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Joyce Hsu, Leo Jia, Darko Pucar, Hadyn Williams, Jayanth Keshavamurthy
Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is a rare form of preinvasive lung lesion associated with indolent carcinoid tumor formation. This disease is characterized by multiple small pulmonary nodules with low SUVmax on F-FDG PET. Biopsy and immunohistochemical staining for neuroendocrine markers confirm diagnosis. There is no consensus for treatment, which typically involves surgical excision or management of symptoms with steroid-based therapies. We report an unusual case of DIPNECH colocalizing with necrotizing granulomatous inflammation mimicking high-grade aggressive malignancy on FDG-PET and a typical case of DIPNECH for comparison with low FDG avidity...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Joseph Y Ting, Anne Synnes, Ashley Roberts, Akhil Deshpandey, Kimberly Dow, Eugene W Yoon, Kyong-Soon Lee, Simon Dobson, Shoo K Lee, Prakesh S Shah
Importance: Excessive antibiotic use has been associated with altered bacterial colonization and may result in antibiotic resistance, fungemia, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and mortality. Exploring the association between antibiotic exposure and neonatal outcomes other than infection-related morbidities may provide insight on the importance of rational antibiotic use, especially in the setting of culture-negative neonatal sepsis. Objective: To evaluate the trend of antibiotic use among all hospitalized very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants across Canada and the association between antibiotic use rates (AURs) and mortality and morbidity among neonates without culture-proven sepsis or NEC...
October 24, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
P Deltell Colomer, N Albertos Mira-Marcelí, N Gallego Mellado, M E Kuan Argüello, M F Bordallo Vázquez, J Mira Navarro, J Gonzálvez Piñera
INTRODUCTION: In more than 50% of the necrotizing enterocolitis that underwent surgery will require an ileostomy. The optimal time to reestablish intestinal transit still is a controversial subject. Many times ileostomies cause medical issues that require early intestinal reconstruction. Our objective is to compare the early closure against late close, being the shift point 35 days according to other published research. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study off all patients that in the last 10 years have had an episode of necrotizing enterocolitis which required an intestinal derivation like ileostomy...
January 15, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
Viviana Guadagni, Chiara Cerri, Ilaria Piano, Elena Novelli, Claudia Gargini, Carla Fiorentini, Matteo Caleo, Enrica Strettoi
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) comprises a group of inherited pathologies characterized by progressive photoreceptor degeneration. In rodent models of RP, expression of defective genes and retinal degeneration usually manifest during the first weeks of postnatal life, making it difficult to distinguish consequences of primary genetic defects from abnormalities in retinal development. Moreover, mouse eyes are small and not always adequate to test pharmacological and surgical treatments. An inducible paradigm of retinal degeneration potentially extensible to large animals is therefore desirable...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Richard E Frye
Recent studies have highlighted the fact that the enteric microbiome, the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human digestive tract, has a significant effect on health and disease. Methods for manipulating the enteric microbiome, particularly through probiotics and microbial ecosystem transplantation, have undergone some study in clinical trials. We review some of the evidence for microbiome alteration in relation to childhood disease and discuss the clinical trials that have examined the manipulation of the microbiome in an effort to prevent or treat childhood disease with a primary focus on probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics (ie, probiotics + prebiotics)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
Agnes B Fogo, Mark A Lusco, Behzad Najafian, Charles E Alpers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Pierre-Henri Conze, Vincent Noblet, François Rousseau, Fabrice Heitz, Vito de Blasi, Riccardo Memeo, Patrick Pessaux
PURPOSE: Toward an efficient clinical management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we propose a classification framework dedicated to tumor necrosis rate estimation from dynamic contrast-enhanced CT scans. Based on machine learning, it requires weak interaction efforts to segment healthy, active and necrotic liver tissues. METHODS: Our contributions are two-fold. First, we apply random forest (RF) on supervoxels using multi-phase supervoxel-based features that discriminate tissues based on their dynamic in response to contrast agent injection...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
P Nicol, P Bernard, P Nguyen, A Durlach, G Perceau
BACKGROUND: Hypertensive leg ulcers (HLU) are a form of necrotic leg ulcer. Their physiopathology is not well known and in these patients, no venous or arterial insufficiency is detected. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the association between HLU severity and the presence or absence of concomitant vitamin K antagonist (VKA) medication. We furthermore aimed to describe the epidemiology of this entity and the prevalence of thrombophilia factors in this population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study in 54 patients hospitalized in the dermatology department of Reims University Hospital between 01/01/2007 and 31/12/2013: 23 patients were included in the "without VKA" group, and 30 were included in the "with VKA" group...
