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Water life

G MuŽíková, R Laga
Vaccines have helped considerably in eliminating some life-threatening infectious diseases in past two hundred years. Recently, human medicine has focused on vaccination against some of the world's most common infectious diseases (AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, etc.), and vaccination is also gaining popularity in the treatment of cancer or autoimmune diseases. The major limitation of current vaccines lies in their poor ability to generate a sufficient level of protective antibodies and T cell responses against diseases such as HIV, malaria, tuberculosis and cancers...
October 20, 2016: Physiological Research
Azam Moshtaghi, Md Lifat Rahi, Viet Tuan Nguyen, Peter B Mather, David A Hurwood
BACKGROUND: Understanding the genomic basis of osmoregulation (candidate genes and/or molecular mechanisms controlling the phenotype) addresses one of the fundamental questions in evolutionary ecology. Species distributions and adaptive radiations are thought to be controlled by environmental salinity levels, and efficient osmoregulatory (ionic balance) ability is the main mechanism to overcome the problems related to environmental salinity gradients. METHODS: To better understand how osmoregulatory performance in freshwater (FW) crustaceans allow individuals to acclimate and adapt to raised salinity conditions, here we (i), reviewed the literature on genes that have been identified to be associated with osmoregulation in FW crustaceans, and (ii), performed a transcriptomic analysis using cDNA libraries developed from mRNA isolated from three important osmoregulatory tissues (gill, antennal gland, hepatopancreas) and total mRNA from post larvae taken from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium australiense using Illumina deep sequencing technology...
2016: PeerJ
Hesham Dahshan, Ayman Mohamed Megahed, Amr Mohamed Mohamed Abd-Elall, Mahdy Abdel-Goad Abd-El-Kader, Ehab Nabawy, Mariam Hassan Elbana
BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants represent about 95 % of the industrial sector effluents in Egypt. Contamination of the River Nile water with various pesticides poses a hazardous risk to both human and environmental compartments. Therefore, a large scale monitoring study was carried on pesticides pollution in three geographical main regions along the River Nil water stream, Egypt. METHODS: Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by GC-ECD...
2016: Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering
Grant J Aaron, Prahlad R Sodani, Rajan Sankar, John Fairhurst, Katja Siling, Ernest Guevarra, Alison Norris, Mark Myatt
A spatially representative statewide survey was conducted in Rajasthan, India to assess household coverage of atta wheat flour, edible oil, and salt. An even distribution of primary sampling units were selected based on their proximity to centroids on a hexagonal grid laid over the survey area. A sample of n = 18 households from each of m = 252 primary sampling units PSUs was taken. Demographic data on all members of these households were collected, and a broader dataset was collected about a single caregiver and a child in the first 2 years of life...
2016: PloS One
Tsiverihasina V Rakotonimaro, Carmen Mihaela Neculita, Bruno Bussière, Mostafa Benzaazoua, Gérald J Zagury
The treatment of mine drainage-impacted waters generates considerable amounts of sludge, which raises several concerns, such as storage and disposal, stability, and potential social and environmental impacts. To alleviate the storage and management costs, as well as to give the mine sludge a second life, recovery and reuse have recently become interesting options. In this review, different recovery and reuse options of sludge originating from active and passive treatment of mine drainage are identified and thoroughly discussed, based on available laboratory and field studies...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rafael C Duarte, Martin Stevens, Augusto A V Flores
BACKGROUND: Colour and shape polymorphisms are important features of many species and may allow individuals to exploit a wider array of habitats, including through behavioural differences among morphs. In addition, differences among individuals in behaviour and morphology may reflect different strategies, for example utilising different approaches to camouflage. Hippolyte obliquimanus is a small shrimp species inhabiting different shallow-water vegetated habitats. Populations comprise two main morphs: homogeneous shrimp of variable colour (H) and transparent individuals with coloured stripes (ST)...
