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Carnitine tmao

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645263/microbiota-dependent-metabolite-and-cardiovascular-disease-marker-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-is-associated-with-monocyte-activation-but-not-platelet-function-in-untreated-hiv-infection
#1
Judith M Haissman, Anna K Haugaard, Sisse R Ostrowski, Rolf K Berge, Johannes R Hov, Marius Trøseid, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease beyond that explained by traditional risk factors. Altered gut microbiota, microbial translocation, and immune activation have been proposed as potential triggers. The microbiota-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) predicts myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population and has recently been shown to induce platelet hyperreactivity. In the present study, we investigated if TMAO was associated with platelet function, microbial translocation, and immune activation in both untreated and combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) HIV infection...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641532/trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-as-a-new-potential-therapeutic-target-for-insulin-resistance-and-cancer
#2
Jens Oellgaard, Signe Abitz Winther, Tobias Schmidt Hansen, Peter Rossing, Bernt Johan von Scholten
BACKGROUND: The intake of animal products in food has been associated with both the development of insulin resistance and gastrointestinal cancers (GIC). Through the digestion of animal protein and other constituents of animal products, the commensal bacteria in the gut (the gut microbiota) forms metabolites that can contribute to the development of both insulin resistance and cancer. Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) is such a molecule and has recently drawn a lot of attention as it may be a risk factor for - and a link between - the gut microbiota and cardiovascular and renal disease...
June 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624482/nmr-quantification-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-in-human-serum-and-plasma-in-the-clinical-laboratory-setting
#3
Erwin Garcia, Justyna Wolak-Dinsmore, Zeneng Wang, Xinmin S Li, Dennis W Bennett, Margery A Connelly, James D Otvos, Stanley L Hazen, Elias J Jeyarajah
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) produced by gut microbiota metabolism of dietary choline and carnitine has been shown to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to provide incremental clinical prognostic utility beyond traditional risk factors for assessing a patient's CVD risk. The aim of this study was to develop an automated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy assay for quantification of TMAO concentration in serum and plasma using a high-throughput NMR clinical analyzer...
June 14, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588431/microbial-trimethylamine-n-oxide-as-a-disease-marker-something-fishy
#4
REVIEW
Bjarne Landfald, Jørgen Valeur, Arnold Berstad, Jan Raa
Production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) via the gut microbiota has recently been proposed as an important pathophysiological mechanism linking ingestion of 'unhealthy foods', such as beef (containing carnitine) and eggs (containing choline), and the development of atherosclerosis. Hence, TMAO has gained attention as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease. However, fish and seafood contain considerable amounts of TMAO and are generally accepted as cardioprotective: a puzzling paradox that seems to have been neglected...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511293/enterobacter-aerogenes-zdy01-attenuates-choline-induced-trimethylamine-n-oxide-levels-via-remodeling-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#5
Liang Qiu, Dong Yang, Xueying Tao, Jun Yu, Hua Xiong, Hua Wei
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which is transformed from trimethylamine (TMA) through hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenases, can promote atherosclerosis. TMA is produced from dietary carnitine, phosphatidylcholine, and choline via the gut microbes. Previous works have shown that some small molecules, such as allicin, resveratrol, and 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol, are used to reduce circulating TMAO levels. However, the use of bacteria as an effective therapy to reduce TMAO levels has not been reported. In the present study, 82 isolates were screened from healthy Chinese fecal samples on a basal salt medium supplemented with TMA as sole carbon source...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498348/nutrients-turned-into-toxins-microbiota-modulation-of-nutrient-properties-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
REVIEW
Raul Fernandez-Prado, Raquel Esteras, Maria Vanessa Perez-Gomez, Carolina Gracia-Iguacel, Emilio Gonzalez-Parra, Ana B Sanz, Alberto Ortiz, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), accumulation of uremic toxins is associated with an increased risk of death. Some uremic toxins are ingested with the diet, such as phosphate and star fruit-derived caramboxin. Others result from nutrient processing by gut microbiota, yielding precursors of uremic toxins or uremic toxins themselves. These nutrients include l-carnitine, choline/phosphatidylcholine, tryptophan and tyrosine, which are also sold over-the-counter as nutritional supplements. Physicians and patients alike should be aware that, in CKD patients, the use of these supplements may lead to potentially toxic effects...
