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Water life

Peng Yi, Xuegao Chen, Zixia Wang, Ala Aldahan, Xiaolin Hou, Zhongbo Yu
The radioactive isotope 129 I, with a half-life of 1.57 × 107 years, is widely used as a tracer to assess nuclear safety, to track environmental and geological events and to figure out the details of the stable iodine geochemical cycle. This work investigated the 129 I and 127 I distribution in water samples collected from the terrestrial (rivers, lakes and springs) and marine water systems (estuary and sea) in China. The measured 129 I concentrations of (1-51) × 106 atoms/L and 129 I/127 I ratios of (0...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
María Banqueri, Marta Méndez, Jorge L Arias
Subjects' early life events will affect them later in life. When these events are stressful, such as child abuse in humans or repeated maternal separation in rodents, subjects can show some behavioral and brain alterations. This study used young adult female Wistar rats that were maternally raised (AFR), maternally separated from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND10 (MS10), or maternally separated from PND1 to PND21 (MS21), in order to assess the effects of maternal separation (MS) on spatial learning and memory, as well as cognitive flexibility, using the Morris Water Maze (MWM)...
June 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Karen D Weynberg
Viruses infect all kingdoms of marine life from bacteria to whales. Viruses in the world's oceans play important roles in the mortality of phytoplankton, and as drivers of evolution and biogeochemical cycling. They shape host population abundance and distribution and can lead to the termination of algal blooms. As discoveries about this huge reservoir of genetic and biological diversity grow, our understanding of the major influences viruses exert in the global marine environment continues to expand. This chapter discusses the key discoveries that have been made to date about marine viruses and the current direction of this field of research...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
S Lekishvili, B Chayen, S Chayen
The aim of the study was to compare and research: the general prevalence of DM in the Sumy region compared with the prevalence of DM in the whole of Ukraine during the years 2011-2016; the prevalence of ocular complications of diabetes and their tendency to progress in Ukraine and Sumy region over this period; various demographical traits of the prevalence of ocular complications of diabetes and the dependence of prevalence of ocular complications of diabetes upon environmental causes and various socio-economic factors...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
Amparo Fernández, Marta Ruiz-Bermejo, José L de la Fuente
The kinetics of the reaction of the synthesis of HCN polymers in aqueous medium at high temperatures have been analysed to ascertain a suitable model for this material, for which it was recently demonstrated that prebiotic chemistry may now be adapted in the development of a new generation of high performance coatings and adhesives with biomedical applications. These experimental conditions were chosen for the simplicity of the reagents, being particularly convenient in regard to potential industrial scale-up of coating technology, where these polymers have revealed an interesting field of application...
June 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
P Olias, I Dettwiler, A Hemphill, P Deplazes, A Steiner, M Meylan
Diarrhea in calves is one of the most important cattle diseases in Switzerland. The diagnosis and treatment of calf diarrhea represent a major challenge. Single-celled Cryptosporidium parasites are the most prevalent causative agents of calf diarrhea besides rotavirus in the first weeks of life, and are responsible for about 50% of diarrheal cases. Cryptosporidium parvum has been described as a cause of diarrhea in one to three weeks old calves since the 1970s. Oral ingestion of persistent environmental oocysts results in severe diarrhea lasting four to six days and shedding of large numbers of infectious oocysts...
June 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Jeroen Vinke, Hans J Kaper, Arjan Vissink, Prashant K Sharma
Advances in medical research has resulted in successful treatment of many life-threatening infectious diseases as well as autoimmune and lifestyle-related diseases, increasing life-expectancy of both the developed and developing world. As a result of a growing ageing population, the focus has also turned on chronic diseases which seriously affect the quality of older patient life. Xerostomia (dry mouth) is one such condition, which leads to bad oral health and difficulty in consumption of dry foods and speech...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christian de Pee
The Song Empire (960-1279 CE) had a larger population, a higher agricultural output, a more efficient infrastructure, and a more extensive monetary system than any previous empire in Chinese history. As local jurisdictions during the eleventh century became entangled in empire-wide economic relations and trans-regional commercial litigation, imperial officials sought to reduce the bewildering movement of people, goods, and money to an immanent cosmic pattern. They reasoned that because money and commerce brought to imperial subjects the goods they required to survive, money and commerce must be beneficent, and because they were beneficent, they must conform to the immanent pattern of the moral cosmos, as did everything else that was enduringly sustaining of life and wellbeing...