October 19, 2016: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Chiung-Wen Hsu, Siou-Cen Li, Nai-Yun Chang, Zeng-Weng Chen, Jiunn-Wang Liao, Ter-Hsin Chen, Jyh-Perng Wang, Jiunn-Horng Lin, Shih-Ling Hsuan
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a crucial respiratory pathogen that causes fibrinous, hemorrhagic, necrotizing pleuropneumonia in pigs. A. pleuropneumoniae exotoxins (ApxI to IV) are the major virulence factors contributing to A. pleuropneumoniae pathogenesis. Previously, we demonstrated that ApxI induces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) via the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38 and cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Nonetheless, the role of nuclear factor (NF)-κB-a transcription factor widely implicated in immune and inflammatory responses-in ApxI-elicited cytokine production has yet to be defined...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Danielle Oliveira Dos Anjos, Eliomara Sousa Sobral Alves, Vinicius Tomaz Gonçalves, Sheila Suarez Fontes, Mateus Lima Nogueira, Ana Márcia Suarez-Fontes, João Batista Neves da Costa, Fabricio Rios-Santos, Marcos André Vannier-Santos
Natural products comprise valuable sources for new antiparasitic drugs. Here we tested the effects of a novel β-lapachone derivative on Trypanosoma cruzi parasite survival and proliferation and used microscopy and cytometry techniques to approach the mechanism(s) underlying parasite death. The selectivity index determination indicate that the compound trypanocidal activity was over ten-fold more cytotoxic to epimastigotes than to macrophages or splenocytes. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the R72 β-lapachone derivative affected the T...
October 12, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
N Didbaridze, N Lomidze, T Abuladze, G Qiliptari, T Didbaridze, I Gvasalia, Z Mkervalishvili, N Gogokhia
Anaerobic clostridial infection is the most severe form of paraproctitis. The incubation period is very short, from 3 to 6 hours, sometimes lasting for 1-2 days. Clostridial infection spreads rapidly and induces gas gangrene, causes destruction of cells and other intermediate substances, and impedes blood circulation. This paper presents a case study of an extremely severe form of anaerobic infection with spontaneous gas gangrene, cellulitis, fasciomyositic necrosis, severe intoxication and septic shock on the abdominal front and lateral surfaces...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
M C M Conde, L A Chisini, R Sarkis-Onofre, H S Schuch, J E Nör, F F Demarco
The aim of this Scoping Study was to evaluate the survival rate and nature of tissue formed inside root canals of human Necrotic Immature Permanent Teeth (NIPT) under root canal revascularization (RCR). The search was performed in SciVerse Scopus(®) , PubMed/Medline, Web of Science(®) , BIREME and in grey literature up to November 2015. The keywords were selected using MeSH terms and DECs. Two independent reviewers scrutinized the records obtained considering specific inclusion criteria. The included studies were evaluated in accordance with a modified Arksey and O' Malley's framework...
October 22, 2016: International Endodontic Journal
Helle Precht, Pieter H Kitslaar, Alexander Broersen, Jouke Dijkstra, Oke Gerke, Jesper Thygesen, Kenneth Egstrup, Jess Lambrechtsen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to study the effect of iterative reconstruction (IR) software on quantitative plaque measurements in coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). METHODS: Thirty patients with a three clinical risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) had one CCTA performed. Images were reconstructed using FBP, 30% and 60% adaptive statistical IR (ASIR). Coronary plaque analysis was performed as per patient and per vessel (LM, LAD, CX and RCA) measurements...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
A Aounallah, N Ghariani Fetoui, N Ghariani, M Korbi, S Mokni, L Boussofara, W Saidi, M Ksiaa, I Ben Jazia, M Guerfala, B Sriha, C Belajouza, M Denguezli, R Nouira
BACKGROUND: Thrombotic cutaneous gangrene is a rare extra-intestinal manifestation of ulcerative colitis with a severe prognosis. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old woman with a 7-year history of ulcerative colitis presented with extensive ecchymotic lesions that began a few hours earlier. On examination, she was febrile with multiple necrotic lesions. Skin biopsy showed multiple microthrombi in the dermal vessels. A diagnosis of thrombotic cutaneous gangrene was established...
