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Fatemeh Suri, Shahin Yazdani, Elahe Elahi
Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Although the etiology of glaucoma is incompletely understood, it is known that the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the trabecular meshwork, oxidative stress, TGFβ signaling pathways, and apoptosis are important components of glaucoma pathogenesis. These components appear to be interrelated, but knowledge on their interactions remains incomplete. Relevant to this gap in knowledge, LTBP2, glaucoma causing gene, may also be related to the mentioned components of glaucoma pathogenesis because of its putative roles in TGFβ signaling and ECM functions...
June 13, 2018: Gene
Ismail S Zaitoun, Ulas Cikla, Dila Zafer, Eshwar Udho, Reem Almomani, Andrew Suscha, Pelin Cengiz, Christine M Sorenson, Nader Sheibani
A significant proportion of children that survive hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) develop visual impairment. These visual deficits are generally attributed to injuries that occur in the primary visual cortex and other visual processing systems. Recent studies suggested that neuronal damage might also occur in the retina. An important structure affecting the viability of retinal neurons is the vasculature. However, the effects of HIE on the retinal neurovasculature have not been systemically evaluated...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chika Ikenoya, Shota Takemi, Arisa Kaminoda, Sayaka Aizawa, Shiomi Ojima, Zhi Gong, Rakhi Chacrabati, Daisuke Kondo, Reiko Wada, Toru Tanaka, Sachiko Tsuda, Takafumi Sakai, Ichiro Sakata
Ghrelin is a unique fatty acid-modified peptide hormone produced in the stomach and has important roles in energy homeostasis and gastrointestinal motility. However, the medium-chain fatty acid source for ghrelin acyl-modification is not known. We found that a fat-free diet and the removal of intestinal microbiota did not decrease acyl-ghrelin production in the stomach or plasma acyl-ghrelin levels in mice. RT-PCR analysis showed that genes involving fatty acid synthesis, metabolism, and transport were expressed in pancreas-derived ghrelinoma (PG-1) cells...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Julia Saifetiarova, Qian Shi, Martin Paukert, Masayuki Komada, Manzoor A Bhat
Disorganization of nodes of Ranvier is associated with motor and sensory dysfunctions. Mechanisms that allow nodal recovery during pathological processes remain poorly understood. A highly enriched nodal cytoskeletal protein βIV Spectrin anchors and stabilizes the nodal complex to actin cytoskeleton. Loss of murine βIV Spectrin allows the initial nodal organization, but causes gradual nodal destabilization. Mutations in human βIV SPECTRIN cause auditory neuropathy and impairment in motor coordination and similar phenotypes are caused by nodal disruption due to demyelination...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Valentina Marchese, Anna Beltrame, Andrea Angheben, Geraldo Badona Monteiro, Giovanni Giorli, Francesca Perandin, Dora Buonfrate, Zeno Bisoffi
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases. If unrecognised and untreated, the chronic infection can lead to irreversible complications. METHODS: Retrospective observational study aimed at describing clinical history, laboratory findings and imaging presentation of imported schistosomiasis diagnosed at the Centre for Tropical Diseases, Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital of Negrar, Verona, Italy from 2010 to 2014. The aim of our study was to assess differences in demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory data and ultrasound findings between immigrants/visiting friends and relatives (VFR) from endemic countries (endemic group) and expatriates/travellers (non-endemic group)...
June 16, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Minggang Wang, André L M Vilela, Ruijin Du, Longfeng Zhao, Gaogao Dong, Lixin Tian, H Eugene Stanley
The limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph algorithm was recently introduced to map time series in complex networks. In this work, we extend this algorithm to create a directed-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph and an image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph. We define two algorithms and provide theoretical results on the topological properties of these graphs associated with different types of real-value series. We perform several numerical simulations to check the accuracy of our theoretical results...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Xavier Palard-Novello, Anne-Lise Blin, Florence Le Jeune, Etienne Garin, Pierre-Yves Salaün, Anne Devillers, Giulio Gambarota, Solène Querellou, Patrick Bourguet, Hervé Saint-Jalmes
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal temporal sampling of time-activity curves (TAC) from dynamic 18 F-fluoromethylcholine (FCH) PET images may introduce bias in quantification of FCH uptake in prostate cancer assessment. We sought to define an optimal temporal sampling protocol for dynamic FCH PET imaging. Seven different time samplings were tested: 5 × 60″, 10 × 30″, 15 × 15″-1 × 75″, 6 × 10″-8 × 30″, 12 × 5″-8 × 30″; 10 × 5″-4 × 10″-3 × 20″-5 × 30″, and 8 × 3″-8 × 12″-6 × 30″...
