine-grass-sickness
#5
Joy Leng, Chris Proudman, Alistair Darby, Frances Blow, Neil Townsend, Andrew Miller, Jonathan Swann
Equine grass sickness (EGS) is a frequently fatal disease of horses, responsible for the death of 1-2% of the UK horse population annually. The etiology of this disease is currently uncharacterized although there is evidence it is associated with Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin in the gut. Prevention is currently not possible and ileal biopsy diagnosis is invasive. The aim of this study was to characterize the fecal microbiota and biofluid metabolic profiles of EGS horses, to further understand the mechanisms underlying this disease and identify metabolic biomarkers to aid in diagnosis...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305401/changes-in-gut-microbiota-related-metabolites-and-long-term-successful-weight-loss-in-response-to-weight-loss-diets-the-pounds-lost-trial
#6
Yoriko Heianza, Dianjianyi Sun, Steven R Smith, George A Bray, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
OBJECTIVE: Adiposity and the gut microbiota are both related to the risk of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to comprehensively examine how changes induced by a weight-loss diet intervention in gut microbiota-related metabolites, such as trimethylamine N -oxide (TMAO) and its precursors (choline and l-carnitine), were associated with improvements in adiposity and regional fat deposition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 510 overweight and obese individuals who were randomly assigned one of four diets varying in macronutrient intake...
March 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178259/the-effect-of-different-l-carnitine-administration-routes-on-the-development-of-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-knockout-mice
#7
Ying Zhao, Ning Yang, Jinmao Gao, Hanying Li, Wei Cai, Xin Zhang, Yongqiang Ma, Xiulong Niu, Guohong Yang, Xin Zhou, Yuming Li
SCOPE: l-Carnitine (LC) is abundant in red meat and is widely added to health supplements and food. This study focuses on the adverse effects of oral supplementation of 1.3% LC in ApoE-/- mice and whether the parenteral administration of LC (subcutaneously, sub) has any impact on the development of atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice are randomly divided into three groups (n = 15). All mice are fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The number of Ly6Chi monocytes; degree of atherosclerosis; plasma LC, γ-butyrobetaine (γBB), and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) levels; and microbial community composition are analyzed...
November 27, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110324/cnta-oxygenase-substrate-profile-comparison-and-oxygen-dependency-of-tma-production-in-providencia-rettgeri
#8
Gints Kalnins, Eduards Sevostjanovs, Dace Hartmane, Solveiga Grinberga, Kaspars Tars
CntA oxygenase is a Rieske 2S-2Fe cluster-containing protein that has been previously described as able to produce trimethylamine (TMA) from carnitine, gamma-butyrobetaine, glycine betaine, and in one case, choline. TMA found in humans is exclusively of bacterial origin, and its metabolite, trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), has been associated with atherosclerosis and heart and renal failure. We isolated four different Rieske oxygenases and determined that there are no significant differences in their substrate panels...
January 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937600/the-gut-microbial-metabolite-trimethylamine-n-oxide-is-present-in-human-cerebrospinal-fluid
#9
Daniele Del Rio, Francesca Zimetti, Paolo Caffarra, Michele Tassotti, Franco Bernini, Furio Brighenti, Andrea Zini, Ilaria Zanotti
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a small organic molecule, derived from the intestinal and hepatic metabolism of dietary choline and carnitine. Although the involvement of TMAO in the framework of many chronic diseases has been recently described, no evidence on its putative role in the central nervous system has been provided. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether TMAO is present at detectable levels in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF was collected for diagnostic purposes from 58 subjects by lumbar puncture and TMAO was quantified by using liquid chromatography coupled with multiple-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry...
September 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872093/-research-progress-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-in-the-pathogenesis-of-atherosclerosis
#10
Huahua He, Xinfu Lian, Zhiqun Tang
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), metabolites of the intestinal microflora, is a newly discovered risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The intestinal flora converted choline and L-carnitine into trimethylamine in the food. Trimethylamine is oxidized to TMAO in liver enzymes. Lowering TMA can stimulate macrophages to reverse cholesterol transport and inhibit atherogenesis. TMAO poietin-monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) is a tool for cholesterol metabolism and reverse cholesterol transpor, lowering FMO3 can slow the gallbladder's secretion of bile, delay intestinal absorption of cholesterol, and limit the synthesis of oxidized cholesterol and cholesterol esters...
August 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745401/trimethylamine-n-oxide-breathe-new-life
#11
REVIEW
Saravanan Subramaniam, Craig Fletcher
Association between elevated levels of systemic trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events have been proposed in recent years. Increasing experimental and clinical evidence in the last decade has implicated TMAO as an important contributor to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. TMAO, the oxygenated product of trimethylamine (TMA), belongs to the class of amine oxides. Most of the TMA derived from the metabolism of choline and L-carnitine by gut bacteria is absorbed into the bloodstream and gets rapidly oxidized to TMAO by the hepatic enzyme, flavin-containing monooxgenase-3...
July 26, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724646/association-between-microbiota-dependent-metabolite-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-type-2-diabetes
#12
Zhilei Shan, Taoping Sun, Hao Huang, Sijing Chen, Liangkai Chen, Cheng Luo, Wei Yang, Xuefeng Yang, Ping Yao, Jinquan Cheng, Frank B Hu, Liegang Liu
Background: The association of trimethylamine- N -oxide (TMAO), a microbiota-dependent metabolite from dietary choline and carnitine, with type 2 diabetes was inconsistent. Objective: We evaluated the association of plasma TMAO with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and the potential modification of TMAO-generating enzyme flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) polymorphisms. Design: This was an age- and sex-matched case-control study of 2694 participants: 1346 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes and 1348 controls...