June 2018: History of Science; An Annual Review of Literature, Research and Teaching
Li Ma, Ni Li, Xing Wang, Yan Liu, Ming-Zhu Su, Guo-Hua Huang
The sweet potato leaf folder, Brachmia macroscopa Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), which is a significant pest of plants in the family Convolvulaceae, is rapidly expanding its range in South China and other subtropical regions. Studies were designed to examine the effects of three different host plants (sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.; water spinach, I. aquatica Forsskål; and morning glory, Pharbitis purpurea (L.)) on the development and life table parameters of B. macroscopa under laboratory conditions...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Paula Quinteiro, Sandra Rafael, Pedro Villanueva-Rey, Bradley Ridoutt, Myriam Lopes, Luís Arroja, Ana Cláudia Dias
The development of methods to assess the potential environmental impact of green water consumption in life cycle assessment has lagged behind those for blue water use, which are now routinely applied in industrial and policy-related studies. This represents a critical gap in the assessment of land-based production systems and the ability to inform policy related to the bio-economy. Combining satellite remote sensing and meteorological data sets, this study develops two new sets of spatially-differentiated and globally applicable characterisation factors (CFs) to assess the environmental impact of green water flows in LCA...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Henrique Paprocki, Larissa Moreira-Silva
Plectromacronema Ulmer 1906 is a Neotropical genus recorded sparsely from South of Mexico to the North of Argentina. The genus is placed within the Macronematinae sub-family, members of which are relatively large among the Trichoptera and bears conspicuous wing ornamentations. There are only two species recorded for Brazil, Plectromacronema comptum Ulmer 1906 and Plectromacronema subfuscum (Banks 1920). Plectromacronema lisae Flint 1983 recorded for Mexico and Costa Rica is the only species in the genus with immature stages described...
2018: PloS One
Jep Lokesh, Viswanath Kiron, Detmer Sipkema, Jorge M O Fernandes, Truls Moum
Host-associated microbiota undergoes a continuous transition, from the birth to adulthood of the host. These developmental stage-related transitions could lead to specific microbial signatures that could impact the host biological processes. In this study, the succession of early-life and intestinal bacterial communities of Atlantic salmon (starting from embryonic stages to 80-week post hatch; wph) was studied using amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA. Stage-specific bacterial community compositions and the progressive transitions of the communities were evident in both the early life and the intestine...