June 15, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Ajay P Nayak, Deepak A Deshpande, Raymond B Penn
Airway remodeling (AR) is a progressive pathological feature of the obstructive lung diseases, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The pathology manifests itself in the form of significant, progressive, and (to date) seemingly irreversible changes to distinct respiratory structural compartments. Consequently, AR correlates with disease severity and the gradual decline in pulmonary function associated with asthma and COPD. Although current asthma/COPD drugs manage airway contraction and inflammation, none of these effectively prevent or reverse features of AR...
2018: F1000Research
Marcus J Hooper, Jiangang Wang, Robert Browning, John D Ash
Retinal degeneration is a common cause of irreversible blindness and is caused by the death of retinal light-sensitive neurons called photoreceptors. At the onset of degeneration, stressed photoreceptors cause retinal glial cells to secrete neuroprotective factors that slow the pace of degeneration. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is one such factor that is required for endogenous neuroprotection. Photoreceptors are known to release signals of cellular stress, called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) early in degeneration, and we hypothesized that receptors for DAMPs or pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a key role in the induction of LIF and neuroprotective stress responses in retinal glial cells...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Simone Krebs, Afruja Ahad, Lukas Carter, Justin Eyquem, Christian Brand, Meghan Bell, Vladimir Ponomarev, Thomas Reiner, Claude F Meares, Stephen Gottschalk, Michel Sadelain, Steven M Larson, Wolfgang Andreas Weber
There remains an urgent need for the non-invasive tracking of transfused chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells to determine their biodistribution, viability, expansion, and anti-tumor functionality. 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) antibody reporter 1 (DAbR1) comprises a single-chain fragment of the anti-lanthanoid-DOTA antibody 2D12.5/G54C fused to the human CD4-transmembrane domain and binds irreversibly to lanthanoid-(S)-2-(4-acrylamidobenzyl)-DOTA (AABD). The aim of this study was to investigate whether DAbR1 can be expressed on lymphocytes and used as a reporter gene as well as a suicide gene for therapy of immune-related adverse effects...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Xuan Qin, Xin Wang
Nucleotides and their sugar conjugates are fundamental molecules in life, participating in processes of DNA/RNA composition, cell wall build-up, glycosylation reactions, and signal conduction. Therefore, the quantification of these compounds in biological samples significantly benefits the understanding of their functions. However, nucleotides and nucleotide sugars are extremely hydrophilic, causing bad retention and peak symmetry on regular C18 chromatographic columns. To solve this problem, ion-pair (IP) chromatography, ion-exchange (IE) chromatography and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) were applied, of which differentiated mechanisms were utilized to increase the retention of the analytes on the stationary phases...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Kirralee G Baker, Dale T Radford, Christian Evenhuis, Unnikrishnan Kuzhiumparam, Peter J Ralph, Martina A Doblin
Land-based plants and ocean-dwelling microbial phototrophs known as phytoplankton, are together responsible for almost all global primary production. Habitat warming associated with anthropogenic climate change has detrimentally impacted marine primary production, with the effects observed on regional and global scales. In contrast to slower-growing higher plants, there is considerable potential for phytoplankton to evolve rapidly with changing environmental conditions. The energetic constraints associated with adaptation in phytoplankton are not yet understood, but are central to forecasting how global biogeochemical cycles respond to contemporary ocean change...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Sunil S Adav, Jin Wei, Yap Terence, Bryan Ch Ang, Leonard Wl Yip, Siu Kwan Sze
Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a complex disease and a leading cause of irreversible blindness, and its underlying pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Proteomic characterization of the protein composition of aqueous humor (AH) may identify prognostic candidate proteins involved in pathogenesis and progression of the disease. To delineate the possible mechanisms that lead to POAG, this study adopted state-of-art mass spectrometric technique and analyzed AH of POAG and their respective controls...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Suparna Ganguly Saha, Rudra Kumar Gupta, Anuj Bhardwaj, Abhinav Misuriya, Mainak Kanti Saha, Amit Singh Nirwan
Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the incidence of postoperative pain using the ProTaper Next (PTN), WaveOne Gold (WOG), and Self-Adjusting File (SAF) systems. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fourteen patients with irreversible pulpitis were selected for single-visit endodontics. The teeth were blindly assigned to three groups based on the instrumentation system used: Group A (PTN), Group B (WOG), and Group C (SAF). Participants were asked to note the incidence of the pre- and postoperative pain on a visual analog scale at different time intervals...