May 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469156/impaired-renal-function-and-dysbiosis-of-gut-microbiota-contribute-to-increased-trimethylamine-n-oxide-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#7
Kai-Yu Xu, Geng-Hong Xia, Jun-Qi Lu, Mu-Xuan Chen, Xin Zhen, Shan Wang, Chao You, Jing Nie, Hong-Wei Zhou, Jia Yin
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The present study aimed to investigate the gut microbiota and blood trimethylamine-N-oxide concentration (TMAO) in Chinese CKD patients and explore the underlying explanations through the animal experiment. The median plasma TMAO level was 30.33 μmol/L in the CKD patients, which was significantly higher than the 2.08 μmol/L concentration measured in the healthy controls. Next-generation sequence revealed obvious dysbiosis of the gut microbiome in CKD patients, with reduced bacterial diversity and biased community constitutions...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434257/ratio-of-serum-levels-of-ages-to-soluble-rage-is-correlated-with-trimethylamine-n-oxide-in-non-diabetic-subjects
#8
Atsuko Tahara, Nobuhiro Tahara, Sho-Ichi Yamagishi, Akihiro Honda, Sachiyo Igata, Yoshikazu Nitta, Munehisa Bekki, Tomohisa Nakamura, Yoichi Sugiyama, Jiahui Sun, Masayoshi Takeuchi, Makiko Shimizu, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Kei Fukami, Yoshihiro Fukumoto
Trimethylamine (TMA), an intestinal microflora-dependent metabolite formed from phosphatidylcholine- and L-carnitine-rich food, such as red meat, is further converted to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), which could play a role in cardiometabolic disease. Red meat-derived products are one of the major environmental sources of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that may also contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders through the interaction with receptor for AGEs (RAGE). However, the relationship among AGEs, soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) and TMAO in humans remains unclear...
April 23, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077467/gut-microbiota-dependent-trimethylamine-n-oxide-in-acute-coronary-syndromes-a-prognostic-marker-for-incident-cardiovascular-events-beyond-traditional-risk-factors
#9
Xinmin S Li, Slayman Obeid, Roland Klingenberg, Baris Gencer, François Mach, Lorenz Räber, Stephan Windecker, Nicolas Rodondi, David Nanchen, Olivier Muller, Melroy X Miranda, Christian M Matter, Yuping Wu, Lin Li, Zeneng Wang, Hassan S Alamri, Valentin Gogonea, Yoon-Mi Chung, W H Wilson Tang, Stanley L Hazen, Thomas F Lüscher
Aims: Systemic levels of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a pro-atherogenic and pro-thrombotic metabolite produced from gut microbiota metabolism of dietary trimethylamine (TMA)-containing nutrients such as choline or carnitine, predict incident cardiovascular event risks in stable primary and secondary prevention subjects. However, the prognostic value of TMAO in the setting of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) remains unknown. Methods and results: We investigated the relationship of TMAO levels with incident cardiovascular risks among sequential patients presenting with ACS in two independent cohorts...
March 14, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077427/serum-trimethylamine-n-oxide-carnitine-choline-and-betaine-in-relation-to-colorectal-cancer-risk-in-the-alpha-tocopherol-beta-carotene-cancer-prevention-study
#10
Kristin A Guertin, Xinmin S Li, Barry I Graubard, Demetrius Albanes, Stephanie J Weinstein, James J Goedert, Zeneng Wang, Stanley L Hazen, Rashmi Sinha
Background: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a choline-derived metabolite produced by gut microbiota, and its biomarker precursors have not been adequately evaluated in relation to colorectal cancer risk.Methods: We investigated the relationship between serum concentrations of TMAO and its biomarker precursors (choline, carnitine, and betaine) and incident colorectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study of male smokers in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. We measured biomarker concentrations in baseline fasting serum samples from 644 incident colorectal cancer cases and 644 controls using LC/MS-MS...
