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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458203/precision-pharmacology-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Harald Hampel, Andrea Vergallo, Lisi Flores Aguilar, Norbert Benda, Karl Broich, A Claudio Cuello, Jeffrey Cummings, Bruno Dubois, Howard J Federoff, Massimo Fiandaca, Remy Genthon, Marion Haberkamp, Eric Karran, Mark Mapstone, George Perry, Lon S Schneider, Lindsay A Welikovitch, Janet Woodcock, Filippo Baldacci, Simone Lista
The complex multifactorial nature of polygenic Alzheimer's disease (AD) presents significant challenges for drug development. AD pathophysiology is progressing in a non-linear dynamic fashion across multiple systems levels - from molecules to organ systems - and through adaptation, to compensation, and decompensation to systems failure. Adaptation and compensation maintain homeostasis: a dynamic equilibrium resulting from the dynamic non-linear interaction between genome, epigenome, and environment. An individual vulnerability to stressors exists on the basis of individual triggers, drivers, and thresholds accounting for the initiation and failure of adaptive and compensatory responses...
February 16, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458193/attenuation-of-neuro-inflammation-improves-survival-and-neurodegeneration-in-a-mouse-model-of-severe-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia
#2
Simone Vodret, Giulia Bortolussi, Alessandra Iaconcig, Elena Martinelli, Claudio Tiribelli, Andrés F Muro
All pre-term newborns and a high proportion of term newborns develop neonatal jaundice. Neonatal jaundice is usually a benign condition and self-resolves within few days after birth. However, a combination of unfavorable complications may lead to acute hyperbilirubinemia. Excessive hyperbilirubinemia may be toxic for the developing nervous system leading to severe neurological damage and death by kernicterus. Survivors show irreversible neurological deficits such as motor, sensitive and cognitive abnormalities...
February 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458042/pretreatment-with-cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrins-prevents-loss-of-motility-associated-proteins-during-cryopreservation-of-addra-gazelle-nanger-dama-ruficollis-spermatozoa
#3
Jessye Wojtusik, Yan Wang, Budhan S Pukazhenthi
Sperm cryopreservation is challenging, often resulting in irreversible damage to spermatozoa, as indicated by decreased motility, viability, and/or acrosomal integrity. Developing cryopreservation protocols for gametes of endangered species compounds the complexity of technique optimization; samples are difficult to obtain and numbers are limited. Cryopreservation of sperm collected from the critically endangered addra gazelle (Nanger dama ruficollis), a member of the Bovidae family, resulted in significant loss of motility, which was prevented by pretreatment with cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC)...
February 16, 2018: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457717/oedometric-small-angle-neutron-scattering-in-situ-nano-pore-structure-during-bentonite-consolidation-and-swelling-in-co2-environments
#4
Thomas Dewers, Jason E Heath, Charles R Bryan, Joseph T Mang, Rex Paul Hjelm, Mei Ding, Mark Taylor
Results of oedometric consolidation experiments linked with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements are presented, using SWy-2 Wyoming bentonite clay in dry and water-bearing N2 and CO2 atmospheres. Oedometric SANS involves deforming a porous sample under uniaxial strain conditions with applied axial force and internal pore pressure control, and combines with SANS for in situ observation of pore structure evolution and interaction. Scattering from both interlayer (clay intra-aggregate) and free (inter-aggregate) pores is observed, showing decreasing pore size with dry consolidation and interactions between interlayer and free pore types with swelling and consolidation...