May 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Andrea V Canosa, Serena Faggiano, Marialaura Marchetti, Stefano Armao, Stefano Bettati, Stefano Bruno, Riccardo Percudani, Barbara Campanini, Andrea Mozzarelli
Serine racemase (SR) catalyses two reactions: the reversible racemisation of L-serine and the irreversible dehydration of L- and D-serine to pyruvate and ammonia. SRs are evolutionarily related to serine dehydratases (SDH) and degradative threonine deaminases (TdcB). Most SRs and TdcBs - but not SDHs - are regulated by nucleotides. SR binds ATP cooperatively and the nucleotide allosterically stimulates the serine dehydratase activity of the enzyme. A H-bond network comprising five residues (T52, N86, Q89, E283 and N316) and water molecules connects the active site with the ATP-binding site...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Barbara Canonico, Gianna Di Sario, Erica Cesarini, Raffaella Campana, Francesca Luchetti, Loris Zamai, Claudio Ortolani, Maria Gemma Nasoni, Wally Baffone, Stefano Papa
Campylobacter jejuni is a Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium, commonly associated with gastroenteritis in humans. It explicates its virulence also by the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), able to cause irreversible cell cycle arrest. Infection by C. jejuni may result in the development of the Guillain⁻Barré Syndrome, an acute peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms of this disease could be caused by CDT-induced cell death and a subsequent inflammatory response. We tested C. jejuni lysates from different strains on donor monocytes: in fact, monocytes are potent producers of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, playing a major role in innate immunity and in non-specific host responses...
June 13, 2018: Toxins
Chetan D Meshram, Peter Agback, Nikita Shiliaev, Nadya Urakova, James A Mobley, Tatiana Agback, Elena I Frolova, Ilya Frolov
Alphaviruses are widely distributed in both hemispheres and circulate between mosquitoes and amplifying vertebrate hosts. Geographically separated alphaviruses have adapted to replication in particular organisms. The accumulating data suggest that this adaptation is determined not only by changes in their glycoproteins, but also by the amino acid sequence of the hypervariable domain (HVD) of the alphavirus nsP3 protein. We performed a detailed investigation of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) nsP3 HVD interactions with host factors and their roles in viral replication in vertebrate and mosquito cells...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
Matthias Graf, Patrick Stiller, Martin Karch
Symptomatic bradycardia is usually caused by abnormalities of atrioventricular conduction or sinus node dysfunction. Reversible and irreversible causes must be considered.Temporary pacemakers are used in the emergency treatment in case of severe bradyarrhythmia.They help to bridge the acute phase until spontaneous restoration of atrioventricular or sinus node function or -if spontaneous restoration fails- until a permanent pacemaker system was implanted.In the following article we discuss the commonly used temporary pacemaker systems...
June 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Viivi Karoliina Alaraudanjoki, Salla Koivisto, Paula Pesonen, Minna Männikkö, Jukka Leinonen, Leo Tjäderhane, Marja-Liisa Laitala, Adrian Lussi, Vuokko Anna-Marketta Anttonen
Erosive tooth wear is defined as irreversible loss of dental tissues due to intrinsic or extrinsic acids, exacerbated by mechanical forces. Recent studies have suggested a higher prevalence of erosive tooth wear in males, as well as a genetic contribution to susceptibility to erosive tooth wear. Our aim was to examine erosive tooth wear by performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a sample of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 1,962). Erosive tooth wear was assessed clinically using the basic erosive wear examination...
June 13, 2018: Caries Research
Shannon N Rhoads, Zachary T Monahan, Debra S Yee, Andrew Y Leung, Cameron G Newcombe, Robert N O'Meally, Robert N Cole, Frank P Shewmaker
FUS is an abundant, predominantly nuclear protein involved in RNA processing. Under various conditions, FUS functionally associates with RNA and other macromolecules to form distinct, reversible phase-separated liquid structures. Persistence of the phase-separated state and increased cytoplasmic localization are both hypothesized to predispose FUS to irreversible aggregation, which is a pathological hallmark of subtypes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. We previously showed that phosphorylation of FUS's prion-like domain suppressed phase separation and toxic aggregation, proportionally to the number of added phosphates...
June 13, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
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