October 18, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Simone Vincenzi, Marc Mangel, Dusˇan Jesensˇek, John C Garza, Alain J Crivelli
Understanding the causes of within- and among-population differences in vital rates, life histories, and population dynamics is a central topic in ecology. To understand how within- and among-population variation emerges, we need long-term studies that include episodic events and contrasting environmental conditions, data to characterize individual and shared variation, and statistical models that can tease apart shared and individual contribution to the observed variation. We used long-term tag-recapture data to investigate and estimate within- and among-population differences in vital rates, life histories, and population dynamics of marble trout Salmo marmoratus, an endemic freshwater salmonid with a narrow range...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Rajeev Kumar, Rajendra G Sonkawade, Anil K Pandey, Madhavi Tripathi, Nishikant A Damle, Praveen Kumar, Chandra S Bal
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article was to share 10 years of operational experience of medical cyclotron and to provide working knowledge on the same. This experience has helped us gain working knowledge on cyclotron operation with practical points, which may help in improving F yield, minimizing the breakdown time, and help in the prevention of the occurrence of unusual events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our facility has a self-shielded radioisotope delivery system eclipse 111 medical cyclotron with an 11 MeV proton beam in use for the past 10 years to produce positron emitters - namely, F, N, and F-2 gas - for PET imaging...
October 13, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Michelle A Hieger, Jamiee L Afeld, Kirk L Cumpston, Brandon K Wills
Methemoglobinemia can cause life-threatening hypoxia associated with cyanosis and dyspnea not responsive to oxygen. We present a case of recurrent methemoglobinemia because of occult use of topical benzocaine to the vulva. A 47-year-old female with medical history of vulvar cancer and HIV undergoing chemoradiation was sent by the oncology clinic to the emergency department for worsening dyspnea, fatigue, hypoxia to 78% on room air, and gradual onset of cyanosis over the past week. A methemoglobin (MetHb) level was 49%...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Therapeutics
J Machado, J Azevedo, M Freitas, E Pinto, A Almeida, V Vasconcelos, A Campos
Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are often observed in freshwaters and may reflect the increased eutrophication of these environments and alterations in climate. Cyanotoxins, such as microcystins (MCs), are an effective threat to many life forms, ranging from plants to humans. Despite the research conducted to date on cyanotoxins, the risks associated to the use of contaminated water in agriculture require further elucidation. To tackle this aim, a research was conducted with the root-vegetable Daucus carota. The specific aims of this work were the following: (i) to evaluate the effects of MC-LR on the plant growth and photosynthesis; (ii) to evaluate the nutritional quality of carrot roots; and (iii) to measure bioaccumulation...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Manuela Balen, Gabriela Rotta Gomes, Jadel M Kratz, Cláudia M O Simões, Alexsandra Valério, Débora de Oliveira
Antioxidants are substances that defend cells against damage, kidnapping and destroying free radicals. They have been largely used in the food industry due the possibility to control the oxidation process, aimed to increase shelf life. Thus, esterification reaction to obtain ascorbyl linoleate catalyzed by Novozym 435 lipase assisted by ultrasound bath was investigated. In this work, molecular sieve (4 Å) was added to the reaction medium to remove the water formed during the esterification reaction to improve the process performance...
October 17, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Benjamin Rey, Cyril Dégletagne, Claude Duchamp
In this article, we present differentially expressed gene profiles in the pectoralis muscle of wild juvenile king penguins that were either naturally acclimated to cold marine environment or experimentally immersed in cold water as compared with penguin juveniles that never experienced cold water immersion. Transcriptomic data were obtained by hybridizing penguins total cDNA on Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome arrays and analyzed using maxRS algorithm, "Transcriptome analysis in non-model species: a new method for the analysis of heterologous hybridization on microarrays" (Dégletagne et al...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Maike A Seiler, Detlef Jensen, Udo Neist, Ursula K Deister, Franz Schmitz
BACKGROUND: Perchlorate salts are relatively stable, soluble in water, and migrate into groundwater sources. Groundwater is an essential source for drinking water suppliers. Perchlorate bears health risks as it is identified to impair normal thyroid function by interfering with iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. The development of a sensitive analytical method for the determination of perchlorate is therefore of the highest interest or public health. Ion chromatography is a sensitive method suitable for perchlorate determinations...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Katja Knauer