February 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457234/community-engagement-and-field-trials-of-genetically-modified-insects-and-animals
#5
Carolyn P Neuhaus
New techniques for the genetic modification of organisms are creating new strategies for addressing persistent public health challenges. For example, the company Oxitec has conducted field trials internationally-and has attempted to conduct field trials in the United States-of a genetically modified mosquito that can be used to control dengue, Zika, and some other mosquito-borne diseases. In 2016, a report commissioned by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine discussed the potential benefits and risks of another strategy, using gene drives...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456983/the-role-of-mas-receptor-on-renal-hemodynamic-responses-to-angiotensin-1-7-in-both-irreversible-and-reversible-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction-rats
#6
Jalal Hassanshahi, Mehdi Nematbakhsh
Background: Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) alters the expression of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components and angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) as a main arm of RAS is affected by UUO. The role of Mas receptor antagonist (A779) was examined in renal hemodynamic responses to Ang 1-7 in 3-day UUO and UUO removal (RUUO) in rats. Materials and Methods: Forty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of sham operated, UUO, and RUUO, while each group was divided into two subgroups treated with vehicle or A779...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456943/transnasal-endoscopic-optic-nerve-decompression-in-post-traumatic-optic-neuropathy
#7
Devang Gupta, Monica Gadodia
To quantify the successful outcome in patients following optic nerve decompression in post traumatic unilateral optic neuropathy in form of improvement in visual acuity. A prospective study was carried out over a period of 5 years (January 2011 to June 2016) at civil hospital Ahmedabad. Total 20 patients were selected with optic neuropathy including patients with direct and indirect trauma to unilateral optic nerve, not responding to conservative management, leading to optic neuropathy and subsequent impairment in vision and blindness...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456443/the-screening-process-of-a-patient-with-low-back-pain-and-suspected-thoracic-myelopathy-a-case-report
#8
Guillaume Christe, Toby Hall
Background: Thoracic disc herniations are rare and difficult to diagnose. Myelopathy is a potential consequence that can lead to irreversible neurological impairment if not treated appropriately. It is incumbent on all clinicians who see patients with low back pain (LBP) to be aware of such pathologies. This case describes a screening process in the detection of a rare serious spinal pathology and discusses the use of red flags and central nervous system signs and symptoms in the decision leading to immediate referral...
February 2018: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456368/irreversible-hypersomnolence-after-bilateral-thalamic-infarction
#9
Mihail Mogildea, Miguel Varela, Cristiana Martins, Natércia Joaquim, José Soleiro, Hipólito Nzwalo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455639/role-of-bruton-s-tyrosine-kinase-in-b-cells-and-malignancies
#10
REVIEW
Simar Pal Singh, Floris Dammeijer, Rudi W Hendriks
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a non-receptor kinase that plays a crucial role in oncogenic signaling that is critical for proliferation and survival of leukemic cells in many B cell malignancies. BTK was initially shown to be defective in the primary immunodeficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) and is essential both for B cell development and function of mature B cells. Shortly after its discovery, BTK was placed in the signal transduction pathway downstream of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). More recently, small-molecule inhibitors of this kinase have shown excellent anti-tumor activity, first in animal models and subsequently in clinical studies...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455579/vmat2-inhibitors-for-tardive-dyskinesia-practice-implications
#11
Alyssa M Peckham, Jessica A Nicewonder
Tardive dyskinesia is a potentially irreversible, debilitating, hyperkinetic movement disorder that can result from dopamine receptor antagonists. Prompt recognition and resolution of symptoms are instrumental in preventing disease irreversibility, though current treatment options have fallen short of robust, effective, and long-term symptom control. In April 2017, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved 2 new vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitors, deutetrabenazine and valbenazine, for chorea related to Huntington's disease and tardive dyskinesia, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455330/ocular-manifestations-of-pediatric-systemic-diseases
#12
Gopal S Pillai, Natasha Radhakrishnan
Ocular manifestations that occur directly or indirectly as result of a pathologic process that involves other parts of the body, in a pediatric population, will be discussed here. While a myriad number of systemic conditions have ocular manifestations, its importance cannot be undermined because it has implications for both diagnosis and treatment. Often, the eye findings can give a clue to the systemic diagnosis and at other times, not managing the eye manifestations can lead to irreversible blindness although the systemic condition was treated well...
February 17, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455011/hybrid-retrograde-celiac-artery-stenting-for-acute-mesenteric-ischemia-after-gastric-surgery
#13
Duarte Rego, Paulo Almeida, Paulo Soares, Rui Almeida
INTRODUCTION: Celiac artery (CA) occlusions/stenosis are infrequently associated with liver ischemia due to its unique vascularization where portal vein provides about 75% of liver's perfusion. Collateral flow from gastroduodenal artery also provides, in most cases, enough blood supply to prevent ischemic hepatitis. In cases where these collateral pathways are compromised severe liver ischemia can occur. METHODS: We present a case of acute mesenteric ischemia following gastric surgery that was treated with a hybrid retrograde CA stenting...
