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Water hypothalam neurohypophysis kidney

Ana M Gonzalez, William M Taylor, Conrad E Johanson, Joan C King, Wendy E Leadbeater, Edward G Stopa, Andrew Baird
BACKGROUND: Adult rat hypothalamo-pituitary axis and choroid plexus are rich in basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) which likely has a role in fluid homeostasis. Towards this end, we characterized the distribution and modulation of FGF2 in the human and rat central nervous system. To ascertain a functional link between arginine vasopressin (AVP) and FGF2, a rat model of chronic dehydration was used to test the hypothesis that FGF2 expression, like that of AVP, is altered by perturbed fluid balance...
2010: Cerebrospinal Fluid Research
Jessica Y S Chu, Leo T O Lee, C H Lai, H Vaudry, Y S Chan, W H Yung, Billy K C Chow
Hypothalamic magnocellular neurons express either one of the neurohypophysial hormones, vasopressin or oxytocin, along with different neuropeptides or neuromodulators. Axonal terminals of these neurons are generally accepted to release solely the two hormones but not others into the circulation. Here, we show that secretin, originally isolated from upper intestinal mucosal extract, is present throughout the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial axis and that it is released from the posterior pituitary under plasma hyperosmolality conditions...
September 15, 2009: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Catherine Llorens-Cortes, Françoise Moos
This review concentrates on the characteristics and functionality of endocrine neurons in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system, coexpressing two peptides, vasopressin and apelin. Vasopressin is synthesized in the soma of magnocellular neurons, then packaged in granules with its respective receptors. In these neurons, apelin is generated from a larger precursor proapelin and is detected in vesicles, some of them colocalize with vasopressin, for others there is a marked segregation of apelin and vasopressin immunoreactivity along the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axons...
2008: Progress in Brain Research
Céline Callewaere, Brigitte Fernette, Danièle Raison, Patricia Mechighel, Arlette Burlet, André Calas, Patrick Kitabgi, Stéphane Mélik Parsadaniantz, William Rostène
We previously described a colocalization between arginine vasopressin (AVP) and the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1) in the magnocellular neurons of both the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus as well as the posterior pituitary. SDF-1 physiologically affects the electrophysiological properties of AVP neurons and consequently AVP release. In the present study, we confirm by confocal and electron microscopy that AVP and SDF-1 have a similar cellular distribution inside the neuronal cell and can be found in dense core vesicles in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary...
January 2008: Endocrinology
S E Morrissey, T Newth, R Rees, A Barr, F Shora, J F Laycock
OBJECTIVE: To re-examine the controversial possibility that prolactin exerts renal effects, using recombinant mouse prolactin (rmP), in the presence and absence of circulating vasopressin. DESIGN: In experiment 1, the renal effects of rmP were examined in anaesthetized Brattleboro rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (BDI) lacking circulating vasopressin and normal animals of the parent Long Evans (LE) strain. In experiment 2, salt and water excretion were studied in fluid-loaded normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, some of which received rmP...
July 2001: European Journal of Endocrinology
Y Yasuda, K Honda, H Negoro, T Higuchi, Y Goto, S Fukuda
The median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) of the hypothalamus is involved in the osmotic control of neurohypophysial hormone release and drinking behavior. At the same time, renal sympathetic nerves exert multiple effects on renal functions such as regulating renal blood flow and urinary sodium excretion. We made the hypothesis that the MnPO may also regulate body fluid balance by exerting an influence on renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). In this study we examined the effect of electrical stimulation of the MnPO on RSNA and the contribution of the MnPO to the change of RSNA induced by intracerebroventricular injection of hypertonic saline in the male Wistar rat...
