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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549370/assessment-of-the-influence-of-key-abiotic-factors-on-the-alternative-microcystin-degradation-pathway-s-mlr-a-detailed-comparison-with-the-mlr-route-mlr
#1
Jesús Morón-López, Lucía Nieto-Reyes, Rehab El-Shehawy
Cyanobacterial proliferation and toxin production in water bodies around the world have led to global concern about the control of these issues. Indigenous bacteria have been shown to degrade the cyanotoxin microcystin (MC) in natural environments. The mlr cluster has been widely used as a marker for microcystin biodegradation; however, recent studies have shown that alternative pathway(s) also contribute to the natural removal of MCs in the ecosystem. The main objective of this study is to provide initial insights concerning how key abiotic factors affect the rate of MC biodegradation via alternative pathway(s) and to provide a detailed comparison with the mlr(+) pathway...
May 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549311/reaction-of-diazepam-and-related-benzodiazepines-with-chlorine-kinetics-transformation-products-and-in-silico-toxicological-assessment
#2
Inmaculada Carpinteiro, Rosario Rodil, José Benito Quintana, Rafael Cela
In this work, the reaction of four benzodiazepines (diazepam, oxazepam, nordazepam and temazepam) during water chlorination was studied by means of liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). For those compounds that showed a significant degradation, i.e. diazepam, oxazepam and nordazepam, parameters affecting to the reaction kinetics (pH, chlorine and bromide level) were studied in detail and transformation products were tentatively identified. The oxidation reactions followed pseudofirst-order kinetics with rate constants in the range of 1...
May 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548657/the-endobacterium-of-an-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungus-modulates-the-expression-of-its-toxin-antitoxin-systems-during-the-life-cycle-of-its-host
#3
Alessandra Salvioli di Fossalunga, Justine Lipuma, Francesco Venice, Laurence Dupont, Paola Bonfante
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread root symbionts that perform important ecological services, such as improving plant nutrient and water acquisition. Some AMF from the Gigasporaceae family host a population of endobacteria, Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum (Cagg). The analysis of the Cagg genome identified six putative toxin-antitoxin modules (TAs), consisting of pairs of stable toxins and unstable antitoxins that affect diverse physiological functions. Sequence analysis suggested that these TA modules were acquired by horizontal transfer...
May 26, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545460/intraperitoneal-implantation-of-life-long-telemetry-transmitters-in-three-rehabilitated-harbor-seal-pups
#4
Markus Horning, Martin Haulena, Justin F Rosenberg, Chad Nordstrom
BACKGROUND: Pinnipeds, including many phocid species of concern, are inaccessible and difficult to monitor for extended periods using conventional, externally attached telemetry devices that are shed during the annual molt. Archival satellite transmitters were implanted intraperitoneally into three stranded Pacific harbor seal pups (Phoca vitulina richardii) that completed rehabilitation, to evaluate the viability of this surgical technique for the deployment of life long telemetry devices in phocids...
May 25, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545164/loss-of-appendicular-muscle-mass-in-haemodialysis-patients-is-associated-with-increased-self-reported-depression-anxiety-and-lower-general-health-scores
#5
Helen Alston, Aine Burns, Andrew Davenport
AIMS: Depressive symptoms are commonly reported by haemodialysis (HD) patients. Previous reports have suggested an association between depression and nutritional status. To investigate this, we measured muscle mass in HD patients screened for depression. METHODS: The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used to screen for depression, and quality of life assessed by the short form 36 (SF36), and measured appendicular lean mass (ALM) post-dialysis with segmental bioimpedance...
May 25, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544612/ecology-adaptation-and-function-of-methane-sulfidic-spring-water-biofilm-microorganisms-including-a-strain-of-anaerobic-fungus-mucor-hiemalis
#6
Enamul Hoque, Johannes Fritscher
Ecological aspects, adaptation, and some functions of a special biofilm and its unique key anaerobic fungus Mucor hiemalis strain EH11 isolated from a pristine spring (Künzing, Bavaria, Germany) are described. The spring's pure nature is characterized by, for example, bubbling methane, marine-salinity, mild hydrothermal (~19.1°C), sulfidic, and reductive-anoxic (Eh : -241 to -253 mV, O2 : ≤ 0.1 mg/L) conditions. It is geoecologically located at the border zone between Bavarian Forest (crystalline rocky mountains) and the moor-like Danube River valley, where geological displacements bring the spring's water from the deeper layers of former marine sources up to the surface...