October 18, 2016: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Roy George
Data sourcesCochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase and Scopus databases.Study selectionStudies that reported the precision of electronic apex locators (EALs) in locating the apical constriction (AC) in primary root canal treatment of human teeth compared with a histologic evaluation of the AC were considered.Data extraction and synthesisData were extracted and quality assessed independently by two reviewers.ResultsTen studies were included, reporting on 1105 EAL measurements. Seven studies were considered to be at high risk of bias and three at low risk...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Viboon Boonsarngsuk, Siriwan Saengsri, Pitak Santanirand
BACKGROUND: Intrathoracic tuberculous (TB) lymphadenitis is a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. Although endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) can obtain a sample from the affected lymph node, the diagnosis of TB lymphadenitis by cytopathology remains inaccurate. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of EBUS-TBNA rinse fluid TB polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the diagnosis of intrathoracic TB lymphadenitis. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 102 patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA for diagnostic evaluation of intrathoracic lymphadenopathy...
October 21, 2016: Infectious Diseases
Sarah-Jayne Edmondson, Saina Attaran, Ulrich P Rosendahl
Wegner's granulomatosis (WG) is an autoimmune systemic vasculitis that results in necrotizing granulomas. We report a WG patient with a lung granuloma and aortic root dilatation, who underwent aortic root replacement on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Intraoperatively, the patient suffered an aortic dissection, which was repaired immediately under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). Follow-up imaging showed complete granuloma resolution, despite absence of immunosuppressive therapy. Immune stimulation following CPB is well described; here, the opposite was observed and DHCA effects are discussed...
February 2016: Aorta (Stamford, Conn.)
Falco Hietbrink, Lonneke G Bode, Louis Riddez, Luke P H Leenen, Marijke R van Dijk
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon, rapidly progressive and potential lethal condition. Over the last decade time to surgery decreased and outcome improved, most likely due to increased awareness and more timely referral. Early recognition is key to improve mortality and morbidity. However, early referral frequently makes it a challenge to recognize this heterogeneous disease in its initial stages. Signs and symptoms might be misleading or absent, while the most prominent skin marks might be in discrepancy with the position of the fascial necrosis...
2016: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
Sanna Turunen, Johanna Huhtakangas, Tomi Nousiainen, Maarit Valkealahti, Jukka Melkko, Juha Risteli, Petri Lehenkari
BACKGROUND: Seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by autoantibodies binding to citrullinated and homocitrullinated proteins. We wanted to study the expression patterns of these disease-associated protein forms and if the rheumatoid nodule and synovial tissue itself contain biologically active levels of citrullinating peptidyl arginine deiminases 2, 3 and 4 and homocitrullination-facilitating neutrophil enzyme myeloperoxidase. METHOD: Total of 195 synovial samples from metatarsal joints from five ACPA/RF-positive RA patients (n = 77), synovial samples from knees of eight seropositive RA (n = 60), seven seronegative RA (n = 33) and five osteoarthritis (n = 25) patients were analyzed for citrulline and homocitrulline contents using HPLC...
October 20, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Parthopratim Dutta Majumder, Avirupa Ghose, Meenakshi Chidambaram, Sudha K Ganesh, Jyotirmay Biswas
PURPOSE: To report the clinical profile of a series of necrotizing scleritis in an Indian population. METHODS: A retrospective medical record review of 27 consecutive patients with necrotizing scleritis. Patient demographics, ocular and systemic findings, treatment modalities, and visual outcome were recorded. RESULTS: There were 19 males and 8 females (31 eyes) with mean age at presentation of 49.5 years (range: 30-84 years). Underlying immunologically induced disorders was present in 37%...
October 20, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
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