BACKGROUND: Chemical analysis of surface water conducted in European countries indicates that pesticides are often detected in surface waters. This asks regulatory authorities to consider these monitoring data while re-evaluating pesticide approval and setting appropriate risk mitigation measures. During the years 2005-2012, the cantons in Switzerland performed 345,000 pesticide measurements in surface waters. Overall, 203 approved pesticides were examined. For 60 of these substances, regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) were published, which were determined from ecotoxicological data in accordance with international test methods within the framework of the authorization procedure...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Sanjeev Kumar Ujjain, Pritam Kumar Roy, Sumana Kumar, Subhash Singha, Krishnacharya Khare
Alloys, specifically steel, are considered as the workhorse of our society and are inimitable engineering materials in the field of infrastructure, industry and possesses significant applications in our daily life. However, creating a robust synthetic metallic surface that repels various liquids has remained extremely challenging. The wettability of a solid surface is known to be governed by its geometric nano-/micro structure and the chemical composition. Here, we are demonstrating a facile and economical way to generate copper oxide micro-nano structures with spherical (0D), needle (1D) and hierarchical cauliflower (3D) morphologies on galvanized steel substrates using a simple chemical bath deposition method...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Me-Hea Park
The high metabolic rate of harvested asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.) causes rapid deterioration. To extend shelf life, we investigated the effect of sucrose treatment on asparagus during storage. Asparagus spears were treated with 3%, 5%, and 10% sucrose and stored at 2 °C for 20 h. Cellular respiration decreased, but other processes were unaltered by exogenous sucrose. The overall appearance of asparagus treated with 3% sucrose and stored at 2 °C for 18 days was rated as good and excellent, unlike that of untreated spears...
October 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Anne-Sophie Voisin, Alexandre Fellous, Ryan L Earley, Frédéric Silvestre
17-α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) is one of the most potent endocrine disrupting compounds found in the aquatic environments, and is known to strongly alter fish reproduction and fitness. While the effects of direct exposure to EE2 are well studied in adults, there is an increasing need to assess the impacts of exposure during early life stages. Sensitivity to pollutants during this critical window can potentially affect the phenotype later in life or in subsequent generations. This study investigated phenotypic outcome of early-life exposure to 17-α-ethinylestradiol during development and in adults of the mangrove rivulus, Kryptolebias marmoratus...
October 4, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Rajesh A Shenoi, Srinivas Abbina, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu
Understanding the influence of degradable chemical moieties on in vivo degradation, tissue distribution and excretion is critical for the design of novel biodegradable drug carriers. Polyketals have recently emerged as a promising therapeutic delivery platform due to their ability to degrade under mild acidic intracellular compartments and generation of non-toxic degradation products. However, the effect of chemical structure of the ketal groups on the in vivo degradation, biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of water soluble ketal-containing polymers has not been explored...
October 17, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Shouwen Zhang, Jie Wang, Jin Pan
CONTEXT: Baicalin has many pharmacological activities, including protective function against myocardial ischemia by antioxidant effects and free radical scavenging activity. However, its rapid elimination half-life in plasma and poor water solubility limits its clinical efficacy. OBJECTIVE: Novel baicalin-loaded PEGylated nanostructured lipid carriers (BN-PEG-NLC) were developed to improve bioavailability of BN, to prolong retention time in vivo and to enhance its protective effect...
October 17, 2016: Drug Delivery
Claire Le Manach, Aloysius T Nchinda, Tanya Paquet, Diego Gonzalez Cabrera, Yassir Younis Adam, Ze Han, Sridevi Bashyam, Mohammed Zabiulla, Dale Taylor, Nina Lawrence, Karen L White, Susan A Charman, David Waterson, Michael J Witty, Sergio Wittlin, Mariette E Botha, Sindisiswe H Nondaba, Janette Reader, Lyn-Marie Birkholtz, Maria Belen Jimenez-Diaz, Maria S Martínez-Martínez, Santiago Ferrer-Bazaga, Iñigo Angulo-Barturen, Stephan Meister, Yevgeniya Antonova-Koch, Elizabeth A Winzeler, Leslie J Street, Kelly Chibale
Introduction of water-solubilizing groups on the 5-phenyl ring of a 2-aminopyrazine series led to the identification of highly potent compounds against the blood life-cycle stage of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Several compounds displayed high in vivo efficacy in two different mouse models for malaria, P. berghei-infected mice and P. falciparum-infected NOD-scid IL-2Rγnull mice. One of the frontrunners, compound 3, was identified to also have good pharmacokinetics, and additionally, very potent activity against the liver and gametocyte parasite life-cycle stages...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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