September 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715991/trimethylamine-n-oxide-the-microbiome-and-heart-and-kidney-disease
#13
REVIEW
Steven H Zeisel, Manya Warrier
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a biologically active molecule and is a putative promoter of chronic diseases including atherosclerosis in humans. Host intestinal bacteria produce its precursor trimethylamine (TMA) from carnitine, choline, or choline-containing compounds. Most of the TMA produced is passively absorbed into portal circulation, and hepatic flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) efficiently oxidize TMA to TMAO. Both observational and experimental studies suggest a strong positive correlation between increased plasma TMAO concentrations and adverse cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and death...
August 21, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663251/gut-microbiota-metabolites-and-risk-of-major-adverse-cardiovascular-disease-events-and-death-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#14
REVIEW
Yoriko Heianza, Wenjie Ma, JoAnn E Manson, Kathryn M Rexrode, Lu Qi
BACKGROUND: Gut microbial metabolites have been implicated as novel risk factors for cardiovascular events and premature death. The strength and consistency of associations between blood concentrations of the gut microbial metabolites, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and its precursors, with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) or death have not been comprehensively assessed. We quantified associations of blood concentrations of TMAO and its precursors with risks of MACE and mortality...
June 29, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645263/microbiota-dependent-metabolite-and-cardiovascular-disease-marker-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-is-associated-with-monocyte-activation-but-not-platelet-function-in-untreated-hiv-infection
#15
Judith M Haissman, Anna K Haugaard, Sisse R Ostrowski, Rolf K Berge, Johannes R Hov, Marius Trøseid, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease beyond that explained by traditional risk factors. Altered gut microbiota, microbial translocation, and immune activation have been proposed as potential triggers. The microbiota-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) predicts myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population and has recently been shown to induce platelet hyperreactivity. In the present study, we investigated if TMAO was associated with platelet function, microbial translocation, and immune activation in both untreated and combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) HIV infection...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641532/trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-as-a-new-potential-therapeutic-target-for-insulin-resistance-and-cancer
#16
Jens Oellgaard, Signe Abitz Winther, Tobias Schmidt Hansen, Peter Rossing, Bernt Johan von Scholten
BACKGROUND: The intake of animal products in food has been associated with both the development of insulin resistance and gastrointestinal cancers (GIC). Through the digestion of animal protein and other constituents of animal products, the commensal bacteria in the gut (the gut microbiota) forms metabolites that can contribute to the development of both insulin resistance and cancer. Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) is such a molecule and has recently drawn a lot of attention as it may be a risk factor for - and a link between - the gut microbiota and cardiovascular and renal disease...
June 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624482/nmr-quantification-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-in-human-serum-and-plasma-in-the-clinical-laboratory-setting
#17
Erwin Garcia, Justyna Wolak-Dinsmore, Zeneng Wang, Xinmin S Li, Dennis W Bennett, Margery A Connelly, James D Otvos, Stanley L Hazen, Elias J Jeyarajah
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) produced by gut microbiota metabolism of dietary choline and carnitine has been shown to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to provide incremental clinical prognostic utility beyond traditional risk factors for assessing a patient's CVD risk. The aim of this study was to develop an automated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy assay for quantification of TMAO concentration in serum and plasma using a high-throughput NMR clinical analyzer...
November 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588431/microbial-trimethylamine-n-oxide-as-a-disease-marker-something-fishy
#18
REVIEW
Bjarne Landfald, Jørgen Valeur, Arnold Berstad, Jan Raa
Production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) via the gut microbiota has recently been proposed as an important pathophysiological mechanism linking ingestion of 'unhealthy foods', such as beef (containing carnitine) and eggs (containing choline), and the development of atherosclerosis. Hence, TMAO has gained attention as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease. However, fish and seafood contain considerable amounts of TMAO and are generally accepted as cardioprotective: a puzzling paradox that seems to have been neglected...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511293/enterobacter-aerogenes-zdy01-attenuates-choline-induced-trimethylamine-n-oxide-levels-by-remodeling-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#19
Liang Qiu, Dong Yang, Xueying Tao, Jun Yu, Hua Xiong, Hua Wei
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which is transformed from trimethylamine (TMA) through hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenases, can promote atherosclerosis. TMA is produced from dietary carnitine, phosphatidylcholine, and choline via the gut microbes. Previous works have shown that some small molecules, such as allicin, resveratrol, and 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol, are used to reduce circulating TMAO levels. However, the use of bacteria as an effective therapy to reduce TMAO levels has not been reported. In the present study, 82 isolates were screened from healthy Chinese fecal samples on a basal salt medium supplemented with TMA as the sole carbon source...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498348/nutrients-turned-into-toxins-microbiota-modulation-of-nutrient-properties-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
REVIEW
Raul Fernandez-Prado, Raquel Esteras, Maria Vanessa Perez-Gomez, Carolina Gracia-Iguacel, Emilio Gonzalez-Parra, Ana B Sanz, Alberto Ortiz, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), accumulation of uremic toxins is associated with an increased risk of death. Some uremic toxins are ingested with the diet, such as phosphate and star fruit-derived caramboxin. Others result from nutrient processing by gut microbiota, yielding precursors of uremic toxins or uremic toxins themselves. These nutrients include l-carnitine, choline/phosphatidylcholine, tryptophan and tyrosine, which are also sold over-the-counter as nutritional supplements. Physicians and patients alike should be aware that, in CKD patients, the use of these supplements may lead to potentially toxic effects...
May 12, 2017: Nutrients
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