May 24, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543641/updated-species-sensitivity-distribution-evaluations-for-acute-and-chronic-lead-toxicity-to-saltwater-aquatic-life
#7
Brian G Church, Patrick A Van Sprang, M Jasim Chowdhury, David K DeForest
The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) for lead (Pb) in saltwater were developed in 1984. The acute and chronic criteria are 210 µg/L and 8.1 µg/L dissolved Pb, respectively. Because data were limited in 1984, the chronic criterion was derived using an acute-chronic ratio (ACR), but there are now sufficient toxicity data such that an ACR is no longer needed. Based on the data now available, the proposed updated acute and chronic saltwater Pb AWQC (following USEPA methods) are 100 and 10 µg/L, respectively...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542850/reproductive-biology-of-black-seabream-acanthopagrus-schlegelii-threadfin-porgy-evynnis-cardinalis-and-red-pargo-pagrus-major-in-the-northern-south-china-sea-with-consideration-of-fishery-status-and-management-needs
#8
C S W Law, Y Sadovy de Mitcheson
The reproductive biology of three commercially significant seabream species (family: Sparidae) Acanthopagrus schlegelii, Evynnis cardinalis and Pagrus major, taken from Hong Kong and adjacent northern South China Sea (SCS) waters, were investigated for their sexual patterns, spawning seasons, length at maturity and exploitation in relation to their conservation and management status. Histological analysis showed E. cardinalis and P. major to be functionally gonochoristic, the latter having a bisexual juvenile stage and being a rudimentary hermaphrodite...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542549/a-new-weighting-factor-in-combining-belief-function
#9
Deyun Zhou, Qian Pan, Gyan Chhipi-Shrestha, Xiaoyang Li, Kun Zhang, Kasun Hewage, Rehan Sadiq
Dempster-Shafer evidence theory has been widely used in various applications. However, to solve the problem of counter-intuitive outcomes by using classical Dempster-Shafer combination rule is still an open issue while fusing the conflicting evidences. Many approaches based on discounted evidence and weighted average evidence have been investigated and have made significant improvements. Nevertheless, all of these approaches have inherent flaws. In this paper, a new weighting factor is proposed to address this problem...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542302/influence-of-catch-up-growth-on-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-a-mouse-model-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#10
Cristina Duran Fernandez-Feijoo, Cristina Carrasco Carrasco, Núria Villalmazo Francisco, Judit Cebrià Romero, Jose Ramon Fernández Lorenzo, J C Jiménez-Chillaron, Marta Camprubí Camprubí
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and rapid postnatal weight gain or catch up growth (CUG) increase the susceptibility to metabolic syndrome during adult life. Longitudinal studies have also revealed a high incidence of learning difficulties in children with IUGR. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of nutrition and CUG on learning memory in an IUGR animal model. We hypothesized that synaptic protein expression and transcription, an essential mechanism for memory consolidation, might be affected by intrauterine undernutrition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541932/environmental-impact-assessment-of-a-package-type-ifas-reactor-during-construction-and-operational-phases-a-life-cycle-approach
#11
Nitin Kumar Singh, Rana Pratap Singh, Absar Ahmad Kazmi
In the present study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used to analyse the environmental impacts associated with the construction and operational phases of an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor treating municipal wastewater. This study was conducted within the boundaries of a research project that aimed to investigate the implementation related challenges of a package type IFAS reactor from an environmental perspective. Along with the LCA results of the construction phase, a comparison of the LCA results of seven operational phases is also presented in this study...
May 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540379/fundamental-aspects-of-electrochemically-controlled-wetting-of-nanoscale-composite-materials
#12
A Robert Hillman, Karl S Ryder, Hani K Ismail, Asuman Unal, Annelies Voorhaar
Electroactive films based on conducting polymers have numerous potential applications, but practical devices frequently require a combination of properties not met by a single component. This has prompted an extension to composite materials, notably those in which particulates are immobilised within a polymer film. Irrespective of the polymer and the intended application, film wetting is important: by various means, it facilitates transport processes - of electronic charge, charge-balancing counter ions ("dopant") and analyte/reactant molecules - and motion of polymer segments...
May 25, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539089/simulating-real-life-exposures-to-uncover-possible-risks-to-human-health-a-proposed-consensus-for-a-novel-methodological-approach
#13
A M Tsatsakis, D Kouretas, M N Tzatzarakis, P Stivaktakis, K Tsarouhas, K S Golokhvast, V N Rakitskii, V A Tutelyan, A F Hernandez, R Rezaee, G Chung, C Fenga, A B Engin, M Neagu, A L Arsene, A O Docea, E Gofita, D Calina, I Taitzoglou, J Liesivuori, A W Hayes, S Gutnikov, C Tsitsimpikou
In real life, consumers are exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals via food, water and commercial products consumption. Since risk assessment usually focuses on individual compounds, the current regulatory approach doesn't assess the overall risk of chemicals present in a mixture. This study will evaluate the cumulative toxicity of mixtures of different classes of pesticides and mixtures of different classes of pesticides together with food additives (FAs) and common consumer product chemicals using realistic doses after long-term exposure...
June 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537375/flexible-and-wearable-fiber-micro-supercapacitors-based-on-carbon-nanotube-agarose-gel-composite-electrodes
#14
Sung Kon Kim, Hyung-Jun Koo, Jinyun Liu, Paul V Braun
Fiber electrodes provide interesting opportunities for energy storage by providing both mechanical flexibility and the opportunity to impart multifunctionality to fabrics. We show here carbon nanotube (CNTs)-embedded agarose gel composite fiber electrodes with a diameter of ~120 μm consisting of 60 wt% CNTs that can serve as the basis for flexible and wearable fiber micro-supercapacitors (mSCs). Via an extrusion process, CNT bundles are induced to align in an agarose filament matrix. Due to the shear alignment of the CNT bundles, the dehydrated filaments have an electrical conductivity as high as 8...