June 13, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Marcin Zadworny, Louise H Comas, David M Eissenstat
Background and Aims: Understanding root traits and their trade-off with other plant processes is important for understanding plant functioning in natural ecosystems as well as agricultural systems. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between root morphology and the hydraulic characteristics of several orders of fine roots (<2 mm) for species differing in shade tolerance (low, moderate and high). Methods: The morphological, anatomical and hydraulic traits across five distal root orders were measured in species with different levels of shade tolerance and life history strategies...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Botany
Genny Raffaeli, Stefano Ghirardello, Mara Vanzati, Chiara Baracetti, Francesco Canesi, Federica Conigliaro, Valerio Gentilino, Francesco Macchini, Monica Fumagalli, Fabrizio Ciralli, Nicola Pesenti, Sofia Passera, Simona Neri, Stefania Franzini, Ernesto Leva, Laura Plevani, Fabio Mosca, Giacomo Cavallaro
Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a complex life-saving support for acute cardio-respiratory failure, unresponsive to medical treatment. Emergency events on ECMO are rare but require immediate and proficient management. Multidisciplinary ECMO team members need to acquire and maintain over time cognitive, technical and behavioral skills, to safely face life-threatening clinical scenarios. Methods: A multistep educational program was delivered in a 4-year period to 32 ECMO team members, based on guidelines from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Pingguang Xu, Stefanus Harjo, Mayumi Ojima, Hiroshi Suzuki, Takayoshi Ito, Wu Gong, Sven C Vogel, Junya Inoue, Yo Tomota, Kazuya Aizawa, Koichi Akita
Neutron diffraction texture measurements provide bulk averaged textures with excellent grain orientation statistics, even for large-grained materials, owing to the probed volume being of the order of 1 cm3 . Furthermore, crystallographic parameters and other valuable microstructure information such as phase fraction, coherent crystallite size, root-mean-square microstrain, macroscopic or intergranular strain and stress, etc. can be derived from neutron diffractograms. A procedure for combined high stereographic resolution texture and residual stress evaluation was established on the pulsed-neutron-source-based engineering materials diffractometer TAKUMI at the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Center, through division of the neutron detector panel regions...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Crystallography
Zhifei He, Ghose Bishwajit, Dongsheng Zou, Sanni Yaya, Zhaohui Cheng, Yan Zhou
Having access to improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities constitute a key component of healthy living and quality of life. Prolonged exposure to insanitary living conditions can significantly enhance the burden of infectious diseases among children and affect nutritional status and growth. In this study we examined the prevalence of some common infectious diseases/disease symptoms of childhood among under-five children in Nigeria, and the association between the occurrence of these diseases with household&rsquo;s access to WASH facilities...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Daniela Gompelmann, Pallav L Shah, Arschang Valipour, Felix J F Herth
Bronchoscopic thermal vapor ablation (BTVA) represents one of the endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) techniques that aims at hyperinflation reduction in patients with advanced emphysema to improve respiratory mechanics. By targeted segmental vapor ablation, an inflammatory response leads to tissue and volume reduction of the most diseased emphysematous segments. So far, BTVA has been demonstrated in several single-arm trials and 1 multinational randomized controlled trial to improve lung function, exercise capacity, and quality of life in patients with upper lobe-predominant emphysema irrespective of the collateral ventilation...
June 12, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Guidi Zhong, Zhonghua Wu, Nian Liu, Jun Yin
Glyphosate, as a broad-spectrum herbicide, is frequently detected in water, and phosphorus widely enters the water due to the extensive use of phosphorus-containing substances in agriculture, industries and daily life. Thus, aquatic ecosystems are exposed to both glyphosate and phosphorus, which may affect aquatic organisms. In the present research, we studied the physiological responses of the floating aquatic plant species H. dubia to different concentrations of glyphosate (0, 1, 5, 15 mg/L) with different levels of phosphate (0, 50, 100 mg/L) after 14 days (d) of treatment...
May 30, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Olga Rozentsvet, Viktor Nesterov, Elena Bogdanova, Аnatoly Kosobryukhov, Svetlana Subova, Galina Semenova
Structural and molecular parameters of photosynthetic apparatus in plants with different strategies for the accumulation of salts were investigated. CO2 gas exchange rate, content of pigments, mesostructure, chloroplast ultrastructure and the biochemical composition of the membrane structural components in leaves were measured. The objects of the study were euhalophytes (Salicornia perennans, Suaeda salsa, Halocnemum strobilaceum), crynohalophyte (Limonium gmelinii), glycohalophyte (Artemisia santonica). Euhalophytes S...
June 7, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Olga Bossong, Christoph Rudin, Gabor Szinnai, Thomas O Erb, Jens Moll
Perioperative derangements of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis are rare complications in healthy children. Nonetheless, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory to avoid a potentially life-threatening situation. However, the variety of underlying pathologies may prove to make accurate diagnosis challenging. This case report presents the management of an unexpected occurrence of a perioperative partial diabetes insipidus with massive fluid loss. Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are discussed in the context of laboratory findings, and an overview of the existing literature is given...
June 11, 2018: A&A practice
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