June 9, 2000: Brain Research
J Antunes-Rodrigues, A L Favaretto, J Gutkowska, S M McCann
In the initial experiments reviewed here, we show that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) plays an important inhibitory role in the control of sodium chloride and water intake since injections of ANP into the third ventricle (3V) caused a reduction in dehydration-induced drinking and also the drinking of salt in salt-depleted rats. Attention was then turned to the possible role of the brain ANP neurons in producing natriuresis which had earlier been shown to be caused by stimulations within the anterior ventral third ventricular region (AV3V)...
September 1997: Molecular Psychiatry
J Gutkowska, J Antunes-Rodrigues, S M McCann
The data reviewed establish the presence and important role in body fluid homeostasis of brain atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in all vertebrate-species examined. The peptide is localized in neurons in hypothalamic and brain stem areas involved in body fluid volume and blood pressure regulation, and its receptors are located in regions that contain the peptide. Most, if not all, of the actions of ANP are mediated by activation of particulate guanylyl cyclase with generation of guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, which mediates its actions in brain as in the periphery...
April 1997: Physiological Reviews
J Lee, P G Williams
1. The method of sequential centrifugation has been used to obtain fluid samples from both the renal papilla and inner medulla of the rat.2. Experiments were carried out on Brattleboro rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (DI; homozygous recessive), and on their (heterozygous) litter-mates with normal quantities of neurohypophysial vasopressin. Initial classification of the animals by measurement of urine volume and osmolality was confirmed by post-mortem bio-assay of the pituitary glands, in thirty-five out of forty-seven animals...
February 1972: Journal of Physiology
I Davies
Ageing is characterised by a failure in the maintenance of the internal environment (homeostasis) which is regulated by the hypothalamic neuroendocrine system. Of the many systems that undergo age-related degeneration is the control of water metabolism which leads to a variety of complications in the elderly. The magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamus produce the peptide anti-diuretic hormone (vasopressin) which acts on the kidney regulating water loss in the urine. This physiological axis lends itself to both fundamental studies of the cellular and molecular biology of ageing, and to studies of age-related alterations in the functional ability of elderly people...
December 1987: Comprehensive Gerontology. Section C, Interdisciplinary Topics
W K Samson, M C Aguila, J Martinovic, J Antunes-Rodrigues, M Norris
The ability of synthetic atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) to inhibit vasopressin (AVP) release, as well as its action to inhibit water intake and salt preference in the rat, suggest a role for the peptide in the hypothalamic control of fluid volume in addition to its established actions in the kidney. We report here evidence for a direct, hypothalamic site of action of ANF to inhibit, specifically, AVP secretion. Third cerebroventricular infusion of 1.0 (p less than 0.05) and 2.0 (p less than 0.025) nmoles ANF significantly inhibited AVP release in euvolemic, normally hydrated rats while IV doses of ANF failed to significantly alter AVP release except when 5 nmoles (p less than 0...
May 1987: Peptides
T K Young, W C Huang
Antidiuretic and natriuretic responses were observed following gastric distension in anesthetized, water-loaded rats. An increase of intragastric pressure to 25, 30, 35, and 40 cm H2O of 2-minute duration respectively elicited 11, 35, 45, and 55% inhibition of water diuresis with concomitant, graded increase of sodium excretion by the kidney. These antidiuretic and natriuretic responses to gastric distension persisted and sustained the same intensity after acute bilateral cervical vagotomy, indicating that the sensory input conveyed from the gastric mechanoreceptors to central nervous system during gastric distension should involve afferent fibers other than vagus nerve...
1992: Chinese Journal of Physiology
H R Bakker, S D Bradshaw
The rate of cutaneous water uptake after dehydration was significantly depressed in functionally neurohypophysectomized toads (Bufo marinus), which consequently regained weight much more slowly than intact toads when returned to water. Toads bearing hypothalamic lesions were able to develop an antidiuresis when removed from water to a saturated atmosphere, but the antidiuresis was solely glmerular in origin and was established more slowly than in intact animals. The fractional reabsorption of filtrate increased significantly and the relative free water clearance decreased significantly in intact toads after removal from water...
October 1977: Journal of Endocrinology
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