May 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536859/accelerated-life-test-methods-and-results-for-implantable-electronic-devices-with-adhesive-encapsulation
#15
Xuechen Huang, Petcharat May Denprasert, Li Zhou, Adriana Nicholson Vest, Sam Kohan, Gerald E Loeb
We have developed and applied new methods to estimate the functional life of miniature, implantable, wireless electronic devices that rely on non-hermetic, adhesive encapsulants such as epoxy. A comb pattern board with a high density of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) could be used to detect incipient failure from water vapor condensation. Inductive coupling of an RF magnetic field was used to provide DC bias and to detect deterioration of an encapsulated comb pattern. Diodes in the implant converted part of the received energy into DC bias on the comb pattern...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536536/rna-seq-comparison-of-larval-and-adult-malpighian-tubules-of-the-yellow-fever-mosquito-aedes-aegypti-reveals-life-stage-specific-changes-in-renal-function
#16
Yiyi Li, Peter M Piermarini, Carlos J Esquivel, Hannah E Drumm, Faye D Schilkey, Immo A Hansen
Introduction: The life history of Aedes aegypti presents diverse challenges to its diuretic system. During the larval and pupal life stages mosquitoes are aquatic. With the emergence of the adult they become terrestrial. This shifts the organism within minutes from an aquatic environment to a terrestrial environment where dehydration has to be avoided. In addition, female mosquitoes take large blood meals, which present an entirely new set of challenges to salt and water homeostasis. Methods: To determine differences in gene expression associated with these different life stages, we performed an RNA-seq analysis of the main diuretic tissue in A...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536446/preparation-characterization-and-pharmacokinetics-of-cyadox-nanosuspension
#17
Adeel Sattar, Dongmei Chen, Lishun Jiang, Yuanhu Pan, Yanfei Tao, Lingli Huang, Zhenli Liu, Shuyu Xie, Zonghui Yuan
An increase in number of newly developed synthetic drugs displays bioavailability constraints because of poor water solubility. Nanosuspensions formulation may help to overwhelm these problems by increasing dissolution velocity and saturation solubility. In the present study, cyadox (Cyx) nanosuspension was successfully prepared by recrystallization based on acid-base neutralization combined with high pressure homogenization method using Polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP) as stabilizer. The nanosuspension had uniform particle distribution, excellent sedimentation rate and redispersibility...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534072/genotoxic-assessment-of-some-inorganic-compounds-in-desert-pupfish-cyprinodon-macularius-in-the-evaporation-pond-from-a-geothermal-plant
#18
Miguel Flores-Galván, Evarista Arellano-García, Gorgonio Ruiz-Campos, Luis Walter Daesslé
The frequency of micro nucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of the desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius) from a geothermal effluent pond is determined and compared to organisms kept in an aquarium. The frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes found in pupfish from the geothermal pond is 2.75 (±2.09) and only 0.44 (±0.52) in captivity organisms. Dissolved As in the ponds doubles the 340 µg L(-1) US-EPA acute quality criteria for aquatic life and Hg equals the 1.77 µg L(-1) chronic criteria. The organisms with high MNE also have significantly high Se, As and Hg concentrations in muscle and liver...
May 22, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533896/sex-specific-differences-in-functional-traits-and-resource-acquisition-in-five-cycad-species
#19
Christopher Krieg, James E Watkins, Sally Chambers, Chad E Husby
Selective pressures acting on plant life histories can drive extreme specialization. One example of such specialization is the evolution of dioecious breeding systems. Evolutionary and ecological theory posits that dioecy may subject male and female individuals to different selective pressures and result in unique sex-mediated adaptive traits related to resource allocation and ecophysiology. Cycads are the earliest diverging lineage of seed plants with strict dioecy, yet we know almost nothing about the ecology and physiology of this group...
March 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533175/dendrimer-encapsulated-and-conjugated-delivery-of-berberine-a-novel-approach-mitigating-toxicity-and-improving-in-vivo-pharmacokinetics
#20
Lokesh Gupta, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Avinash Gothwal, Mohammed Shahid Khan, Mahaveer Prasad Khinchi, Arem Qayum, Shashank Kumar Singh, Umesh Gupta
Berberine (BBR) is a nitrogenous cyclic natural alkaloid with potential anticancer activity. However it has been less explored due to its poor pharmacokinetic profile. Dendrimers (e.g. PAMAM) have promising potential to deliver anticancer drugs/bio-actives because of their well-defined architecture, monodispersity and tailor-made surface functionality. In the present study it was attempted to deliver berberine through G4 PAMAM dendrimers by conjugation (BPC) as well as encapsulation (BPE) approach. The developed encapsulated and conjugated berberine formulations were found to have size in the approximate range of 100-200nm while zeta potential was almost same as PAMAM G4 dendrimer...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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