February 15, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454925/a-mechanistic-study-of-stable-dispersion-of-titanium-oxide-nanoparticles-by-humic-acid
#14
Yin Chen, Qian Gao, Weixiao Chen, Fan Wu, Yu Yang, David Werner, Shu Tao, Xilong Wang
Stable dispersion of nanoparticles with environmentally-friendly materials is important for their various applications including environmental remediation. In this study, we systematically examined the mechanisms of stable dispersion of two types of TiO2 nanoparticles (TNPs) with anatase and rutile crystalline structures by naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (humic acid) at different pHs, including at, below and above the Point of Zero Charge (PZC). The results showed that stable dispersion of TNPs by humic acid (HA) at all pHs tested can only be achieved with the assistance of ultra-sonication...
February 7, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454362/self-assembly-disassembly-hysteresis-of-nanoparticles-composed-of-marginally-soluble-short-elastin-like-polypeptides
#15
Markian S Bahniuk, Abdullah K Alshememry, Scott V Elgersma, Larry D Unsworth
BACKGROUND: Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are a fascinating biomaterial that has undergone copious development for a variety of therapeutic applications including as a nanoscale drug delivery vehicle. A comprehensive understanding of ELP self-assembly is lacking and this knowledge gap impedes the advancement of ELP-based biomaterials into the clinical realm. The systematic examination of leucine-containing ELPs endeavors to expand existing knowledge about fundamental assembly-disassembly behaviours...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454335/earliella-scabrosa-associated-postoperative-endophthalmitis-after-phacoemulsification-with-intraocular-lens-implantation-a-case-report
#16
Hong He, Xiaolian Chen, Hongshan Liu, Jiaochan Wu, Xingwu Zhong
BACKGROUND: Postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery is a severe eye infection that can lead to irreversible blindness in the affected eye. The characteristics, treatment and prognosis of this disease vary because of its association with different pathogens. Here, we report what is possibly the first case of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery to be associated with the rare pathogen Earliella scabrosa. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old man from Hainan Island (China) with a history of phacoemulsification and type II diabetes mellitus underwent intraocular lens (IOL) implantation...
February 17, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453843/behavioral-economics-and-the-public-acceptance-of-synthetic-biology
#17
Adam Oliver
Different applications of synthetic biology are alike in that their possible negative consequences are highly uncertain, potentially catastrophic, and perhaps irreversible; therefore, they are also alike in that public attitudes about them are fertile ground for behavioral economic phenomena. Findings from behavioral economics suggest that people may not respond to such applications according to the normal rules of economic evaluation, by which the value of an outcome is multiplied by the mathematical probability that the outcome will occur...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453691/effect-of-phosphorylation-and-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-on-caspase-substrates-processing
#18
Sonu Kumar, Piotr Cieplak
Posttranslational modifications that involve either reversible covalent modification of proteins or irreversible proteolysis are central to the regulation of key cellular mechanisms, including apoptosis, cell-cycle regulation and signal transduction. There is mounting evidence suggesting cross-talk between proteases and kinases. For instance: caspases, a class of proteases involved in programmed cell death-apoptosis, cleave a large set of various types of proteins. Simultaneously, kinases restrict caspase activity by phosphorylating their protein substrates in the vicinity of cleavage site...
February 16, 2018: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453575/regulation-of-blood-testis-barrier-btb-dynamics-role-of-actin-and-microtubule-based-cytoskeletons
#19
Qing Wen, Elizabeth I Tang, Nan Li, Dolores D Mruk, Will M Lee, Bruno Silvestrini, C Yan Cheng
The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis that supports meiosis and postmeiotic spermatid development since a delay in the establishment of a functional Sertoli cell barrier during postnatal development in rats or mice by 17-20 day postpartum (dpp) would lead to a delay of the first wave of meiosis. Furthermore, irreversible disruption of the BTB by toxicants also induces infertility in rodents. Herein, we summarize recent findings that BTB dynamics (i.e., disassembly, reassembly, and stabilization) are supported by the concerted efforts of the actin- and microtubule (MT)-based cytoskeletons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453562/preparation-of-testicular-samples-for-histology-and-immunohistochemistry
#20
Barbara Bilinska, Anna Hejmej, Malgorzata Kotula-Balak
One approach to visualize internal structures of the testis is histological sectioning of the material. The use of testicular samples allows a detailed analysis of the structure of both seminiferous tubules and the interstitial space. It is worth noting that key role in the control of germ cell development is assigned to Sertoli cells. Thus, in this chapter the special reference is made on visualization of Sertoli cells in the seminiferous epithelium in which they create a specialized microenvironment to support the germ cell development through the formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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