January 11, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993177/diets-high-in-resistant-starch-increase-plasma-levels-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-a-gut-microbiome-metabolite-associated-with-cvd-risk
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Nathalie Bergeron, Paul T Williams, Regina Lamendella, Nastaran Faghihnia, Alyssa Grube, Xinmin Li, Zeneng Wang, Rob Knight, Janet K Jansson, Stanley L Hazen, Ronald M Krauss
Production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a biomarker of CVD risk, is dependent on intestinal microbiota, but little is known of dietary conditions promoting changes in gut microbial communities. Resistant starches (RS) alter the human microbiota. We sought to determine whether diets varying in RS and carbohydrate (CHO) content affect plasma TMAO levels. We also assessed postprandial glucose and insulin responses and plasma lipid changes to diets high and low in RS. In a cross-over trial, fifty-two men and women consumed a 2-week baseline diet (41 percentage of energy (%E) CHO, 40 % fat, 19 % protein), followed by 2-week high- and low-RS diets separated by 2-week washouts...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977217/identification-and-characterization-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-uptake-and-efflux-transporters
#12
Wendy A Teft, Bridget L Morse, Brenda F Leake, Aze Wilson, Sara E Mansell, Robert A Hegele, Richard H Ho, Richard B Kim
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a recently identified predictor of cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. TMAO is primarily generated through gut-microbiome mediated conversion of dietary choline and carnitine to TMA, which is converted to TMAO by hepatic flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) and subsequently undergoes renal elimination. We investigated the role of uptake and efflux drug transporters in TMAO disposition in vitro and in vivo. After screening a large array of uptake transporters, we show organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) is the key transporter for TMAO cellular uptake...
January 3, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935219/the-influence-of-a-chronic-l-carnitine-administration-on-the-plasma-metabolome-of-male-fischer%C3%A2-344-rats
#13
Christoph H Weinert, Michael T Empl, Ralf Krüger, Lara Frommherz, Björn Egert, Pablo Steinberg, Sabine E Kulling
SCOPE: L-carnitine has been advertised as a fat-lowering and performance-enhancing supplement, although scientific evidence for its effectiveness is lacking. The uptake of about 1-2 g of L-carnitine per day may result in the formation of metabolites like trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), which in turn may be converted to potential carcinogens or promote the development of cardiovascular diseases. METHODS AND RESULTS: To assess whether an L-carnitine supplementation changes overall metabolism or causes the formation of previously unknown metabolites, we analyzed plasma samples from Fischer 344 rats originating from a previous study using a multi-platform metabolomics approach comprising LC-MS/MS and GC×GC-MS methods...
May 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855528/dietary-anthropometric-and-biochemical-factors-influencing-plasma-choline-carnitine-trimethylamine-and-trimethylamine-n-oxide-concentrations
#14
Anna M Malinowska, Artur Szwengiel, Agata Chmurzynska
The objective of the study was to evaluate the nutritional, anthropometric, and biochemical factors that influence choline, l-carnitine, trimethylamine (TMA), and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) metabolism in elderly women. The volunteers' diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were estimated using a self-established score method. Body mass index (BMI), serum glucose, total, HDL, LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol, homocysteine (tHcy), free choline (fchol), L-carnitine, TMA, and TMAO were assessed...
June 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834801/trimethylamine-n-oxide-the-good-the-bad-and-the-unknown
#15
REVIEW
Manuel T Velasquez, Ali Ramezani, Alotaibi Manal, Dominic S Raj
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a small colorless amine oxide generated from choline, betaine, and carnitine by gut microbial metabolism. It accumulates in the tissue of marine animals in high concentrations and protects against the protein-destabilizing effects of urea. Plasma level of TMAO is determined by a number of factors including diet, gut microbial flora and liver flavin monooxygenase activity. In humans, a positive correlation between elevated plasma levels of TMAO and an increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events and death is reported...
November 8, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669507/simultaneous-targeted-analysis-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-choline-betaine-and-carnitine-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#16
Jia Liu, Mingming Zhao, Juntuo Zhou, Changjie Liu, Lemin Zheng, Yuxin Yin
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a metabolite generated from choline, betaine and carnitine in a gut microbiota-dependent way. This molecule is associated with development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. A sensitive liquid chromatographic electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of TMAO related molecules including TMAO, betaine, choline, and carnitine in mouse plasma. Analytes are extracted after protein precipitation by methanol and subjected to LC-ESI-MS/MS without preliminary derivatization...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573063/the-metabolite-trimethylamine-n-oxide-is-an-emergent-biomarker-of-human-health
#17
Amit Sharma, Jyoti Chhibber-Goel, Varsha Singhal, Neeraj Parakh, Balram Bhargava
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a low molecular weight metabolite whose production is dependent on metabolism of its precursors choline, carnitine, creatinine, betaine or lecithin by host gut microbes resulting in the synthesis of trimethylamine (TMA) and subsequent oxidation to TMAO via the hepatic flavin monooxygenase (FMO) enzyme or bacterial Trimethylamine Monooxygenase (TMM). TMAO is associated with microbial dysbiosis and it is being studied for its linkage with cardiovascular disorders. In addition, dysregulated levels of TMAO has been linked with renal diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer...
August 30, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27377678/trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-response-to-animal-source-foods-varies-among-healthy-young-men-and-is-influenced-by-their-gut-microbiota-composition-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Clara E Cho, Siraphat Taesuwan, Olga V Malysheva, Erica Bender, Nathan F Tulchinsky, Jian Yan, Jessica L Sutter, Marie A Caudill
SCOPE: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite linked to the gut microbiota, is associated with excess risk of heart disease. We hypothesized that (i) TMAO response to animal source foods would vary among healthy men and (ii) this response would be modified by their gut microbiome. METHODS AND RESULTS: A crossover feeding trial in healthy young men (n = 40) was conducted with meals containing TMAO (fish), its dietary precursors, choline (eggs) and carnitine (beef), and a fruit control...
January 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189968/new-insight-into-the-dietary-cause-of-atherosclerosis-implications-for-pharmacology
#19
REVIEW
Reynold Spector
At present, the guideline approach to the medical treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is to classify patients by risk and treat the known risk factors (contributory causes), e.g., hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking, and poor diet, as appropriate. All high-risk patients should receive statins. This approach has had substantial success but ASCVD still remains the number one cause of death in the United States. Until recently, the underlying cause of ASCVD remained unknown, although a potential dietary cause was suggested by the fact that vegetarians, especially vegans, have a much lower incidence of ASCVD than animal flesh eaters...
July 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27155921/dioxin-like-pollutants-increase-hepatic-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-fmo3-expression-to-promote-synthesis-of-the-pro-atherogenic-nutrient-biomarker-trimethylamine-n-oxide-from-dietary-precursors
#20
Michael C Petriello, Jessie B Hoffman, Manjula Sunkara, Banrida Wahlang, Jordan T Perkins, Andrew J Morris, Bernhard Hennig
The etiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is impacted by multiple modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors including dietary choices, genetic predisposition, and environmental exposures. However, mechanisms linking diet, exposure to pollutants, and CVD risk are largely unclear. Recent studies identified a strong link between plasma levels of nutrient-derived Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and coronary artery disease. Dietary precursors of TMAO include carnitine and phosphatidylcholine, which are abundant in animal-derived foods...
July 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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